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^tt Jllmrtrntcb U1ontl)ln Journal 



XonDon : 


[The right of reproduction is reserved.] 


" Accustomed as we : 
doms as altogether distinc 
we see the various forms of the one appropriated by the flowers of the 
other ; and yet such encroachments are but a part of the liberties which 
these Orchidacex are perpetually taking ; for, as if it were too simple a 
matter to imitate the works of Nature only, they mimic the productions of 
art ! But not contented to rest even here, they display a restless faculty 
of invention, fully equal to their powers of imitation, and .... thus 
we find their flowers exhibiting a variety of strange and unearthly objects, 

Subscriptions for 1896 are now dv. 
Vol. IV.] JANUARY, 1896. 

[No. 37- 


Hn Jllustrateb fl&ontbl? Journal, 



Oberonia Myosurus 

Dies Orchidiaiue 

Cypripedium insigne 

Eria biflora 

Cypripediums with identical names . . . 

Ltelio cattleya , Tiresias 

Cypripedium < Amesije 

Cypripedium « Calypso Armstrong- 

Cypripedium Symondsia 

Cypripedium ■ siamense (Fig. 1) 
Cypripedium callosum (Fig. 2) 
Cypripedium Appletonianum iFig. 3)... 

The Snot Disease of Orchids 


Roval Horticul* 


Post Fkek 13- per Annum. Payable in Adv. 

\Tke risht of reproduction is resemd\ 




The first meeting of the year of the Royal Horticultural Society will be 
held at the Drill Hall, James Street, Westminster, on January 14th, when 
the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour of twelve o'clock, noon. 
The next meeting is on February nth. 

We have received a very pretty hybrid from the collection of Mrs. F. L. 
Ames, Boston, Mass., a seedling raised by Mr. W. Robinson between C. 
Boxallh and one of the montanum forms of C. insigne. A hybrid 
between these two species was mentioned at p. 74 of our last volume, 
under the name of C. X Madame de Curte, but it has also received at least 
five other distinct names, and we are uncertain which is the original one. 
The present one resembles C. Boxallii more than the other parent. 

Another flower of Cattleya labiata pallida, described at page 7 of our 
last volume, comes from the collection of J. W. Arkle, Esq., West Derby, 
Liverpool. Curiously enough, this season there is a broad crimson streak 
on the centre of the disc, and two or three small streaks on either side. 
Last year these were absent. 

A flower of a hybrid Cypripedium comes from H. J. Ross. Esq., of 
Florence, which is Inlkved to have been raised from C. X Dauthieri 
Rossianum ? and C. prsstans #, though curiously enough it is almost an 
exact reproduction of the former, both in shape and colour. The chief 
difference is that the dorsal sepal is rather narrower and with rather more 

Mr. Ross alludes to the Cypripedium X Ashburtonias with double- flowered 
spike mentioned at page 375. and states that his P^nts are all double- 
flowering, except when quite recently divided. The peculiarity probably 
arises from excess of vigour, and affords evidence of good culture. Others 


frequently produce double-flowered scapes. Cypripedium Spicerianum has 
been known to produce a three-flowered scape, but we believe such an 
occurrence is excessively rare. 

Mr. Ross also alludes to a variety of Cypripedium insigne called 
Pynaertu, which always produces double-flowered scapes. It has long stems 
and large blooms, in the way of C. i. Maulei. Mr. Ross considers it one 
of the best, and thinks it is little known in England. 

Another white Cattleya labiata has just flowered in the collection of 
R. H. Measures, Esq., The Woodlands, Streatham. The flower is pure 
white with the exception of some yellow in the the throat, and thus is the 
variety C. 1. alba. It is out of an importation from Messrs. Sander. 

A fine flower of Vanda ccerulea from the collection of W. P. Burkinshaw, 
Esq., of Hessle, is 4$ inches across its broadest diameter. Mr. Barker, the 
gardener, remarks that they have a much better one (presumably darker) 
which flowers every year in May and June. We have seen a similar very 
handsome form with Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., of Heaton, Bradford, 
and presume the character to be permanent. 

Laslia anceps is one of the best of winter-flowering Orchids. Mr. 
Hamilton, gardener to Hamar Bass, Esq., Byrkley, Burton-on-Trent, grows 
it very successfully. He uses no shading, and remarks that, although this 
has a tendency sometimes to make the leaves pale, a little soot and lime 
strewed on the beds underneath soon make the leaves dark green again. 
They flower very freely under this treatment. L. a. Hilliana and the large 
richly-coloured L. a. grandiflora are enclosed. 

At the Alderley Edge and Wilmslow Horticultural Society's Show, held 
on November 29th and 30th, fine collections of Orchids were exhibited 
from the collection of E. Ashworth, Esq., Harefield Hall, Wilmslow (gr. 
Mr. Holbrook), and from that of Dr. Hodgkinson, The Grange, Wilmslow 
(gr. Mr. Worre), forming quite a feature of the Show. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Heaton, Bradford, send a fine flower of 
Odontoglossum tripudians in which the ground colour of the lip is white 
ultimately changing to light sulphur. 

Oncidium cheirophorum is a very- charming little autumn-flowering 
species, which succeeds well in hanging pans in the Cool house, its dwarf 
panicles crowded with pretty yellow flowers being very effective. A fine 
example comes from the collection of C. Winn, Esq., Selly Hill, Birming- 
ham, the panicle bearing nine side branches with flowers larger than usual. 


A fine flower of Cattleya Lueddemanniana, eigh< inches across, is sent 

by Messrs. Hurst & Son, Purbagc Nurseries. Hinckley, together with a 

fine Odontoglossum Rossii majiis. and others. 

Cypripedium X Leeanum giganteum, the finest of the Spiceriano- 

insigne hybrids, with dorsal sepal i\ inches across, conies from the 
collection of W. Thompson. Esq.. Waltham Grange. Stone. Mr. Stevens 
also encloses half-a-dozen named varieties of i.;elia aneeps. and a fine five- 
flowered spike of the beautiful natural hvbrid I.. X Gouldiana. 

The plant of Sophnmitis pteroearpa in the collection of W. E. Ledger, 
Esq.. of Wimbledon, noted at page 100 of the last volume, has again 
flowered well, producing twenty-one flowers on five racemes. 

A fine flower of Cymbidium Tracyanum comes frem the collection of 
W. P. Burkinshaw, Esq., of Hessle, and a rather darker one from Messrs. 
Sander. The latter is said to be from Upper Burma, thus confirming the 
previous records. 

A fine flower of the rare Miltonia Phalaenopsis comes from the collection 
of R. I. Measures, Esq., of Camberwell. The unique plant of Pleurothallis 
punctulata (Rolfe) in the same collection is now flowering very freely, all 
the old growths with leaves producing blooms as well as the new ones. 
The leaves are covered with a remarkable white mealiness. 

The Orchids collected by Mr. G. F. Scott-Elliott on Mt. Ruwenzori, 
Tropical Africa, have proved very interesting, the great majority being new. 
Over forty species have been described in the Journal of Botany by Mr. 
Rendle, the most remarkable being Epipactis africana. 

This very curious little plant has just flowered in the establishment of 
Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., of Clapton, probably for the first time in 
cultivation. The leaves are terete, fleshy, and covered with minute greyish 
pustules, instead of being equitant, like a small Iris. The flowers are deep 
buff and very minute, but densely arranged in a cylindrical spike. The 
reflexed sepals and petals are practically hidden behind the lip, whose 
margin is broken up all round into a number of curved hairy teeth, giving 
it also as much the appearance of some strange insect as of a flower ; 
the aid of a lens, however, being required to show its remarkable structure. 
It is a native of Nepal and Burma, and was described in 1830 (Lindl. Gen. 
& Sp. Orsh. } p. 16). R. A. R. 



I note with particular pleasure the two beautiful examples of good culture 
so admirably figured in the last two numbers of the Review. Mr. Woodall's 
Vanda ccerulea is superb, and his notes on its culture should be read by 
every grower of this useful autumn-flowering Orchid. It is well that a 
photographic illustration of the plant to which a First-class Certificate was 
awarded should be preserved. Similar mimrks must be made with respect 
to Mr. Bennett-Poe's beautiful plant of Selenipedium caudatum Wallisii, 
which deservedly secured a Cultural Commendation. It is further interesting 
to note that these satisfactory results were both obtained by rational 
treatment — by imitating as far as posible the essential conditions under 
which these plants grow in a wild state. Were this rule more frequently 
followed, I believe that failures would be much less frequent than at 
present. The majority of such cases arise from subjecting plants to 
conditions which they have not been accustomed to in a state of nature — 
frequently through ignorance— hence they refuse to thrive, and often die 
outright. There is nothing remarkable in this, for even in a wild state 
plants only thrive where the conditions are suitable : elsewhere they are 
crowded out by a host of competitors. The cultivator may protect his 
plants from the struggle for existence, but he cannot make them grow under 
unsuitable conditions. Some people like to find out the proper treatment 
for themselves, and frequently succeed, but it may safely be affirmed that 
a knowledge of the essential conditions under which a plant grows is the 
surest and quickest guide to success. 

Another matter to which I cannot avoid alluding, especially as it has a 
distinct hearing on the preceding remarks, is the frequent appearance at 
recent meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society of those quaint and 
beautiful plants, the Pescatoreas and their allies. It used to be remarked 
that no one could grow them lor long, and even when they succeeded for a 
time they would suddenly go back for no apparent reason. Then it came 
out that Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son had succeeded in growing them for 
years, under conditions which have been detailed in the Review, and that 
others who had adopted a method of treatment in accordance with the 
conditions under which they grow naturally also found no difficulty with 
them, and now that their culture is no longer regarded as hopeless, I hope 
to see more of them in the future. They are a particularly interesting 
group, and seem to keep growing and throwing up occasional flowers 
throughout the year. 

made by Mr. Burberry 


some time ago, that importers ought to furnish more information about the 

habitats of new Orchids than at present : and this could easily be done 
without disclosing the localities where they grow, if these must sometimes 
be kept secret. It seems to be thought that because a plant is a Dendrobium 
or an Oncidium, people will know how to treat it. But I once found a 
New Guinea Dendrobium resting in a Cool house with D. nobile, and the 
treatment killed it: and as to Oncidiums, they grow almost from sea level 
in the Tropics right up to the zone of Cool Odontoglossunis in the Andes. 
We all know what happened when Odontoglossums were grown in the stove, 
and what would befall Oncidium Lanceanum in the Cool house ; hence I fully 
endorse Mr. Burberry's remarks. The information would be much more 
useful than that sometimes furnished when a new ( treiiul is distributed, to 
which I have alluded on more than one occasion. Happily it does some- 
times appear from other, and is always welcome. 

Several times lately I have called attention to the rapidly growing 
confusion in the names of hybrid Orchids, and also suggested a 
remedy, and I note with pleasure that a correspondent of the Garden offers 
similar suggestions. " During the last four years," Sielh remarks, " at 
least 500 new names have been added to the Cypripediums, and it is a 
question whether these are all sufficiently distinct. Take for example. C. 
Ceres, C. Fascinator, C. Medea, and C. Marchioness of Salisbury, the result 
of crossing C. Spicerianum and C. hirsutissimum. Surely, however distinct, 
it might have been considered that the original name of the cross, C. Charles 
Richman, should have remained. My experience is that out of fifty plants 
obtained from the same pod of seed one could get, at the least, forty varieties, 
some with a few more spots and others a shade or two darker in colour. 
Is this, however, sufficient distinction to merit a new name ? The Orchid 
Committee seems to think so. I am quite aware of the difficulties under 
which the Committee are placed, but they have a code of rules which appear 
to be followed as much in the breach as in the observance. I believe the 
rules are laid down that all exhibits shall be named in Latin, and a 
reference given to the botanist who has described the plant. This latter 
part might certainly be cut out in respect to hybrids, for the Kew authorties 
decline to deal with them, but in the case of species they are always willing 
to render every assistance. If the Latin naming was strictly adhered to, it 
would do away with useless and unnecessary names. The Committee, by 
setting their faces against complimentary and useless names, such as 
Charles Canham, the Hon. Mrs. Astor, &c, would benefit all lovers of 

Here is a promising addition to the ranks of our Rational Nomenclature 


League, and I readily forgive him for getting a little mixed. Indeed, if I 
touched Cypripediums often I fear I should get mixed myself. Ceres, 
Fascinator, and Medea areall right, but not the others. Still, I can furnish the 
necessary illustration. C. X Charles Richman, X Meteore, X Leysenianum, 
X Francois Peeters, and X Marchioness (or Countess) of Salisbury (both 
having been recorded), are all derived from C. barbatum and C. bellatulum. 
The moral holds good all the same, though I cannot quite endorse the 
remark about the Latin naming, for if all had received different Latin 
names the result would have been just the same. My own views that the 
proper name of this hybrid is C. X Richmanii are already on record — 
my readers may adopt them or not as they please — and I consider all 
the others either synonymous or varieties only ; the latter if distinct 
enough, but I question whether all would stand the test of being grown 
side by side. The remarks about complimentary names in the vernacular 
I endorse, except when applied to florists' flowers and according to florists' 
methods. I note with pleasure the i^Towan^ feeling against a system which 
is rapidly bringing our nomenclature into a state of hopeless confusion, 
and as the Review affords a medium for the publication of the results 
achieved by the hybridist. I hope to see a corresponding improvement in the 

A series of a dozen flowers of Cypripedium insigne has been sent by Mr. 
J. Coles from the collection of R. H. Measures, Esq., The Woodlands. 
Streatham, to show the remarkable range of variation in the so-called 
11 montanum " forms introduced by Messrs. F. Sander & Co. some time 
ago. They are cut from a house containing upwards of a thousand blooms. 
The numerous fine varieties which have appeared during recent years were 
enumerated in these pages a year ago (pp. S-n), when a series somewhat 
similar to the above came from the collection of O. O. Wrigley, Esq., 
Bridge Hall, Bury. The present series does not contain any of the named 
forms previously mentioned, but it shows a wide range of variation both in 
shape and colour, and especially in the size and arrangement of the spots. 
One large form has the dorsal sepal i\ inches broad, and some of the spots 
in the centre are over J-inch in diameter. Another smaller form has 
numerous quite minute dots on the lower half, a few only along the centre 
being somewhat broader. A third, smaller still, has the spots quite minute and 
confined to the base of the sepal, while, in a fourth, they are suffused over 
the lower half of the same organ as a brownish stain. In another example 
the spots are large and chiefly arranged along the centre. One rather bright 
form, in which the petals and lip are rather dark, bears a two-flowered scape, 


and of the remainder no two are alike in the size and arrangement of the 
spots. The ground colour also shows a certain amount of variation. A 
fine photograph of the house above mentioned has since been sent by 
Mr. Measures. 

Several distinct forms also come from the collection of H. Gurney Aggs, 
Esq., Pippbrook, Dorking. One is a large flower with the disc of the 
dorsal sepal regularly covered with numerous small dark spots ;i sixteenth- 
of-an-inch in diameter. The white extends scarcely a fourth of the distance 
from the apex, and the spots at the base are somewhat continent. This 
might be called variety punctatissimum. A second is very near the variety 
radiatum, the markings being arranged in lines, which extend a little 
bejond the middle, and towards the base are also connected by transverse 
lines. A third has numerous rather large blotches very regularly arranged, 
which extend to within half-an-inch of the apex. A fourth variety is 
distinguished by the pale colour of the spnts. which are hardly as numerous 
as usual and of a light dusky brown. Four others are good, but less distinct 
spotted forms. 

A fine variety called C. i. atratum, very nearly allied to the variety Bohn- 
hofianum, has been sent from the collection of \V. M. Appleton, Esq., of 
Weston-super-Mare. It has a large basal area wholly suffused with bright 
brown, which, along the centre, almost reaches the white apex. In the 
last-named varietv the green zone surrounding the brown is broader than 
in the present one, and of uniform width. A very pretty form closely 
approaching var. Chantini, but more closely spotted, also comes from the 
same collection. 

A very fine light yellow form from the collection of W. Thompson, 
Esq., Walton Grange, Stone, has been sent by Mr. Stevens. It is almost 
identical with C. i. Chantini in shape, with the dorsal sepal 2^ inches 
broad, but the colour is totally different, as the spots are almost, though not 
quite, obliterated. Several yellow forms are now known, and this is not 
quite like anything we remember to have seen. 

Mr. A. Dimmock, traveller for Messrs. Sander, writes that the finest 
collection of Cypripedium insigne in America is that at Rochester, New 
York, brought together by the late Mr. W. S. Kimball, which includes 
some truly remarkable forms. A florist in New York grows this species 
wry largely for cut flowers, and has probably the largest collection in the 
world, and this season will be able to cut ten thousand flowers. It is an 
excellent plant for this purpose, as the flowers are very durable, lasting 
almost as long in an ordinary room as when left on the plant. All points 
considered, it is the best of autumn-flowering species, and the recent impor- 
tations have given a great impetus to its culture. 



The Orchid Hybrids : Enumeration and Classification of all hybrids of Orchids. 

By George Hansen. Jackson, Amador County, California, 8vo., pp.257. 

London, Dulau & Co., Soho Square. Berlin, Friedlamder & Sohn, 

We cannot all follow the same vocation. " While one man is engaged 
to prove the extent of this mundane sphere, another, his neighbour, is 
planting the potatoes, which serve as his food." Mr. Hansen has both 
proved his own existence and indicated his vocation— or, at all 
events, one of them, for he seems to combine the rale of historian, critic, 
philosopher, and preacher, all in one, though we can hardly undertake to 
prove the assertion within the limits of a short notice. For this the reader 
must go to the book itself. Indeed, we might almost head our remarks 
with the words, " First notice," were we to attempt a complete review of 
its contents. Its general character, however, will be readily inferred from 
the title. The nucleus of the work was collected in 1884, when the author 
was actively engaged among the subjects of which he treats, and has been 

"" UUU »J leeeivmg additions up to tne present time, un 
which can easily be imagined when he sorrowfully alludes to himself as one 
" who has not seen an Orchid for years." The first 75 pages consists of 
various introductory matters, and the remainder of an enumeration of the 
various hybrids known, forming altogether an encylopiedia of valuable 
information respecting hybrid Orchids. It is dedicated to Dr Maxwell 
T. Masters, F.R.S. 

It is to the latter part of the work that one naturally turns for a 
justification of its existence, and we may at once say that with two rather 
important exceptions Mr. Hansen has done his work well. Taking 
Cypnpedium, for example (omitting Selenipedium, which is very properly 
kept separate), we find over seventy pages devoted to it. First comes an 
alphabetical list of synonyms with their equivalents (this we should have 
placed at the end) ; then one of the species used in crossing, with the 
resulting hybrids ; and, finally, a list of the hybrids themselves. As to the 
information given, we may take the first hybrid raised as an example :— 
"Calanthe Dominii, Lindl. (Masuca ? X furcata). Dominy, for Veitch, 
Exeter, G. Ch., 1858, i., p. 4. fg. Bat. Mg., t. 5042. Seed obtained 1854, 
flowered 1856." This is full and concise (though the "i" in G. C. reference 
is unnecessary, and one has to think a moment before discovering that 
"fg." means " fig."). And this leads us up to our first little grumble. The 
author in the great majority of cases uses this style of reference :— " G. Ch., 
Oct. 23, '86" (Cattleya X calummata), •• O. R., Oct. '94" (Cattleya X 
Hardyana). If one wishes to turn up the original information he must 


cither search through the whole number, or turn to the index, both of 
which involve a great waste of time, and the latter is not always successful, 
as we have frequently proved. If a reference is given, the page should 
always be added. The author says, " My citations vary . • • from 
the rules of botanists." Let him at once disabuse his mind of this idea. 
They are only the rules of common sense and convenience. 

Our next objection is a strong one, for in his treatment of generic 
hybrids the author has been particularly unfortunate. He observes — " I 
have handled the material on hand without creating any new names." We 
wish we could congratulate him. On the contrary, all the hybrids between 
Cattleya and Ladia, which ever since 1887 we have called Lselio-cattleya, 
are transferred to Catladia ; Phaio-calanthe becomes Phalanthe (as if a 
hybrid between Phalamopsis and Calanthe wen intended) ; Sophro-cattleya 
is changed into Sophrolcya : anil Zygo-colux into Zygolax. Brasso-cattleya 
also becomes Brassoleva, and for Epicattleva is substituted Epileya. 
Epiladia, however, is retained (note how nearly it resembles the preceding 
word), as are also Epiphronitis, Sophroladia, and Habenariorchis. The 
result is over eighty new names, which are absolutely unnecessary, and 
even misleading. Where, for example, is "Cathelia albanensis, Rolfe," 
described ? And the same may be said of all the references given, in all of 
which the plants are mentioned under other names. The author elsewhere 
remarks, " If a cross has been given the name formed by combining the 
terms of his parents— no matter whether it has .been done rightly or 
wrongly accorded to botanic usage — uphold the name ... do not try 
and re-christen it." It may be Mr. Hansen's opinion that some of the 
hybrid generic names might originally have been more abbreviated, but his 
own remarks shonld have prevented the perpetration of six new generic, 
and over eighty new specific, synonyms. But if he must indulge in 
abbreviation, notwithstanding, win not I C p i 1 1 i t i s and Haborchis ? And if 
Ladio-cattleya is too long why stop at Catkelia, when Laeleva is so much 
shorter ? It fits Epileya admirably, and the similarity to Ladia would give 
no trouble to those who can appreciate the subtle difference between 
Sobralia and Sobraleya (to be mentioned presently). 

Then we get a batch of new names for supposed or reputed generic 
crosses, as Cysepedium (between Cypripedium and Selenipedium), Epidro- 
bium (Epidendrum and Dendrobium), Odopetalum (Odontoglossum and 
Zygopetalum), Schombletia (Schomburgkia and Bletia), Sobraleya (Sobralia 
and Cattleya), Sophrovola (Sophronitis and Brassavola), Zygocidium 
(Zygopetalum and Oncidium), and Zygodendrum (Zygopetalum and 
Dendrobium). Respecting the first the author remarks :— " If I propose to 
order under this combination-name all those attempts at cross-fertilisation 
of species of the genera Cypripedium and Selenipedium, I do not see why 


the fact that not one of all those attempts has ever produced a flowering 
plant should interfere with my proposal." We take precisely the opposite 
view, and we think the very facts adduced should have prevented such a 
proposal ever being made. Names should not be given to commemorate 
mere " attempts "-^and some are nothing more, for on flowering one or 
two of them have proved to be empty traditions. It is only when such 
plants actually flower that one can be certain that a bona fide cross has been 
effected, and only then should a name be given. Odopetalum is thus 
justified :—" Seedlings raised by Veitch, of Chelsea, between Zygopetalum 
Mackayi and several Odontoglossa have turned out to be simple Zyg. 
Mackayi." Odopetalum is therefore simply Zygopetalum Mackayi. Can 
anything be more absurd ? Some of the other reputed crosses may prove 
equally appantional. The author alludes to—" The attack upon momen. 
clature by the French savant who committed the horrible Miltoniopsis (do 
not et us mention his name)." But we will desist, or we may discover the 
stick created by Mr. Hansen to beat himself with. We should, however, 
ike to hear the remarks of the French savant when reading these remarkable 

The introductory portion contains much interesting matter, together 
with some that is either personal or that has no relation to the subject 
matter of the book, and some of this we think would have better-indeed, 
ought to have-been omitted. Some of the points we should like to have 
alluded to d,d space permit. One remark, however, we cannot allow to 
pass unnoticed, and that is where the author, in alluding to the Orchid 
ecic* in very complimentary terms, makes an assumption with regard to 
tie initiation of that work, for which there is not the slightest foundation, 
either in substance or fact, but which need not be mentioned further. In 
conclusion, we may add that apart from the points above mentioned Mr. 
ansen has produced a very valuable book, which will be of the greatest 
service to those who are in any way interested in hybrid Orchids. This, 
ot course, ,s not endorsing every detail, though we have no desire to detract 
from the merits of a work which contains so useful a summary of the 
results attained by the hybridist, we only wish the author had not given us 
so much to object to. Had he accepted the " advice and guidance " which 
he alludes to with " pleasure," a good deal of it might have been avoided. 


Although described in 1851 (Griff \„tul Hi n ,„,wr • 1 

■"■ - N ""«-- <"■■ p. 302) tin... — : r 1 — ! 1 1 ; 1 1- 



therefore interesting to nott 
• J. Elwes, Esq., of Coles 


bourne, Gloucestershire. It belongs to tile section Cylindrolobus, which 
is characterised by having two or tliree coloured bracts at the base of the 
very short recemes. In tile present species the bracts are orange-} ellow in 
colour, reflexed, and about three lines lone;, and the (lowers whitish-yellow. 
and of about the same size. The plant is about six incites high, and each 
pseudobulb bears several of its short two-flowered racemes. The species 
has been found both at Mergui, in Tenasserim, and in Sikkim. R. A. R. 


The beginning of the year 1890 appears a suitable time to place before 
your readers an "up-to-date" record of those Cypripediums and Seleni- 
pediums, which, though differing from each other, have received identical 
names. I propose to take them alphabetically, offering explanatory- 
remarks as I proceed. 

To begin with, there are two Cypripediums named Adonis, both 
hybrids, one introduced by Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son, parentage 
C. Spicerianum 2 X C. X Harrisianum 3 ; the other, generally known 
as Ingram's variety, was exhibited before the Orchid Committee by C.J, 
Ingram, Esq.. in September, 1893, its parents being hirsutissimum 5 X 
Curtisii 3 (0. It.. I., p. 318). 

The name album was given by Aiton in 1789 to a North American 
Cypripedium, and on the 13th August, 1895, C. J. Ingram, Esq., showed a 
hybrid Selenipedium under the same name raised from S. X leucorrhodum ! 
and S. Schlimii 3 (0. A'., III., p. 287). In this case, one being a Cypri- 
pedium and the other a Selenipedium. confusion is hardly likely to arise, 
although the latter are too frequently described under the name Cypri- 
pedium. Mr. Rolfe, too, discards the name album, for the former, 
restoring the name Reginae, as given by Walter a year earlier (0. R., I., 
p. 268). 

Cypripedium X Alfred Bleu was described in the Kane Horticole as 
having for parents C. ciliolare S and C. insigne Chantini 3 (0. A'„ I., 
p. 93I, while another, C. X Alfred Bleu, with parentage C. X Crossianum 
? X villosum 3, appears in the Gardeners Chrmkk (1895, i., p. 370). 
Surely, a mistake of parentage in the latter case. 

In the Orchid Review, vol. I., p. 32S, you will find C. X amabile, 
raised by M. Alfred Bleu, of Paris, from C. X javanico-superbiens ? and 
C. Hookers: 3, while the Gardeners' Chronicle U895, i., p. 370) records 
C. X amabile (Page) as C. Boxallii 2 X C. X Dauthieri 3 ■ 

C. X Bellona is a name given by R. I. Measures, Esq., to one of his 
hybrids, raised from C. villosum ? and C. Spicerianum 3 , shown in 


November, 1893 (0. A'., I., p. 374), and more recently by M. Jules Hye to 
the cross from C. Spicerianum $ and C. X Sallieri Hyeanum 3 (Card. 
Citron., 1895, L, p. 207). This latter hybrid should return to its original 

C. X Cecilia was exhibited by Messrs. Sander & Co., 26th Sept., 1893, 
as raised from C. tonsum ? and C. Spicerianum 3 (0. A'., I., p. 350), 
while another of the same name, but with parentage purpuratum Kimballi- 
anum 2 x Spicerianum 3 appears in E. Bohnhof's Dictionnaire da 
Orchidus Hybrides (1895), and also in one of Messrs. Charlesworth's 
Catalogues for the same year. 

Are there two distinct C. X Charles Goudoin's ? The Orchid Review 
(vol. I., p. 154) quotes one from the Orchidophilc (November, 1892, p. 337), 
and records the parents as C. X Harrisianum and C. insigne Chantini, 
while Mr. Williams, in his Orchid Grower*' Manual (7th edition, p. 243), gives 
C.Charles Goudoin—" a cross between C. insigne punctatum violaceum 
and C. x vernixium." Probably they are the same thing, and the record of 
parentage doubtful. 

C. X Claudii, raised by M. Moens (0. A'., II., p. 59), has for its parents 
C. Spicerianum ? and C. x vernixium 3 , but C. X Claudi appears 
in Mr. E. Bohnhof's book as Spicerianum 3 X insigne Wallacei 3 ■ 

There seems to be some confusion between the names C. X delicatum 
and C. X delicatulum. M. Jules Hye appears to have given the former 
name to a Spicerianum hybrid (Card. Chron., 1894. II., p. 728), and 
Messrs. Lewis* Co., of Southgate, inform me that their hybrid exhibited 
as C. X delicatum on October 14th, 1895, has for its parents C. Dayanum 
and C. barbatum, Warnerianum. Doubtless this last is identical with 
C. X delicatulum, Rchb. f. 

The name Eurydice seems to have found favour with hybridists, there 
being no less than three Cypripediums so named. First we have C. X 
Eurydice, from C. X Leeanum superbum 3 and hirsutissimum 3 , of M. 
Ch. Vuylsteke (0. A., II., p. 61) then one of Continental origin from C. 
Boxalln S and Spicerianum 3 (Card. Chron., 1895, i., p. Ig9 ), and, 
lastly, one from C. Hooker* 3 and C. Spicerianum 3 , of American origin 
(Card. Chron., 1895, •-, P- 550). 

With Finetianum it is again a case of Cypripedium and Selenipedium, 
the former being from C. philippinense S and ciliolare 3, or the reverse 
cross to C. x Alfred Hollington, the latter from S. X cardinale ? and S. 
caudatum 3 (0. R., III., p. 102). 

C. X Gibezianum appears as venustum S X villosum 3 according to 
Ltndema (t. 425), and as villosum ? x insigne 3 in the Gardeners' 
hromdc ( 1895, 1., p. 370). Doubtless the same thing, but with parentage 
not strictly recorded. 


We next come to a Cypripedium and a Selenipedium each named 
giganteum, the former from CXSallieri Hve.umm ? and C. X Harrisianum 
3 (0. R., I., p. 316), and the latter from S. caudatum Uropedium s and 
S. X grande 3 (0. R., III., p. 77). 

The Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society ivol. WTL. p. ccxlvi.) records 
Cypripediiun X gloriosum from C. insigne Chantini 2 and C. X Io 
grande 3, and the Gardeners' Chronicle 11N95, i.. p. JooHias one of the same 
name attributed to Hye from C. Lawrenceanum ? and C. X Harrisianum 3 • 

Again we come to a name which has been chosen by hybridists in 
America, on tile Continent, and in our own island, viz. : Hebe. Two are 
in all probability the same, the one recorded in the Orchid Review (I., p. 
319) as from C. Hookcne Measuresianam 5 ami C. Lawrenceanum 3 
(0. R., I., p. 319), and that of the Gardeners Chronicle 11X94, ii., p. 318), 
from C. Volonteanum ? and C. Lawrenceanum 3 , both coming from K. 
I. Measures, Esq. The American C. X Hebe is, however, quite distinct, 
being from C. Spicerianum 2 and C. Stonei 3 (0. R., I., p. 119), while 
that of M. Jules Hye-Leysen is said to be derived from '' . Spicerianum and 
C. X Sallieri (0. R., III., p. 27). 

C. X Hera received a First-class Certificate in 1892, being derived from 
C. X Leeanum s and C. Boxallii 3 , but the name was afterwards changed 
to C. X Adrastus, under which new name it was Certificated in 1894. A 
hybrid from C. Spicerianum J and C. villosum 3 ■ raised in the collection 
of R. H. Measures, Esq., was previously named C. X Hera by Mr. Rolfe 
(Gard. Citron., 1890, i., p. 105). 

C. X Hermione was the name chosen for my seedling from C. Spicer- 
ianum $ and C. barbatum Warneri 3 . and the same name was given by 
M. Jules Hye at a later date to one of his batch of seedlings from C. 
Spicerianum 2 and C. X Sallieri Hyeanum 3 [Card. Chron., 1895, i„ p. 
207). With regard to the first, I am content to adopt the nomenclature C. 
X Eyermanianum var. Hermione (0. R., II., p. 22K while the second 
should undoubtedly be written C. X aureum, or C. X aureum var. 

C. X Horneri was raised in the collection of Colonel Marwood from C. 
Boxallii ? and C. Argus 3 (0. R.. vol. II., p. 80), and Messrs. Charles- 
worth, of Bradford, have in their catalogue for 1895 C. X Horneri from 
C. Argus X villosum, evidently a mistake, as this is the parentage of C. X 

I have on my list five Cypripediums an 5eleni] Bum named x 

hybridum, and I record them here, although I scarcely think hybridum 
should be used as a specific name. We have C. X hybridum from villosum 
2 X barbatum 3 (Will. Orch. Gro. Man., ed. 7, p. 266) : C. X hybridum 
from C. Stonei S and C. barbatum 3 (Gard. Chron., 1895, i., p. 201) ; and 


three mentioned in Mr. E. Bohnhofs Dktimmirc (1895) fromC. Boxallii? 
and C. insigne Chantini 3 , C. Boxallii ? and C. Spicerianum 3 , and from 
C. Haynaldianum ? and C. Spicerianum 3 ■ The Selenipedium is from 
S. caudatum roseum 9 and S. X conchiferum 3 , and was raised by 
Messrs. Sander (p. K., I., p. 326). [Curiously enough, none of these is the 
original C. X hybridum, figured and described in November, 1875 (Fl. 
Mag., n. s.,t. 187) as a Veitchian hybrid, derived from C.barbatum 2 and 
C. Stonei 3 . Soon afterwards it was described under the more suitable 
name of C. X euryandrum (Card. Chrm., 1875, ii., p. 772), under which it 



Two remarkably fine plants of Stanhopea Wardii have flowered in the 
collection of E. A. Bevers, Esq., of Oxford, of which photographs and 
flowers have been sent. They belong to Lindley's variety venusta, char- 
acterised by uniformly deep orange-yellow flowers, the dark blotches on the 
hypochil having vanished. The best plant had three racemes, each bearing 
ten flowers, and the other two racemes with the same number of flowers. 
A third has also bloomed well. They were purchased last spring at a sale 
of plants, of the late Mr. Boton, of Tew Park, being turned out of a Vinery 
with various ordinary plants. If one may judge by their vigour, the situation 
must have suited them admirably. Stanhopeas are undoubtedly very 
striking plants, and if well grown very rloriferous, though the flowers are 
unfortunately rather fleeting. They are. however, included in many 
collections, and deserve a little more attention than they receive at present. 

It appears that this pretty little species, which flowered with Messrs. 
W. L. Lewis & Co., in 1893, is a native of the Amazon district, for a 
Brassia which has flowered in the collection of John \V. Arkle, Esq., of 
West Derby, Liverpool, proves identical, and of this Mr. Arkle states that 
it was imported from the Rio Negro district with a lot of Cattleya luteola, 
C. Eldorado, and Galeandra Devoniana, The original record was :— " Its 
exact habitat is not known, but the plants were purchased from a .nan who 
collected them when searching for Cattlevas, and who has since died " 
(S«fira, I., p. IQO ). This definite information is very interesting. It is a 
graceful little plant, and Mr. Arkle remarks that the pseudobulbs are four 
mches long by one inch broad, and not thicker than a paper-knife. 



Another pretty little hybrid from Cattleya Bowringiana has appeared in 
Messrs. Veitch's establishment, of which we have received a two-flowered 
raceme. The pollen parent was a form of Laelio-cattleva X elegans, and 
the hybrid is said to be quite intermediate between the two parents. The 
flower most resembles the seed parent, a peculiarity which is seen in all 
the hybrids from this species. The sepals and petals are z\ inches long, 
and the latter J-inch broad, the colour being bright rose-purple. The lip 
is rather closely rolled round the short column, but on being flattened out 
is seen to be distinctly, though not very strongly, thtve-lobed. The front 
half is rich crimson-purple, of a tint closely resembling the pollen parent, 
and the centre of the disc bears several similar lines, while the base of 
each side lobe is white. It is a very pretty little plant, and when it becomes 
strong will probably bear numerous flowers, as is the case with both the 

This is a large and very pretty hybrid raised by Mr. W. Robinson, 
gardener to Mrs. F. L. Ames, from C. tonsum ? and C. Fairieanum 3 , 
from whom we have received a flower through Mr. A. Dimmock, traveller 
for Messrs. F. Sander & Co.. who has just returned from the States. It is 
quite intermediate in structure, though in colour it most resembles the 
seed parent. The dorsal sepal is broadly ovate-orbicular, 2 1 inches long 
by 2 inches broad, and bears about twenty-one narrow purple-brown stripes 
on a light ground. The petals are deflexed. undulate. z\ inches long, and 
very similar in colour, except that the nerves are less distinct and bear a 
few small spots on the disc. The lip is most like C. Fairieanum. but 
2 inches long, and suffused with light purple-brown ; while the staminode 
most resembles the other parent. It is an interesting addition to the list 
of C. Fairieanum crosses. 

Cypripedium X Calypso yar. Armstkongiantm. 
This very handsome hybrid was raised in the collection of C. Winn, 
Esq., Selly Hill, Birmingham, from Cypripedium Boxallii atratum J and 
C. Spicerianum magnificum 3 , and thus is the reverse cross of the original 
C. X Calypso, which, however, has been several times recorded under 
different names. The present form has the general shape of the original 
one, but is markedly different in having the greater part of the dorsal sepal 
strongly suffused with reddish purple. The rest of the flower most 
resembles C. Spicerianum. the petals being undulate and much spotted at 
the base, though darker in colour, the lip also darker, and the staminode 


puce-purple, with slightly paler margin and deep yellow 

Cypripedium x Symondsi.c. 
A very pretty little hybrid from the collection of H. J. Ross, Esq., of 
Florence, another of the batch which unfortunately lost their labels in the 
transfer of the Orchids from Castagnola. It is, however, precisely inter- 
mediate between C. venustum and C. purpuratum, and, as Mr. Ross very- 
well remarks, is evidently derived from these two species. The dorsal 
sepals have almost the shape of the latter, but is very little reflexed at the 
sides, and has about fifteen green nerves on a white ground. The petals 
well combine the characters of the two parents, being purple with a slightly 
brownish hue, except at the greenish base, and with numerous dark purple- 
brown spots on the basal half, as seen in C. purpuratum. They are also 
neatly ciliate. The lip and staminode also bear much resemblance to 
C. purpuratum. The characters of C. venustum are apparent enough 
in the modified details of the flower, and are probably more apparent in the 
foliage, which we have not seen. It is a very pretty little plant, and is 
dedicated by request to Miss Margaret Symonds, eldest daughter of 
Mr. John Addington Symonds. 

The Calanthes still maintain a good show, though some of the earlier ones 
are getting over. Cypripedium insigne, too, is past its best, though some 
of the later ones are still perfect, and the hybrids maintain a good show, 
C. X Leeanum being one of the most effective. But the plant of the 
month par excellence is Ladia anceps, of which a series of white and several 
coloured varieties impart quite a gay appearance to the house. A good 
plant of L. autumnalis and another of L. x Gouldiana are also very- 

The chaste and beautiful little Masdevalli; 

now coming 

out, and some of the old scapes, which were not cut off, are flowering 
well as the new ones. The fine old Zygopetalum intermedium is ex- 
panding, and one of the most striking plants in the house, besides being 
deliriously fragrant, and of the easiest possible culture. Odontoglossum 
Rossii and O. pulchellum are now expanding, while quite a number of 
other things are showing signs of renewed activity. With the gradually 
lengthening days which will soon be upon us an increasing variety of 
interesting things will require our attention. 




The group figured to-day is a particularly interesting one, representing the 
natural hybrid Cypripedium X siamense (whose history was given at p. 20 
of the last volume), together with its two parents. In 1889 Messrs. Veitch 
wrote—" No Cypripedium havingthe aspect of being a natural hybrid between 
two recognised species has ever yet appeared among importations of the 
species" (Man., IV., p. 70), but at the present time four such are 
known, C. X Littleanum and C. X Kimballianuin having appeared last year. 
C. X siamense (fig. 1) originally appeared in the collection of R. H. 
Measures, Esq., of Streatham, in 1888, among plants of the original importa- 

Fig 2.— C. CALLOSUM. 
callosum var. sublasve [Card. Chnm.. 1888. i.. p. 5511. remarking — " It might 
be supposed to be a natural hybrid, but I do not believe it . . . M. Regnier 
would have brought the other species." A year later it appeared with M.J. 
ndependently described under its present name 
9, i., p. 192), its hybrid origin not then being 
lants appeared in other collections, generally 
ce of these facts afterwards 
duced another species in 
plant flowered out of this 

Garden, of Paris, and v 

(Rolfe, in Card. Ckrtm., 

suspected. Subsequen 

unexpectedly among C. callosum. The sign 

came out when Messrs. Hugh Low & Co. 

quantity, together with C. callosum. In ii 


importation, which Messrs. Low, without knowing its name, considered 
might be a natural hybrid between the two species in question, and the 
subsequent identification of this plant with C. siamense put the whole 
matter in a totally new light. The accompanying illustration is reproduced 
from a photograph taken by Mr. l'Anson, and shows how well the characters 
of the two very distinct parents are combined in the hybrid, which is fairly 
intermediate in character. We may now ask some of our hybridists to 
demonstrate experimentally what must be obvious to every one. The 
experiment of crossing these two species together would be at once very 
simple and very interesting. 

C. callosum (fig. 2) is a well-known plant, introduced from Siam, in 
1885, by M. Regnier, of Paris, and was described in the following year 
(Rchb. f„ in Card. Chron., 1886, ii., p. 326). It is closely allied to C. bar- 
batum and C. Lawrenceanum, but is readily distinguished by its falcate 
petals, and different foliage. 

C. Appletonianum (fig. 3) is the mysterious second parent whose 
absence probably prevented Reichenbach from guessing the truth about 
what he called C. callosum var. sublaeve, and in any case his remark above 
cited is suggestive. Its original' appearance is uncertain, and it would be 
interesting to learn whether M. Regnier did not actually obtain it in his 
original importation of C. callosum. Did no one flower supposed poor 
forms out of this importation which possibly were thought not to be worth 
keeping ? The earliest record appears to be in 1893, when a plant flowered 
in the collection of W. M. Appleton, Esq., of Weston-super-Mare, said to 
have been introduced with C. Hookers, from which it was said to differ in 
the flowers, and in the absenceof tessellation in the leaves. It was described 
as C. Appletonianum (Gower, in Garde,,, 1893, i., p. 95), afterwards becoming 
C. Bullenianum var. Appletonianum (Rolfe, in Orel,. Rev., I., p. 135). It is 
probable that the recorded origin of this plant is erroneous. At all events 
it has been introduced in quantity by Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., from Siam, 
together with C. callosum. C. Poyntzianum (O'Brien, in Gard. Chron., 
1894, 1, p. 36), which appeared in the collection of Reginald Young, Esq., 
of Liverpool, is identical, and also appeared among imported plants of C. 
callosum (Orel,. Rev., II., p. 54, m., p . 5J) . The botamca , stat| , s , )f thls 
plant ,s a little uncertain. The flowers are very similar to those of the 
Bornean C. Bullenianum. owing to which it was made a variety of it, yet 
the leaves are remarkably different, and as the new facts show that it is not 
an aberrant form of C. Bullenianum, as at first supposed, the best course 
seems to be to consider it a closely allied species, or what is often termed a 
subspecies. A question of this kind can never be decided without a full 
knowledge of the facts, and a comparison with the allied forms. The leaves 
closely resemble C. callosum. The staminode is small, and the incurved 


apex of the dorsal is peculiar. The inflorescence is occasional^ two- 
flowered, as in the present example. 

Thus the history of this group of plants is particularly interesting, and if 
the last-named is not of great decorative value it should find a place in all 
representative collections. ('. x siamense most resembles this parent, but 
the dorsal sepal, especially, is much modified : and it is a more attractive 
plant. All three usually flower in the winter or early spring. 

A very important paper on the above disease, by Mr. G. Massee, of Kew, 

appears in the last number of the Annals of Botany (vol. ix.. pp. 421-429, 
t. 15), in which the vexed question of its origin is set at rest. Allusion was 
made to the matter at page 130 of our last volume, but it now appears 
that the disease is not due to a fungus, as was then supposed, but to causes 
which to a great extent are under the control of the cultivator. The 
investigation was at first commenced with the preconceived idea that a 
fungus was the cause of the mischief, but when various experiments had 
failed to demonstrate its existence a search was made for bacteria, and with 
like results. Efforts were then made to induce the disease in healthy plants 
by inoculation with the expressed juice from diseased spots, but with no 
more success, and this was accepted as evidence that the malady was of 
non-parasitic origin. 

It has often been contended that ' spot ' was due to atmospheric con- 
ditions, and Mr. Watson now suggested a sudden chilling of the plants as a 
probable cause. Experiments were therefore made with a view of testing 
this. A plant of Habenaria Susann;e. perfectly free from spot, which had 
been growing in a temperature of 75 to 8o° F., was covered with a bell- 
glass, on which cold water from a tap was allowed to flow for twelve hours. 
during which time the temperature under the glass ranged between 41" and 
45 F. Some minute particles of ice on one occasion had first been placed 
upon the upper surface of the leaves, and on a later one some minute 
drops of water. Twenty-four hours after the experiment microscopical 
examination showed that wherever a minute drop of water had been — 
whether formed by melting of the particle of ice or not— a diseased spot 
appeared, showing all the microscopic characteristics of true ' spot,' but 
wherever the leaf remained dry no such damage was observed. These spots 
were examined at intervals, and within four days every phase of the disease 
was observed. Additional experiments showed that a fall of at least 9 F. 
from the previous average was required to induce the formation of ' spot,' 
and consequently that plants previously grown in a high temperature were the 


most susceptible. One other cause of irregularity in the appearance of the 
spots proved to be the relative amount of moisture in the plants, those 
saturated with water being much more readily affected than those compara- 
tively dry. These results were corroborated in the garden, both with the 
Habenaria in question, and with some species of Satyrium, which became 
affected with ' spot ' when a spell of cold weather succeeded the excessively 
hot weather of the early summer. 

The disease first appears in the form of minute pale spots on the upper 
surface of the leaf, sometimes few and scattered, at others more numerous. 
At first they are not conspicuous, and likely to escape observation unless 
specially looked for, but they soon assume a pale brown colour, and gradually 
increase in size, sometimes becoming confluent. The tissues are completely 
disorganised, and owing to the collapse of diseased cells beneath the 
epidermis the surface of the spot becomes somewhat depressed. 

Mr. Massee's summary is practically as follows :-The Orchid disease 
known as 'spot' is of non-parasitic origin, the initial cause being the 
presence of minute drops of water on the surface of the leaves at a time 
when the temperature is exceptionally low and the roots copiously supplied 
with water. The effect of the chill produced by the drops of water under the 
above conditions is to cause disorganisation of the cells of the leaf under- 
lying the drops, and the disappearance of the chlorophyll, which is followed 
by the precipitation of tannin and other substances, forming a globular sphere 
in each cell, and eventually the complete disintegration of the cells. It is 
mainly caused by the three following conditions :-(l) too high a tempera- 
ture, (2) too much water and not sufficient air in contact with the roots, 
and (3) watering or spraying with a falling instead of a rising temperature. 
The plate shows the appearance of the diseased tissues, and the spheres 
within the cells which were at first mistaken for the vegetative phase of a 
species of Plasmodiophora. 

Thus it would appear that the malady is of a totally different nature to 
the Vanilla disease (Supra., III., page 51), which is a true parasitic fungus. 
On the diseased tissue known as ' spot,' a saprophytic fungus is sometimes 
found, but as it is incapable of obtaining a footing on a healthy leaf it 

The moral of the above will be obvious to everyone, and Orchid growers 
will be grateful to Mr. Massee for the light he has thrown on this much- 
debated question. It makes all the difference to know whether we have an 
infectious d 1S ease to deal with, or whether it is only a question of maintaining 
a healthy atmosphere by careful stoking, ventilating, watering, and damping 
down, especially in the early part of the year. A point now remaining to 
be settled is whether all the spot-like diseases of Orchids can be assigned 
to the same cause. 


Dendrobium curvtflorum, Rolfe.- A species belonging to tbe section 

Aporum, with unusually large flowers, which flowered with Mr. J. O'Brien 
in October, 1892. The flowers are white, with a faint suffusion of pink 
on the back of the sepals, and a yellow line down the centre of the lip. 
terminating in a deeper blotch in front. They measure \\ inches lone;. 
It is believed to be .1 native of Sikkim. — /\7<c Bull., 1895, p. 281. 

Cirrhopetai-UM comi'ac i CM. Rolfe. A small species with pale straw- 
coloured flowers, which bloomed at Kew in September last. It was found 
at Panga. in Tenasserim. and was sent by Mr. C. Curtis, of the Forest 
Department, Penang.— Kew Bull., 1805, p. 281. 

Tkias vitrina, Rolfe.— An interesting addition to this singular little 
genus, whose history is ah ntical with the preceding. The sepals an of a very 
pale shining green — in allusion to which the name is given and the 
petals and lip are marked with reddish brown.— Km Hull.. 1895, p. 282. 

CoiLOGYNE Veitchii, Rolfe. — A native of Western New Guinea, intro- 
duced by Messrs. James Veitch and Sons, through their collector. Burke. 
It received a First-class Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society 
in August last. The flowers are pure white, without any markings, and are 
borne in long pendulous racemes. — AVtc Bull.. 1895, p, 282. 

Polystachva KlKKtl. Rolfe. — A di>tinct little plant sent from the Mombasa 
district by Sir John Kirk. It flowered at Kew in June, 1894, and during 
the present year. It is allied to P. Lawrenceana, Kranzh.andbearsawhitish 
green flower whose lip is margined with light purple. — Kcv. 1 Bull., 1895. 
p. 282. 

Lueddemannia TRILOBA, Rolfe. — Afinespecies of this remarkable. cvnus. 
which flowered in the collection of Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., in July last, 
and again in November, on the latter occasion receiving a First-class 
Certificate. The flowers are deep yellow, with some reddish brown markings 
at the base of the lip. and ;i light >uffu>ion of reddish purple on the sepals. 
It was sent from the Andes by Mr. F. C. Lehmann, and differs from the 
two previously known in the details of the lip.— Kew Bull.. 1895, p. 283 ; 
Card. Chrtm., 1895, ii. p. 713, fig. 118. 

Catasetim uxcatum, Rolfe. — A species introduced with Cattleya labiata. 
from Pernambuco, which has flowered in several collections. It is allied to 
C. albovirens, Rodr., and has bright green flowers, the lip being galeate and 
half as long as the sepals and petals, and the apex curved. Both sexes have 
appeared with Messrs. F. Sander & Co.— Kew Bull., 1895, p. 283. 

Catasetum apertum, Rolfe. — A species allied to the Ecuadorean C. 
macroglossum, Rchb. f., which flowered in the collection of Sir Charles 
Strickland, Bart., Hildenley, Malton, in September, 1S94, and again a year 


later. The sepals and petals are light apple-green with a few minute brown 

spots, and the lip yellmvish green, densely spurted and suffused with warm 
shining brown. Habitat not known. — Kew Bull., 1895, p. 284. 

Scelochilus carinatus, Rolfe. — An interesting little plant, introduced 
from the Andes by Mr. F. C. Lehmann, and flowered in the collection 
of Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., in September last. The sepals are light 
yellow, the petals maroon purple with a white margin, and the lip whitish 
with maroon-purple blotch at the base of the reflexed limb.— Kew Bull., 
1895, p. 284. 

Saccolabium hainanense, Rolfe. — Closely allied to the Himalayan S. 
gemmatum, Lindl., but with broader flat leaves. It was introduced from 
Hainan by the Rev. B.C. Henry, and was sent from the Hongkong Botanic 
Garden to Kew. where it flowered in March last. The petals and dorsal sepal 
are lilac-purple, and the rest of the flower white. — Kac Bull.. 1895, p. 284. 


Much has been said with regard to the cultivation of Odontoglossum 
cnspum and its varieties ; and perhaps a few notes will be acceptable, as 
to my practice at Arddarroch. We received an importation of 4,000 plants 
of O. crispum here in April, 1894, and most of them were potted up in a 
mixture of polypodium-fibre and sphagnum moss in equal proportions, the 
material being chopped up with a chaff-cutting machine. The larger plants 
were put into as small pots as convenient for the size of the plants, and the 
smaller ones placed in a bed of the same material. They were placed in a 
house facing north and south, the former being placed on an open stage, 
well up to the glass, which I find a great advantage to all Orchids, especially 
Odontoglossums. At first they were watered very sparingly, only receiving 
a thorough soaking once in four weeks, but were syringed over-head on fine 
days until the pots were filled with roots ; afterwards only receiving water 
when thoroughly dry. Under this treatment I find they thrive satisfactorily. 
As regards the potting of established plants, I do not bind myself to any 
hard and fast rule. I like to pot a plant when it needs potting, but just 
after it commences to grow ; as it is then sending forth its new roots. 
September and October I find the most suitable months for this operation, 
as it is then when most of the plants are starting to grow, and they then 
have timetoestablish themselves before the hot sun appears. I do not believe 
in potting Odontoglossums in spring, for I find that disturbing them at the 
roots at that time of the year is hurtful to the plants, as they have no time 
to get re-established before the hot weather sets in. The material I find 
best for established plants is good peat and sphagnum moss in equal pro- 


portions, mixed in the above way. Polypodium fibre is all very well for 
imported plants, but for established plants I perfer good peat. 

After being potted they are very carefully watered : giving them ;i 
thorough good soaking, and no more until quite dry. I rind over-watering 
very injurious to these plants, especially after potting, and during the winter 
months, when, the outside atmosphere being damp, they do not dry up the 
same as in summer time, when more air and light is given. At that time 
they need a good supply at the roots, and a thorough good soaking is given 
on each occasion. Feeding with manure is a thing I do not practice, as I 
have found it no advantage. 

Damping down is done very carefully, and during the winter months it 
is ceased altogether : as I find the watering of the plants gives sufficient 
moisture until wateringtime comes round again, which is in about four or five 
days. During the summer time they get a thorough damping down each 
morning, except on wet days when the outside airis charged with moisture, 
and on hot days tiny are doused over-head about two p.m. with " Stott's 
fertilizing sprayer," which I find a very useful thing in Orchid houses. 

I give plenty of air, both top and bottom, during the summer, 
both night and day, and in winter our bottom ventilators are seldom 
closed, except in severe weather, when the cold wind is blowing 
strong, and on a very mild day the top ones are open too. I find Odonto- 
glossums enjoy plenty of air. 

In regard to shading, we use the ordinary tiffany blinds on rollers. We 
commence to shade about the middle of February, but as the season 
advances the ordinary tiffany is not sufficient to keep the temperature down 
on hot sunny days, and I like to put a good coating of white-wash on the 
glass about the beginning <>f Jum\ leavingthe roller blinds up a little later 
in the morning and drawing them up a little earlier in the afternoon. This 
whitening is washed off again in September, after which the blinds give 
sufficient shade until they are taken off at the end of October. As to the 
lath blinds which are in use on the Continent and other places, I have not 
given them sufficient trial to form any definite opinion : having only tried 
them at the end of last season. I think, however, that they will prove to be 
a great acquisition. 

As regards temperature. I try in summertime to keep as near to 60 Fahr. 
as possible in the day-time, allowing it at night to fall to 55 , but in winter- 
time 55 by day, and 50 , at night, excepting on severe nights, when I do 
not mind it falling down to 45 . providing the atmosphere is kept dry. 

Odontoglossums are subject to a good many pests, the worst being 
yellow thrip ; but I have no difficulty in keeping it down by the frequent 
use of " Campbell's fumigators," which I have used for the last three years. 
For the last two years we have not had a single thrip on any of our plants, 


of which we grow about 20.000, but before using " Campbell " they gave great 
trouble. I have often seen another pest in the form of a fungus, which 
attacks the under part of the leaves and turns them yellow, but the frequent 
use of "Veitch's Chelsea blight," applied with a sponge, keeps it down. 

A mixture of soot and lime thrown about the house once a month, 1 
have proved a great help. 

Failure in the growing of Odontoglossums in my opinion is due to over- 
watering, too much moisture in the atmosphere during cold weather, and 
not sufficient shading in summer. 

G. Roberts. 
Arddarroch, Gareloch Head, N.B. 


Bv H. A. Burberry, Highbury, Moor Green, Hirmingham. 
We have now entered upon another year, and let us hope a most successful 
one to Orchid cultivators, to the Orchid Review, to importers and collectors, 
and, in fact, to all interested in the Orchid world. 

The temperatures should be allowed to remain as advised for last month, 

The Cool House.— Day, with sun, 60" ; without sun, 50 to 55 ; night, 
50 ; morning, 45° to 50 . 

The Intermediate Houses.— Day, with sun, 65 to 70 ; without sun, 
6o° ; night, 58 to 6o° ; morning, 55° to 58 . 

The Warm Hous E .-Day, with sun, 70= to 75° ; without sun, 65° to 70 ; 
mght, 60° to 65 ; morning, 6o°. 

Attend well to the atmospheric conditions of each department, as it is a 
mDst important matter, especially at this time of year, when the outside 
conditions are often so variable. Observe that the degree of warmth 
indicated above is maintained as nearly as possible, and use these figures 
as a guide. It is not possible, of course, to always do so exactly, nor is it 
absolutely necessary. The thermometer will fluctuate a few degrees, higher 
or lower, and this will do no harm ; in fact, it occurs in a state of nature. 

Do not let the atmosphere become too moist or stagnant, and, on the 
other hand, avoid excessive drought. When much fire heat is required, 
the air, and the plants also, are apt to become too dry if not watched, and 
the tendency counteracted by a judicious application 'of water ,,, the roots 
and about the house. Generally speaking, once a daj will suffice for 
damping down this month, but on certain mild damp dav's ,. will be better 
no to do so at all. Where the hygrometer is in use it should show from 
one to two degrees of evaporation in the coolest houses before damping the 
paths, and in the uther departments two or three degrees. 


Let it be borne in mind that spot, rot, and other forms of decay are 
likely to supervene if the conditions are too wet, and at the same time 
cold, therefore avoid such conditions if possible. I use the latter phrase 
advisedly, for well do I know that in spite of the utmost endeavours of the is not always possible to steer quite clear of 
those unsuitable conditions which favour the development of disease in 
some form or another. There are many details in management which may 
appear to be trifling matters, but which, notwithstanding, claim the 
attention of the most careful culvators. and often, too. at hours when most 
of the world is asleep. It is a great thing to know the exact cause of spot, 
and the conditions which induce it, but it is no easy matter to escape it 
altogether. The best safeguards are to have houses built and heated on 
the most approved principles, coupled with strict and never-failing attention. 
Drip from the roof, sudden falls of temperature, and water on the leaves in 
cold weather must be studiously avoided. 

The question regarding ventilation at this season is rather a delicate 
one, which must not be spoken of at random. Everything will depend 
upon the structure of the house. It can safely be said that if there are 
spaces through which the air can pass, through the over -lapping glass not 
fitting closely, or by any other means, the ventilators will scarcely be in 
request this month ; in fact there is a likelihood at times of having too 
much air without them. If, on the other hand, the houses are closely built. 
it is frequently advantageous to admit air through the bottom ventilators, 
in a larger or smaller volume according to the mildness of the weather. 
The top ventilators should also be used in the Cool house on the leeward 
side when the outside temperature is not below 45 , maintaining warmth in 
the pipes to temper the fresh air and to produce a better circulation. Fresh 
air is the life and soul of these plants, but be careful just now, especially 
when leaving for the night, for the weather is apt to change suddenly before 
morning — and it is better not to have too much even of a good thing. 

At this season we may perhaps just review the successes and failures ot 
the year just passed. Each year has its lessons, and something will have 
been learnt and added to our experience. I can safely say that I have had 
another proof of the truth of the old saying that we should leave well alone. 
It came about by removing our Phalamopses from their accustomed place, 
but the result was not satisfactory, and they are now re-instated in their 
little hot, span-roofed house. The same thing is now unavoidably 
happening to the Barkerias, which, owing to building operations, were 
removed from their sunny position in a lean-to, and their appearance is not 
so smart as formerly. Barkerias will only grow well when suspended fully 
exposed to the sun and syringed copiously when growing, but at this resting 
season they should be kept very dry. We never could get Miltonia spectab- 


ilis and M. s. Moreliana to grow freely and look happy until they were 
transferred to the East Indian house, which proves to be the best place for 
them. We have still main' conquests to make. For example, Oncidium 
Phalamopsis— a sweetly neat and pretty species— does not grow well, and if 
any kind friend would say how to succeed with it, he v/ould not only have 
my best thanks, but I believe of many other readers of the Orchid Review 
likewise. It happens sometimes that the proper cultivation of a certain 
species is discovered more by accident than design. If a plant which has 
proved difficult to cultivate should suddenly improve, the differences 
between the old and the new treatment should be noted, and further experi- 
ments followed. A few, or more, plants in delicate health are to be found 
in every collection, and the cause often is that some simple want is either 
not understood or not attended to. If the former, the best method is to 
find out, if possible, the right place and the proper treatment for such 
plants, and then they may recover and grow strong. Proofs are not 
wanting that the simple open woodwork staging is to be preferred to that 
which is closely constructed, and the air thus prevented from circulating 
freely between and round the plants. Of course, with open stages a little 
more time is spent in damping down, and the plants also dry more quickly, 
but I think most growers will agree with me that an Orchid, to grow well, 
must necessarily dry quickly. 

The chief work this month will be to keep the plants healthy, by giving 
them as much light as possible, by keeping the temperature and atmosphere 
as genial and pure as circumstances will admit, and by paying great 
attention to cleanliness, and freeing the plants from the numerous pests to 
which they arc liable. In other words, I may say the best work to do is to 
maintain intact the vigour which the plants already possess, and be content. 
We must not expect free growth in these short dark days when the internal 
atmosphere, do what we will, is more or less vitiated, and it is a great 
mistake to try to force it, either byrepotting or an over exciting temperature. 
Many Orchids should now be at rest. 

Speaking of repotting, there are a few which may now be proceeded 
with. The first are the Pleiones, which have passed out of bloom. These 
should never go longer than two years without being done. They may be 
grown in pots, or suspended in shallow pans, but success is most likely to 
be attained with the latter, as Pleiones are very partial to an abundance of 
light. Employ a mixture of chopped sphagnum moss and peat, well HK«" 
in equal proportions, and add a little loam and silver sand. In this amp"*' 
plant the bulbs—taking great care not t„ injure the new rqots lea«"j 
about an inch space between each bulb, and securing them in their 
position firmly by means of small pegs. When finished the bulbs should be 
half below and half above the compost. The receptacles should be crocked 


with clean broken pots, so as to leave room for about two inches of compost, 
which is sufficient. Do not over water, but keep the compost just moist 
only, and give them an intermediate temperature. 

There will also be a few of the Cypripediums which ma) be repotted or 
top-dressed as the case may demand. I refer to the kite autumn and 
winter flowering kinds which have passed out of bloom. The compost 
recommended above for Pleiones is also most suitable for these. Cypri- 
pediums should be repotted once in two or three years, or oftener, supposing 
they become pot-bound. The pots— and nothing is better must not he t,«. 
large, but just a reasonable size in proportion to the sue of the plants. 
They must be quite clean, and crocked to one-half their depth with clean 
drainage. If the pots are large they are better crocked higher in proportion. 
Always place a layer of clean sphagnum over the drainage before rilling in 
with the compost, which should be pressed in moderately linn, without 
breaking the roots, finally leaving the surface even and slightly raised above 
the rim of the pot. Should the plant then be in the least unsteady it should 
be firmly supported with neat sticks, otherwise the roots are prevented from 
taking a grip of the new material. Keep the compost just moist only until 
the new roots are showing activity - 

Masdevallias may also be repotted now. This is one of the best times, 
as a new batch of roots are pushing forth, which will delight in new 
compost, and the plants will soon become re-established. Peat and 
sphagnum moss in equal proportions suit them best. See that they are 
made quite steady, and water very carefully for a time. Cold and a 
damp atmosphere produces black marks on the leaves, which is most 
unsightly, and spoils the handsome foliage. A temperature ranging between 
50 and 6o° is best, it should not fall below 50 if possible. 

Repotting Orchids, as is well known, cannot be done with impunity, as 
when done it must be done thoroughly, whereby every root is disturbed, 
and this, as may be expected, always gives a check to growth for a longer or 
shorter period ; the former if performed at the wrong time, and the latter if 
at the right, which in most cases is when the plant is finished blooming, 
and again commences to grow. Therefore it is a matter of great importance 
to catch each plant at the right time. Top-dressing, however, is quite 
different in this respect, as it is not in the least necessary to disturb the 
roots by so doing. All that is required is to carefully prick off the old 
surface, and replace with clean and fresh material, which not only gives a 
much smarter appearance, but is very beneficial, as the sweet compost about 
the roots seems to impart renewed vigour. Such plants as will not need 
repotting during the coming season may accordingly be top-dressed at the 
earliest convenient opportunity, which will save a good deal of time later 
on, when there is less to spare. Odontoglossums and Oncidiums may be 


done, likewise Aerides, Vandas, Saccolabiums, Phalamopses, and some 

Disas having been watered very sparingly (luring the winter, and 
occupying a Cool house averaging about 50', and a position near a 
ventilator so as to receive an abundance of air, will now commence to shew 
signs of growing more freely. Still continue to keep them moderately 
moist only at the roots, until the days lengthen and more air can be given, 
when water must be applied in larger quantities. The best time to repot 
Disas is immediately after they have passed out of bloom in August. The 
compost should be sandy peat surfaced with sphagnum moss. 

The flower sheaths of some Cattleyas will occasionally lose their green- 
ness and become quite dry long ere the flower spike is due. This fact often 
occasions uneasiness on the part of the cultivator, who imagines that the 
flower spike is already doomed, or will be unable to push itself up when the 
time comes round. No fear, however, need be entertained in that direction, 
as the spike, if the sheath is not interfered with, will come just the same. 
Should the fleshy sheath, however, turn pulpy just at the time the flower 
spike is pushing up, then it is better to cut off its top, so as to admit the 
air to the young tender flower buds, otherwise thev sometimes decay. 

I am extremely sorry to learn from several quarters that the Cattleyai 
fly is still plentiful. So far as I am aware it is quite useless to fumigate' 
with a view of killing it. I have heard of a house of Cattlevas bring fumi- 
gated every night with tobacco paper for twelve months, whirl, had not the 
slightest effect upon the fly. I have often wondered how the Cattleyas 
looked at the expiration of the twelve months. Possibly the new " XL All 
fumigating insecticide " might kill them, but I strongly suspect that they 
are too securely hidden away from its fumes. There would be no harm in 
hying ,t at intervals, and especially so with newly-imported specimens, for 
then, before they are potted, the fumes could thoroughlv penetrate the mass 
and possibly have the desired effect. Having no fly here to deal with, I 
have had no occasion to try the above method. The only way that I know 
at present of stamping out this much-to-be-dreaded pest is by destroying 
its larva, and for the benefit of new subscribers I may here repeat previous 

ltS kT S ^ nCe may be detected " h,n ''"' young break or growth is about 
If h ' Kh ' aS " becomes ^normally thick at the base and tapers some- 
nat more to a point than usual, the growth afterwards making but little 

progress. When such growths are observed they sh I be cut off, and. 

en oone, in its centre the young grub will be found in a more or less 
breed ^ " ^'^ » this w;1 > =»' ""— ' "''eek to their 
infeste7 ' S Tt & ' ;uld much lwr "< to the plants prevented. Should an 
infested growth be overlooked, and the msee, e ' ,0 maturity, a great 


amount of damage will be done for another year. When baying newly 
imported Cattleyas look well into them and search for imperfect pseudo- 
bulbs and examine them closely to see if the fly has been the cause of the 
mischief, and if so, a hole will be found somewhere near the base of the 
crippled growth, from whence the fly escaped on reaching maturity. It 
does not follow that the plant is still affected, but it is probably so, and 
should be kept under strict surveillance. 


Barthoi.ina pectinata, R. Br.— Bot. Mag., t. 7450. 

Catasetum Christyanum, Rchb. [.—Gard. Chron., Nov. 23, pp.617.618, 
fig. 104. 

Cattlkya x Mantini.— Jcmm. of Horl., Nov. 28, p. 503. fig. 76. 

Cymbidium longifolium.— Gard. Mag.. Dec. 7, p. 783, with fig. 

Cypripedium x Marchioness op Salisbury.— Jovm. of Hart., Dec. 5. 
p. 527, fig. 79. 

Dendrobum Treacherianom, Rchb. l—Journ. of Hon.. Dec. 19, p. 
57i, fig- 87. 

Lueddemannia triloba, Rolfe.— Card. Chron., Dec. 14, p. 713, fig. 118. 

Miltosia VExii.LARiA.— Gard. Chron., Dec. 21, p. 743, fig. 125. 

Selenipedium X Dalleanum, Andre.— Rev. Hurt., Dec, p. 548, fig. 

Trichopilia brevis, Rolfe.— Gard. Chron. . Nov. 30, p. 641, fig. 105. 


At the Royal Horticultural Society's meeting at the Drill Hall, James 

Street, Westminster, on November 26th last, Orchids were exhibited in 

rather smaller numbers than usual. th-ni^h several interesting things were 

The President, Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. 
White), received an Award of Merit for the fine hybrid Cypripedium X 
platycolor, raised from C. concolorand C. Stonei platytamium. It bore an 
inflorescence of three flowers and one bud, cream white flushed with rose. 
and with numerous minute purple dots on the sepals and petals. He also 
received a Botanical Certificate for Arundina chinensis lA. Philippii). 

T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield, Manchester (gr. Mr. Johnson), 
received an Award of Merit for a fine variety of Cattleya Dowiana called 
marantina, in which the petals were a good deal marbled with rose, and the 


sepals somewhat suffused with a coppery tint. He also sent Cypripedium 

X plumosum (C. barbatum X C. X oenanthum superbum). 

G. E. Palmer, Esq., Springfield, Trowbridge (gr. Mr. Richman), received 
an Award of Merit for the pretty hybrid Cypripedium X Madeline (C. 
bellatulum X C. Argus), with yellowish white flowers tinged with lilac and 
spotted with purple. He also sent C. X Seegerianum, C. X Dibdin, and 

F. W. Moore, Esq., Royal Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, received an 
Award of Merit for Masdevallia Chimajra aurea a form with large patches 
of yellow on the lateral sepals, and a Botanical Certificate for a fine form of 
Calanthe versicolor, Lindl. He also sent Odonloglossum prastans and the 
fine yellow Phaius Blumei Bernaysii. 

S. Clark, Esq., Oak Alyn, Wrexham, sent a fine form of Cattleya 
Triana;, with crimson feathered mark on the petals. 

The Marchioness of Londonderry, Plas Court, N. Wales (gr. Mr. 
Gribble), sent Laslia anceps. 

C. J. Lucas, Esq., Warnham Court, Horsham (gr. Mr. Duncan), showed 
Cypripedium X wafnhamense. 

T. W. Swinburne, Esq., Corndean Hall, Winchcombe, sent Cypripedium 
X Wallaertianum (C. X Harrisianum X C. villosum). 

J. W. Temple, Esq., Leyswood, Groombridgr igr. Mr. Hristowe), sent a 
pretty hybrid Cattleya called C. X Miss Williams (C. Harrisoniana X 1 
Gaskelliana), with rosy lilac flower and a crimson blotch on the lip ; also a 
fine form of Cattleya labiata. 

Sir F. Wigan, Clare Lawn, East Sheen (gr. Mr. Young), sent fine cut 
spikes of Barkeria Lindleyana and Ladio-cattleya X William Murray. 

Messrs. Veitch & Sons. Chelsea, exhibited Epidendrum X Wallisio- 
cdiare, together with its two parents, E. ciliare 5 and E. Wallisii 3 , the 
hybrid obtaining an Award of Merit. They also received a Botanical 
Certificate for the singular but brilliantly-coloured Dendrobium subclausum, 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, received a Silver Banksian Medal 
for a fine group, including a fine series of hybrid Calanthes, as C. X bella, 
C. X Bryan, C. X Olive, C. X Florence, C. X Harold, and C. X William 
Murray. Also the handsome Pescatorea Lehmanni, P. KlabochoruBS 
Bollea Schrcederiana. Aganisia ionoptera, Brassia ' Lewisii, Miltonia 
Schroedenana, Odontoglossum bictoniense album, Sophronitis grandi- 
ora, Lad.a autumnalis alba, Habenaria Susanna:, ,'F.onia polvstachya, X Leeanum, Bulbophyllum crassipes, some fine hybrid 
Cypnpediums, Phaio-calanthe X Arnoldiana, and P.-c. X Berryana, the 
latter an interesting hybrid derived from Phaius Humblotii ? and Calanthe 
Masuca $ , with bright rose-coloured flowers intermediate in shape. 


Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Upper Clapton, sent several interesting 
plants, including the rare and handsome Oncidium X hematochilnm, 
Phalaenopsis X intermedia Portei, some hybrid Cvpripediums. eic. 

Messrs. Linden, L'Horticulture Internationale, Brussels, showed 
Cattleya maxima, and the handsome Catasetum x splendens imperiale, a 
First-class Certificate being awarded to the latter. 

The last meeting of the year was held on December toth, when a good 
number of interesting exhibits were staged. 

The President, Sir Trevor Lawrence, Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. White), 
sent a fine specimen of the rare Dendrobium Treacherianum, bearing three 
racemes and twenty-three flowers, to which both a First-class Certificate 
and a Cultural Commendation were given. A noble specimen of Angnecum 
pertusum, with eighteen racemes, also received both a Botanical Certificate 
and a Cultural Commendation. Masdevallia macrura also received an 
Award of Merit, while Mormodes Lawrenceanum and Masdevallia pachyura 
both gained Botanical Certificates. Other exhibits were Bulbophylhim 
grandiflorum. Dendrobium Ccelogyne and La;lia rubescens, with its white 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham (gr. Mr. Hallantine), sent a 
very fine collection of cut Cypripediums, representing sixty different kinds, 
to which a Silver Banksian Medal was awarded. Among the more striking 
ones were C. insigne Sandera, and C. i. Sanderiana, C. X T. B. Haywood, 
and a fine variety of the same, C. X Arthurianum, C. X Mrs. Canham, 
&c. The rare ( rel.^vne Arthuriana was also sent. 

J. T. Bennett-Poe, Esq., Holmewood, Cheshunt, received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a very pretty group, including a number of beautiful 
Calanthes, a very fine form of Lycaste Skinneri, a form of Lselia autumnalis 
with white side lobes to the lip, and a fine plant of Vanda ccerulea with 
richly-coloured flowers, to which latter a Cultural Commendation was 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., exhibited a fine form of Oncidium tigrinum, 
to which an Award of Merit was given. 

G. S. Ball, Esq., sent a particularly good Cattleya labiata alba, Cypri- 
pedium insigne Sandera;, and another charming yellow firm, with traces of 
purple spots on the dorsal sepal, called C. i. Ballianum. 

F. \V. Moore, Esq., Royal Botanic Garden, Glasnevin. sent Oncidium 

T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield, sent Ladio-cattleya X 
Tresederiana, a good form of L.-c. X elegans, and several fine Cypri- 
pediums, including C. X Leeanum superbum, C. X L. giganteum, C. X 
plumosum, C. X Xiobe, C. X Ariadne. &c. 

T. YV. Swinburne, Esq., Corndean Hall, Winchcombe, sent a pretty 


little group of Cypripediums, including C. X Swinburnei, C. X S. 
magnificum, C. Spicerianum with ten flowers, fine forms of C. insigne and 
C. X Leeanum, C. X Indra, and C. X Lady Hutt. 

H. Tate, Esq., Allerton Beeches, Liverpool, again sent the remarkable 
form of Cypripedium insigne in which the upper and lower sepals are alike 
in size and colouring. It appeared in one of Messrs. Sander's importations 
in 1892, and is evidently permanent. 

W. C. Walker, Esq., Percy Lodge, Winchmore Hill (gr. Mr. Cragg), 
sent Oncidinm prgetextum, Laslia rubescens, and Cypripedium Charles- 
worthii with curiously twisted sepals. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, staged a choice group, to which 
a Silver Flora Medal was given. It included Cvnibidium Traceyanum, 
Lfelio-cattleya X Pallas, L.-c. X Lady Rothschild, a fine hybrid from ' 
Lselia Perrinii ? and Cattleya Warscewiczii 3 , the pure white Calanthe X 
Harrisii, raised from C. vestita Turneri and C. X Veitchii, and others. 
The two latter hybrids each received an Award of Merit. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, received a Silver Banksian Medal 
for a good group, including a number of fine Calanthcs and Cypripediums, 
Odontoglossum nevadense, O. X Wilckeanum, O. X aspersum, Helcia 
sanguinolenta, Phaio-calanthe X Arnoldiana, and others. 

Messrs. W. L. Lewis & Co., Southgate, received an Award of Merit for 
a fine hybrid Cypripedium called C. X Ashtoni, derived from C. riliolare 
¥ and C. X selligerum majus 3 . 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Upper Clapton, sent a good group, including 
Cycnoches chlorochilon, two good forms of Cymbidiuni giganteuni, and 

Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son, Upper Holloway, included a good group 
of Cypripediums, in which C. X Pitcherianum and others were conspicuous. 


W. E. [.., Wimbledon. The small pale form of Sophronitis grandiflora is probably 
undeveloped, especially being the first bloom on an imported plant. Next year it may be 
different. Liclia pricstans, and not absolutely synonymous with I., pumila, though closely 
allied. Eulophia pulchra. Dendrobium linguiforme is an Australian species with small 
white flowers, «hich should be grown on a block and treated like other Australian species. 
Odontoglossum Munnewellianum, small. 

A. M. IS., N. Devon. Cypripedium Victoria-Maria;. 

G. H, California. There seems no reason to suppose that Cypripedium Stonei platy- 
ttrnium is a natural hybrid. It is probably an abnormal peloriate 1 ondition of the specie 5 * 
though i, seems difficult to explain the cause of the peculiarity. On one occasion one pel" 1 
of a flower reverted back to the normal form. 

W. J. R., Maghull. Many thanks. 

The Amateur Orchid 
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Subscriptions for 1896 are now due. 
Vol. IV.] FEBRUARY, 1896. [No. 38. 



an JllustrateC fll>cntbly Journal, g 


Dies Orrhidians 

Cypnik'dmms with identical name* 

:;i siamecse 
The Hybridist 

Lycaste x scboenbrtranemts 

ypripedium . enfieldense var. suffu 

Vitality of pollen 

Period of ripening of seed 

iun : 1: 



Calendar of Operations 


rirrhopetalum Kolhschildianum 



MAk-HAl.I 1! ROT HE 


The ORCHID REVIEW is published regularly a. the beginning 

The n Ed- '' ' ' ' '" '" Ui " nCt 

'■'■ ' ' "'. interesting subjects (which shout 

written on one side of the paper only), also portrait-, ,„•„ of rarities. 

addressed :-The .„„„, th OkcZ K i n I , f °[.™<™, *>1 

, should be crossed " & Co. 
:., II. and III. ran he suppli.,1 mi! 
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d III. can be supplied unbound at 12/-, or bound in cloth, 13/6, p« 
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""c N B„£ F u £1 c HIDACE0US PLANT& 


mHIS work contains descri ■ 

J- kiotnni, ,,| I! . . ,,,„;„„, their 0* 

i group of genera* 

r '■•*«'«.■, or 01 a group of genera. p 

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fi:i:ri\iky. is,,i.. 

The next meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society will lie held at the 
Drill Hall, James Street, Westminster, on February nth. when the Orchid 
Committee will meet at the usual hour of twelve o'clock, noon. The Annual 
General Meeting of the Society is held at 3 p.m., at 117 Victoria Street, foi 
the election of Council. Officers, Fellows, &c. 

With the hope of encouraging individual effort and original research, the 
Council of the R.H.S. offer medals, silver or silver gilt, according to merit, 
for the following (amongst others) : — 

(1) The best introduced Orchid not previously shown at any of the 
Society's meetings. Two classes — one for Amateurs, the other Open. 

1 o The best hybrid Orchid, raised and shown by an Amateur, with 
record of parentage, &c. not previously shown at anv of the Soeiotv's 
meetings. — A mateurs. 

<3> The best Orchid raised in this country, with record of parentage. 
&c, not previously shown at any of the Society's meetings.— Open. 

The above Special Prizes may be competed for ;it any meeting of the 
Society in 1896, except at the Temple and Crystal Palace Shows. The 
judging will be by points which will lie dulv kept and recorded, and the 
winnerwill be announced at the end of the season. All entries for the above 
must be made before 11.30 a.m. on the morning of the show, on a Spccuil 
Form, which may be obtained of the Clerk at the table. As many details 
as possible should be given about the exhibits. 

A flower of tlie pretty little Soprolaelia x beta, which was described at 
P ;l KC 333 of our second volume, has been sent by Messrs. James Yeitch ec 
Sons. It was derived from Ladia pumila Dayana ? and Sophronitis 


grandiflora 3 , and the flower is about intermediate between them, both in 
shape and colour. A similar remark may be made about the plant itself, 
according to a note from Mr. Seden, who, it is hanllv necessary to add, is 
the raiser. 

Flowers of the beautiful Dendrobium X euosmuin virginale, and of 
Cattleya X Pheidona are also enclosed, both of which have been previously 
recorded in these pages. The latter is the reverse cross of C. X Dominiana, 
of which it may be considered a marked variety, differing in its beautifully 
veined lip, in which respect it shows the influence of the pollen parent, C. 

A fine form of Odontoglossum crispum, sent by Messrs. Charleswoji 

& Co., has very broad sepals and petals, which makes the flower almost a 
complete circle. The petals are pure white, but the sepals and lip have a 

few reddish purple blotches in the centre. 

At a meeting of the Linnean Society, held on December roth, Mr. R. A. 
Rolfe, A.L.S., gave an abstract of a paper entitled "A Revision of the genus 
Vanilla," in which fifty species were enumerated, seventeen being new, in- 
cluding five previously confused with older forms. They were described i 
tall forest climbers, some of them leafless, generally of rather local distrib* 
tion, though the genus was found almost throughout the tropics. Tropical 
America could boast 29 species, against 11 in Asia, and 10 in Africa. Sis 
American species yield an aromatic fruit, and three are known in commerce, 
though only the Mexican V. planifolia was largely cultivated as an economic 
plant. The author outlined the morphology and mode of fertilisation of the 
genus, together with its affinities and geographical distribution. Some of 
the species were still imperfectly known, and it was even now uncertain 
which was the Peruvian plant mentioned by Humboldt eighty years ago as 
yielding aromatic fruits. The paper was illustrated by 'a series of 

A beautiful form of Cattleya Triana has bee,, sent by John S. Moss. Esg 
of Bishops Waltham, the segments being broad and well shaped, and the 
colour bright rose-purple, with a darker front lobe to the lip. and a bright 
orange-yellow throat. It approaches the variety Atalanta. 

A leaf of Cypripedium x Sy ndsiie, described at page i». is now sent 

from the collection of H. J. Ross, Esq., and, as suspected, shows a distinct 
combination of the characters of C. venustum and C. purpuratum, ttjj 
characteristic markings of the former being .■specially prominent on the 
upper surface, though somewhat modified by the influence of the other parent. 


A series of articles on " Natural Hybrid Orchids," by Mr, K. A. Rolfe, 
is commenced in the Gardeners' Chronicle for January 25th, from which it 
appears that as long ago as [878 Visiani had called attention to the probable 
hybrid origin of Orchis x suaveolens, now known as Nigritella x suaveolens, 
Phalaenopsis X intermedia was the first recognised hybrid among tropica] 
Orchids, and Lindley correctly indicated its origin and parentage in 1853, 
before any artificially raised hybrid bad flowered. 

Catasetum X splendcns punrtatissinium. ilesrrihed at page 85 of our 
last volume, is characterised by having the petals densely covered with 
minute reddish-brown dots on a yellowish ground. A similar form lias 
appeared in the establishment of Mr. W. Bull, oi Chelsea, except that the 
minute dots extend round the limb of the gal. air lip. 

A good form of Cypripedium X Williamsianum comes from the collection 
of F. M. Burton, Esq.. of Gainsborough. It is derived from C. villosum ? 
and ('. venustum 3 , and was exhibited at a meeting of the R. II. S. on 
February 12th. 1S95, under the name of C. X refulgens a,, ml. Chrm., 
l &95> '-, P- 210). It most resembles the former parent. A second plant of 
the same name is a synonym oft'. X Adonis, and owing to the identitj of 
name the present one has also been confounded with this [Hansen Orcli. 

A very curious flower of Cypripedium Boxallii from the collection of 
Reginald Young, Esq., Sefton Park, Liverpool, has almost all the usual 
purple-brown absent from the lip. while the petals and dorsal sepal are 
typical in colour. A good ordinary form is sent with it. Messrs. Hurst & 
Son, Herbage Nurseries, Hinckley, also sends the latter, together with 
a fine flower of C. B. atratum, in which the dorsal sepal is vi rv huge 
and very richly coloured. 

A PLANTof this singular little species t-,:<prn I., p. 178) has appeared in the 
collection of E. H. Woodall. Esq.. f Scarborough. Mr. Woodall remarks 
that it branches freely from the lower part of the stem, making quite a pretty 
plant when in full flower. It is a native of Lag.-, and originally flowered 
at Kew in January. 1893. Its great peculiarity is the way the' tip of the 
spur usually remains tucked into the axil of the bract, thus compelling the 
spur to double up into a loop as it elongates. This, however, is not 
invariably the case, for if the spur frees itself it then becomes straight, and 
the question is which is the normal condition. 



An interesting experiment is being made by the Royal Horticultural Society 
in offering a series of special prizes for new plants of [896, " with the hope 
of encouraging individual effort and original research." Among other 
things, Medals are offered for the best introduced Orchid and for the best 
home-raised seedling, both in -pen classes and in others limited to amateurs. 
The competition will be ofa novel character, as it is to extend throughout 
tl e year, with the exception of the Temple and Crystal Palace shows, and 
"the judging is to be bj points, which will be duly kept and recorded, and 
the winners will be announced at the end of the season." I also note that 
" as many details as possible should be given about tin: exhibits, a. fulness 
and exactitude of information may decide the prize in case of equality of 
points •: but "the Committee reserve the right to withhold all or any of 
sidered worthy of marked honour." 
are not necessarily limited to novelties of 189.6, as the only 
limitation is that the plants shall not have been previously exhibited at any 
ot the Society's meetings. 

I am rather interested in this novel competition, and shall keep an eye 
open for future developments. The word '• New," for example, is mentioned 
in the conditions, and it will be interesting to observe how the term is 
denned. With respect to introduced Orchids, will it be limited to bomM 
new species or will varieties of well-known garden plants be also admitted j 
thlvTJr u rca f'^P ecia %' what steps will be taken to ensure that 

by recent 

1 respect to hybrids, is the competition to be limited 

p t new crosses, or will varieties of existing hybrids be also eligible ? 

oput it in another way, Is the competition still open to further crosses 

Between C barbatum and C. bellatulum, which have alreadv received 

Societ^v' ThC POmt " a " important one ' The ™ les drawn up by the 
ie ys omenclature Committee some few years ago probably cover 
SOmeof these noinls ,.j ;. -ii l • 
o„f„-_., , P - W '" ha "Cresting to note whether they are 

nforced or other 

one- ha 

sse rules have not always been observed, as I 
> point out, but in a competition of this kind no 

-"Ch laxity should be allowed, ami I w d suggest that exhibits not staged 

accordance with these rules should be disqualified. I shall doubtless 

recur to this subject as occasion arises. 

A correspondent again calls my attention to Cypripedium X MarchionJ 

ot Salisbury, and as it has a distinct bearing on the above question I may 
1 e tus remarks. " How is it," he asks, '• that the Orchid Committee 


should have recognised this name, and awarded a First-class Certificate, 
wh< n they changed the name of another plant of identical parentage from 
C. X Meteore to C. x Charles Richman before granting a similar award ? " 
I am unable to answer this very pertinent question, but it is satisfactory to 
note that others beside Ar^us have their eyes on this question. 

Last month I called attention to some remarks of a correspondent of 
the Garden, commending the principle of considering all hybrids from the 
same two species as forms of one, ami now the Gardeners Magazine also 

endorses the same idea, remarking that it is a gnat pity that this system is 
ii"t generally loll,, wed in naming hybrid Orchids, instead of the many eon- 
fusing names given to the numerous seedlings produced from identical 
parentage. And. by way of illustration, it alludes to Cypripedium X 
Charles Richman, raised from C. barbatum ami (. bellatuhmi. as having 
been before the Orchid Committee on four different occasions, each time 
under different names. The Orchid Review has adopted this view from the 
outset, and with such a growing concensus of ,, pinion in its favour, some 
improvement must inevitably result. 

[Continued from page 14.) 

The name Juno occurs first as a species from the Philippine Islands 
(K. II. Measures' List, May, 1890), and again as a hybrid from C. Fairie- 
anum 2 and C. callosum 3 ). according to the Royal Horticultural Society's 
List ,,f Plants Certificated, but the reverse cross as given in the Orchid 
Review (I., p. 327). 

The name Kimballianum also appears both as a species and as a hybrid. 
As a species it should be written C. prsestans Kimballianum, but the prefix 
is too frequently omitted. The hybrid is C. X Kimballianum, in all 
probability derived from C. Rothschildianum 9 and C. Dayanum 3 
(0. A'., III., p. 271). 

W. R. Lee, Esq., showed C. X Leo at the Drill Hall. 16th January. 
1894 (Gard. Ckrom, 1894, i.. p. 84), the parentage being doubtful, but 
believed to be a cross between C. Spicerianum and C. villosum, while in a 
Catalogue of Messrs. Protheroe & Morris, 24th September. 1895, C. X Leo 
is offered, with parentage C. X Wallaertianum 2 X insigne Chantini 3 . 

Messrs. Sander used the name C. X Macfarlanei for their hybrid 
derived from C. x calophvllum ? and C. Spicerianum 3 (0. A'.. I., p. 
326), and Messrs. VV. L. Lewis & Co. named the cross from C. Lowii ? 
and C. Lawrenceanum 3 C. X Macfarlaneanum, but seeing the probability 
of confusion by its similarity to the first-named, they promptly changed the 


name to C. x Patersoni. Mons. A. de Lairesse, in his Catalogue, No. 4, 

quotes C. x MacFarlanei as from C. callosum x Spicerianum. 

C. x miniatum was the name given by M. [ules Hye to his prettv 
hybrid C. Spicerianum ? x C. Fairieanum J . the same parentage as 
C. Niobe 10. R., I., p . !7I1 . and accordiDg to the c.arden, 19th January, 
1895, and the Gardeners Gimmick (1895, i. p. Igg) , Messrs . Sander have 
given the same name to a hybrid from C. Curtisii ? and C. insigne 3. 
The parentage of C. x Northumbrian is recorded in the Orchid ReM 
(vol. 1„ p. 294) as C. calophvlhm, , x insigne Maulei ,. : „„, M(:5srs . 
Charlesworth, in their 1895 Catalogue, mention C. X Northumbrian as 
from C. calophyllum J and C. X Lathamianum 3 . 

C. x Phoebe is the name chosen by T. Stutter, Esq., for his hybrid 
from C. philippinense ? and C. bellatulum 3 (0. A'.. III., p. ,27), and 
Mons A. de Lairesse in his Catalogue, No. 4, quotes C. X Phcebe from C. 
calophyllum ? and C. x vexillarium 3 . 

Two hybrid Cypripediums have been exhibited under the name of C. X 
Robert,, one from C. hirsutissimum , and C. villosun, 3 . is C. X 
Germinyanum 10. R.. II.. „ ,,,,, thu othcr fr(>m ( - |, irs , ltlss „ m „„ , and 
C msigne Wallace! 3, is a variety of C. X Alcides (0. R., II.. p. ,74). 
V >h S , ap P h °'. fromC - Lo ™ * and C. barbatun, 3. is recorded as a 
Veitchian hybrid ,n the Gardeners Chronicle , ,«,„. i.. ,, 200,. while Messrs. 
Charlesworth of Heaton, Bradford, have ,„ „'„.„ ,'s,,, (a,alo K „e C. X 
Sappho from C. Lowii s and C. superbiens 3 . 

C. x Savageanum from C. x Harrisianum s> and C. Spicerianum 3 

seco d I r P ' "I ^ rSiSed b> M '""- S ''" k "' r lV Tr "l'l' : '"" there is a 
r, ,! , \u aVageanUm r ™0"led in the GarA-Mm" Chronicle 1 1895. i., 
P- 370), with parentage C. x cenanthun, superbum J x Spicerianum J. 
n , ,, " ,, S ' fr ° m barbatum Crossii 2 and C. Godefroy* /.was 
xh.blted by Messrs. James Vcitch * Son,, on the x 3 ,h December, zS 94 
Sir'i V"' Whi ' e an ° ther h >' brid als ° bearing the name C. X 

—:.=„"- ?--'„"::'; <-» - - -* - 
ii"7L v z,M, b ^"f7"' r ■ '«"'•* ■" d ■ m "' 

Sander , 7 nUS fr ° m C ' niveum * and C - ins '8 ne 

latter S v V T arS in * hU ' ; '"*''''' V CWfe < l8 95, ■•■ P- MO), tbi 
S^rf T ^""^^--''-.S. HoissLuiun, .. Tins 
has been referred as a variety of S. x Brvsa „,. /,., ,,... p. 77,. 

ianl J Pr ' PedlUm X VeSta ' fr ° m C - x Harrisianum i and C. Spicer- 

( l8 95, i-, p. 201). ' ' 

C " X ^""landianinn, from C. x ( e„an,hn,„ , r ,„„-„-, 

appears in a catalogue of Messrs. Sandei & Co., and C. 
ianum from C. X wrnixium ? and C. x HarrisiaDum t, 
by .Messrs. Charlesworth. 

We note with pleasure that the experiment suggested at page 18 of our last 
issue, of proving the origin of this plant by crossing Cypripedium callosum 
and C. Appletonianum together, has been made in the collection of Reginald 
Voting. Esq.. of Scfton Park. Liverpool, and we shall await the result with 
great interest. Mr. Vonng. fortunately, had both species in flower, and at 
once made the experiment. 



A photograph and coloured sketch of a very pretty and most interesting 
hybrid has been sent by M. A. Van Imschoot, of Mont-St.-Amand, Gand. 
It was obtained by crossing I .alia harpophylla with the pollen of Cattleya 
amethystoglossa, the seed being sown in 1809, producing a single plant 
only, which has now flowered. It distinctly combines the characters of the 
two parents, though the influence of the Ladia preponderates, especially in 
the vegetative organs. The pseudobulbs are much stouter than in the 
mother plant, and bear a single oblong leaf. The inflorescence at present 
is two-flowered. The sepals and petals are lineardanceolate in shape, and 
cream-yellow in colour, with a few traces of minute rosy dots derived from 
C. amethystoglossa. The side lobes of the lip are closely wrapped round 
the column, and the front lobe spathulate-obovate, and veined with reddish- 
crimson from near the apex down into the throat, the ground colour being 
cream-yellow. The influence of the pollen parent is chiefly seen in the 
modification of the various organs and in the colour of the, flower. It is a 
very promising thing, and will probably improve as the plant becomes 

Cypripedium x Orpheus vak. Youngianum. 

A fine flower of a hybrid Cypripedium derived from C. callosum 9 
and C. venustum 3 has been received from the collection of Reginald 
Young, Esq., of Sefton Park, Liverpool. It is the reverse cross of the one 
called C. X Orpheus, which was raised by Messrs. Sander, but is 
sufficiently distinct to deserve a varietal name. The dorsal sepal is broadly 
ovate-orbicular, nearly two inches long, and with about 19 to 21 light green 
nerves on a white ground. The petals are _>i inches long, nearly straight, 


bright green near base, passing to re, Id i„h -purple l, iwa ,1~ 1 1 1. ■ a p. \. strongly 
ciliate, and with five wart-like spots on each upper margin ami two or three 
on the lower ones. The lip has almost the shape of ('. venustum, and 
bears a trace of the characteristic markings of that patent on a light purple- 
brown ground. The staminode is rather more ilk,' ('. callosum. The 
influence of the pollen parent is strongly marked in the colour of the dorsal 
sepal, as well as in the shape of the lip. 


\\ e have received a flower of a seedling Lycaste from the collection of 
G. S. Ball, Esq., Earlscliff, Bowden, Cheshire, which is believed to have 
resulted from a cross between L. Skinneri ami I., macrophylla Measures- 
iana. It is remarkably like L. X schtenbi unnensis, described at page 5101 j 
our first volume, though it may not have arisen from the same 
parentage. The second parent of that is a little doubtful. It was at first 
thought to be L. gigantea, but failing to see evidence of this in the hybrid, 
and thinking L. Schilleriana (which we have seen confused with it) more 
likely, we suggested it as possibly the other parent. We should like to be 
able to compare the two hybrids again, for they certainly bear a good 
deal of resemblance to each other, having the sepals and' petals strongly 
suffused with rose-pink, of a glaucous hue, and the lip covered with minute 
crimson dots. The above identification may be regarded as provisional 


The original Cypripedium X enfieldense was raised in the collection of 
A. J. Hollington, Esq., of Enfield, bv Mr. Avling. from C. I.awrcnceanum ! 
and C. Hooker* 3. The same cross was made in the collection ofF.| 
Burton, Esq., of Gainsborough, and on flowering received the name of 
C. X suffusum. A Bower has now been sent by Mr. Burton, which shows 
that it chiefly differs from the original in having the dorsal sepal almost 
suffused throughout with reddish purple, and the petals ...ore nearly 
approaching C. Hooker*, in shape and colour. Another of the seedlings 
ako sent shows more of the influence ofC. Uwrenceanum in the flower, 
and is nearer the original ('. x enfieldense. thus showing that variation 
which is so often observed among seedlings out of the same capsule T 16 
leaves are very strongly tessellated, as ,11 both parents, and all the fort* 

are very handsome. The variety suffusum, however, is much more richly 
coloured than the other, and thus deserves a varietal name by which* 
distinguish it. The scapes are rather tall, as in both parents. By H 

mistake the . parentage of this plant was g.ven at page , 75 of our nrs< 
volume as C. Lown J X C. Hooker.e J. 



A SERIES of beautiful Dendrobium (.huts lias been sent from the e.ille.-tinn "I" 
O. O. Wrigley. Esq.. Bury, to show the kinds now in bloom. They 
include D. crassinodc. I). l-uidlavammi. the handsome natural hybrid 1). 
erassinodi-Wardianum (also known as I). X mclanopthalnium). seven 
forms of D. nobile, and a very pretty seedling from the same whose history 
is not stated, but which is apparently D. X Ainsworthii roseuin. Anion}; 
the forms of D. nobile are several mentioned in the acconnt given in our 
last volume (pp. 147-150). together with one we do not remember to have 
met with before, called I), n. Rajah. It is much like D. n. albiflorum 
{supra, II., pp. 11 j, n 5 , Hi:. 12). but instead of the segments being 
pure white they are lightly Bushed with delicate pink, giving a very 
pretty effect. Thi sepals an, I petals are slightly shorter and broader, hut 
the lip convolute in the same way. 

A seedling Cyprip. (limn, believed to he from C. X lelianthiuil and a 
form of C. X Harrisianum -possibly Dauthieri is also enclosed. It is 
evidently a form of C. X Creon, but less richly coloured, and at present 
smaller, though possibly not yet fully developed. 


Vitality of Pollen. 

It is currently believed that Orchid pollen retains its vitality for a long 

time after removal from the [lower, but few actual experiments seem to be 

With Ladias and Cattleyas I have had four pods of good seed from 
pollen removed from the Bowers two weeks and more previouslv — namelv, 
L. Perrinii X C. labiata, plus L.-c. elegans alba, 14 days : C. Gaskellianax 
intermedia, 17 days : C. Percivaliana X velutina. 18 days : I., purpurata X 
C. intermedia, 30 days : L. grandis X C. intermedia, 33 days. At the same 
time I have failed ill thirty trials with pollen 15 to 30 days old : in twenty- 
seven trials at 30 to 60 days : and fourteen trials ho to tbo days. 

Will not some of our expert hybridists give as many instances as possible 
of good pods from pollen used three weeks or more after removal from the 
flower, and let us know if any particular condition- as todrvness, darkness, 
and ventilation, or the reverse — seem to lie of importance in keeping the 
pollen alive. I have generally us, : ,[ paper packets, ill a small tin box, and 
found no advantage in enclosing the pollen in nearly air-tight gelatine 
capsules till ready to use it. 

Peri.hi or Ripening of Seed. 

I note a great difference in the time required to ripen seed-pods, accord- 
ing to the species of pollen made use of. It seems to tend towards a mean 


between the normal ripening time of the two parents, as shown in the 
examples given below. 

I cannot give the average time for each species with its men pnlkn, not 
having experimented in this line sufficiently. The average given is that of 
all my own crosses, and hence is apt to he too high tor the quirk-ripening 
kinds and too low for the slow ones : hut it will illustrate the- point made. 
Only good pods have been considered — those containing at least some 
thousands of plump seeds. 

The seed parent is given in the left-hand column, and the pollen parent 
in the middle, each being followed by the average period of ripening of un- 
crossed capsules (where this is known), stated in months. The right-hand 
column shows the actual period of ripening of the hybridised capsules, in 
some cas< , three examples being recorded : - 

C. Tris 



C. amethystoglossa 

4J m. 


,, labiata 

.2j m. 

■Ji m. 

„ Lueddemanniana ... 


M i ,„. 

,, luteola 

9 tn. 

of, ">■ 

., Percivaliana 

I.J m. 

15 in. 

„ Schrcedera: 

14 m. 

14 m. 

.. Walkeriana 


L. anceps 

5t m. 

7*,. 9*. 

„ Dayana 

14 in. 

„ harpophylla + rlava 

7\ m. 

i.ii m. 

C luteola 

9 m. 

16. m. 

Triana: "im. 14),. 15*. 17"'- 

» velutina ? 9i "'■ 

L. anceps 5l m. 9t m - 

The soonest maturing pods, so far, have been of Bletia verecunda X 
Schomburgkia t.bicinis, ? i weeks, and the same X L. purpnrata, 6 weeks. 
The former seed began to germinate in considerable numbers, but was then 
lost : of the latter, I have one odd-looking plan, a tiny bulb growing out 
of the top of another of equal size-the lower one bearing root-lihres and 
the upper one a minute leaf. The seed was planted si* months ago. 
Oviedo, Florida, U.S.A., Theodore L. Mm* 

January Ijth, 1896. 

[These remarks are very interesting, and we I e others will be induced 

o send us their experiences. What is the real meaning of the ^nation in 
-."•nods of ripening between crossed and uncrossed capsule, seems a. 

" LM "' t """ 1 " ful <l -""K see ttnee ,,„,,„,, ,„,,,- 


ing of the latter is fairly midway between that of the two parent-. These 
are C. Triana- crossed with aniethystoglossa. with luteola, and with L. 
aneeps : and C. Percivaliana X L. anceps. In five others the period is 
longer than that of either parent— in some considerably so- from which it 
is evident that further observations are necessary. The four cases in which 
the period of maturing of the pollen parent is unknown cannot be cited 
either way. Further experiments might explain awav some of these 
apparent discrepancies. The seedling Bletia verecunda X Ladia 
purpurata we shall hope to hear of again. We would suggest that a number 
of flowers of some common species should be crossed with different things 
at the same time, ami the results recorded. We should be glad if Mr. 
Mead will kindly explain the phrases •• L. IVrrinii X C. labia t a plus L.-C. 
elegans alba " and "C. Trianae X L. harpophylla + flava," which we fail 
to understand. — Ed.1 

ClRRHOPETALl M RoTHScHN.DlANl M. O'Brien.— A very fine species which 
was exhibited by the Hon. Walter Rothschild at a meeting of the Roval 
Horticultural Society, on ( tctober 15th last, and received a First-class Certifi- 
cate- It is allied to C. ornatissimum and C. Collettii, but has larger 
flowers with much longer tails, and the prevailing colour crimson-purple 
with some yellow markings. It is believed to be a native of the hills beyond 
Darjeeling. — Gard. Citron., Now 2j. 1895, pp. 608, 609, fig. 102. 

L.hi ia X Finckkniana vak. Schrcedeioe. — A beautiful variety, which 
appeared in the collection of Baron Sir H. Schroder, the Dell, Egham, and 
said to differ from the original type in having a few thin purple lines at the 
base of the lip only, the rest of the flower being pure white.— O'Brien in 
Ganl. Ckrtm., Dec. 28, p. 762. 

EpiDENDRUM Bakhkyam'M. Kran/1.— A species bearing umbels of large 
green flowers, nearly two inches in diameter, much like thoseof E. latilabre, 

Lindl. It is a native of Costa Rica, and flowered 111 the collecti f M. 

W. l'.arbey. of Chambesy. Geneva. — Hull. Ihrh. Boiss. III., p. 607. 

RoDRIGUEZU INCONSPICUA, Kranzl.— A Costa Rican plant, with very 
small whitish flowers, which flowered in the same collection as the 
preceding. The author refers Lindley's Trichocentrum candidum to it as 
a synonym, but it does not bear the slightest resemblance to it, either in 
habit or character, that plant being a true Trichocentrum in every respect, 
except that the spur is nearly obsolete.— Bull. Herb. Boiss., III., p. 630, 


A short time ago m received some pseudobulbs of Cattleya labiata from 
a collection in North Devon, which were badly affected with the Cattleya 
fly, and now others come from Tynemouth ; also some of C. Triame. The 
plants were purchased from comparatively recent importations, and it is 
probable that tin: pest was thus introduced. Various measures have been 
tried to exterminate the pest, such as regular weekly fumigations, washing 
the plants with fir-tree oil, and rutting out and burning infected parts, 
but without getting rid of it. The plants are otherwise healthy. It is 
difficult to know what remedies to apply other than those already suggested 
[mpra, III., pp. 183, 215, and 288), and a better knowledge of the habits of 
the insect would be useful. Smoking is manifestly useless, except when the 

perfect insect comes out, 

for the larva; are perfectly protected by the 

enveloping tissues of the pit 

mt, and the same may be said for washing with 

fir-tree oil. Slight funiigati 

011s will kill the perfect insect, and if the time 

of its appearance were fcnov 

ii these could be given nightly, if necessary, 

during this period. Cuttinj 

j off and burning the affected parts, but in some 

cases this would mean rr 

imitating tin- plant considerably. One young 

pseudobulb sent, for examp 

le. shows in. less than five small circular holes 

where perfect insects have t 

imaged, though otherwise there is very little to 

show the presence of the en 

emy, and onU a person who lias had experience 

of the insect would have previously detected it. Yet when the holes are 

seen, the insect has gone, 

and is probably laying eggs elsewhere for a 

renewal of the evil. Cuttin 

g off and burning this pseudobulb would have 

done no good, for, on maki 

ng sections, the cavities where the larva; lived 

are all found to be empty. 

On the other hand, the bulb and leaf, though 

a little damaged, are still ci 

ipable of carrying on the nutrition of the plant. 

Another shows an 1 xternal 

swelling, but no hole, and in this the white 

larva: are found within the 

cavity. In this case burning would have been 

effectual. If such » ;; ; . 

g were punctured with an awl. and then a little 

tir-treeoil injected '-, n ■ a 

i- of a spraver. with a -lender 11 etrd tnhc which 

v .' "" '' A! >- '"-' detected 1,1 time. It would a,. pear that if the 

aid 11. the very young growths they soon become swollen, and the 
of the enemy is soon manifest ; but if the pseudobulb is already 
ed. the mischief is not so easily detected. The eggs arc' also laid 
1,8 roots > when ? Rail-like swelling quickly appears, which can be 
th comparatively little damage to the plant. 

lsect is known as Isosoma Orchidcar and we have collected 

what little information seems to be on record respecting it for a 
te. Meantime, we should be glad if those who are troubled with 


it would relate their experience. It would be interesting to know in what 
Way it most attacks the plants, what time the perfect insect emerges, if 
more than one brood a ytsar occurs, and especially any measures which 
have been successful in stamping out this troublesome pest. A knowledge 
of its habits would he of material service in battling with it. 


I no not think that any hard and fast rule can be laid down as to the best 
Way of growing Cypripedium bellatulum and kindred species, but as some- 
one has been kind enough to say that I " grow bellatulum and its allies 
really well," I will state as briefly as possible the course of treatment 
adopted by my gardener, Mr. T. J. Poyntz. First, as to potting material, 
a mixture of loam, nodules of limestone, and old mortar rubble is used, 
peat and sphagnum moss being dispensed with altogether, which compost 

Godefroya;, and niveum are all reported as having been found on limestone 
rocks, this treatment appears reasonable enough. With regard to watering, 
Mr. Poyntz has recourse to dipping— that is, he dips the baskets and pots 
in which the plants are growing, so that the water just comes up to the 
base of the leaves, and this is only done occasionally, when the material 
has become excessivelv dry. Water getting into the axils of the leaves is 
so destructive to this particular class T Cvpripedium that he abstains 
entirely from watering overhead. I am aware that this method of supplying 
them with water is not according to nature, as they could not be so 
supplied iu their native habitat, but there they are not covered with a glass 
roof, and probable the son and air soon dries up the moisture deposited on 
the plants bj rain showers. 

Cypripeditims concolor, Godefroya;, and niveum all do best with me in 
a stove temperature, on that side of the house away from the direct rays of 
the sun ; and the way in which a plant of Cypripedium Godefroya; has 
flowered regularlv with me since iSSN the way a Cvpripedium concolor has 
recovered from almost deal!; and become a sturdy plant, and the general 
appearance of my Cypripedium niveums. all bear testimony to the efficacy 



A coNSinKKAnLK number of novelties citlu r flowered or were described for 
the first time during 1895, both of species and hybrids, and if each succeed- 
ing year diminishes the chances of discovering showy garden plants among 
the former, this is fully counterbalanced by the steady progress attending 
the efforts of the hybridist, whose achievements during recent years have 
been remarkable in many respects. 

Among introduced species we may commence with the remarkable 
Bulbophyllum grandiflorum from N'ew Guinea, long known to science, 
which flowered for the first time in cultivation in March last, in the collec- 
tion of Sir Trevor Lawrence. Bart. Dendrobium speciosissimum, now 
described for the first time, is a remarkable Bornean species, allied to D. 
formosum, which was discovered by Sir Hugh Low on his ascent of Mt. 
Kina Balu in 1851, and has now been introduced both by Messrs. Hugh 
Low & Co. and by Messrs. Sander, both of whom also flowered it. Den- 
drobium sanguineum, introduced by Messrs. Low from Labuan, is 
remarkable for its crimson flowers, which, unfortunately, are rather short- 
lived. Cirrhopetalum Kothschildianum, the finest species in the genus, 
flowered in the collection of the Hon. Walter Rothschild, at Tring Park. 
Ccelogyne Veitchiana is a species with pendulous racemes of pure white 
flowers, introduced by Messrs. James Veitch & Sons. Lueddemannia 
trdoba is one of Lehmann's introductions, which flowered in the collection 
of Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., as is also Odontoglossum aspidorhinum. 
Cypnpedium X Littleanum is a remarkable natural hybrid, which flowered 
m the collection of H. Little, Esq., of Twickenham, and was figured 

1 described in these pages. Cymbidium X Kimballianum is a reputed 

appeared with Messrs. Sander. Bollea Schrcederiana 
Angracum Eichlerianun 

e additional varieties of Catasetun 
ad the remarkable Luisia Cantharis 

natural hybrid \ 

also appeared with Messrs. Sander, 

stylosum, Batemania peruviana, Lycaste Dyeriana, Maxillana Mooreana, 

and some others. Dendrobium velutinun, and Cryptophoranthus 

oblongifohus flowered with Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Trias disciflora, 

Dendrobium inflatum, ; 

splendens with Messrs. I 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Cc 

Several interesting botanical novelties flowered at Kew, as Catasetun 
Lemosii, Bulbophyllum pteriphilum, Ornithidmm nanum, Angr*CU» 
smith,, Pleurothalhs rotundifolia, and Eulophia deflexa. Lanium Berkelev, 
flowered with Major-General Berkeley, Oncidiun, panduratum with Wclbore 
S. Ellis, Esq., Maxillariaparvawith C. Ingram, Esq., and Cirrhopetalum 
g acilhmum with T. R. jarvis, Esq., of Chelmsford. Megaclmium 
nscnootianum and Sarcochilus crassifolius flowered with M. A. Van 


Imschoot, of Ghent : Notylia brevis and Cirrhopetalum Whitei with Sir 

Trevor Lawrence. Bart. : Polystachya villosa. Cryptophoranthus minutus. 
Sarcanthus auriculatus. and three species of Cirrhopetalum. with Mr. |. 
O Bnen. Some of these had flowered on previous occasions, but were now 
described for the first time. 

Varieties of well-known species are continually appearing, the most 
remarkable of last year being the beautiful Cypripedium bellatulum album. 
which flowered in the collection, of Sir Frederick W'igan. The distinct 
buff-yellow variety of C. insigne called Laura Kimball, from the Kimball 
collection, may also be mentioned, while various others have been recorded 
in our pages from time to time, which we have not space to enumerate. 
Turning to the hybrids we find a rather extensive list, and here again we 
can only enumerate the more interesting and remarkable of the numerous 
forms which have appeared. The prize for the best hybrid of the year was 
secured by X. C. Cookson, Esq., with Phaius X Cooksonse (P. grandifolius 
? X P. Hmnblotii 3). Dendrobium X Murrayi mobile 2 X albo- 
sanguineum 3 ) and D. X Astra:a (luteolum J X crassinode 3 ) also came 
from the same collection. 

Laslio-cattleya X Darwiniana (L.-c. X elegans Turneri 2 X maxima 
3 ) and L.-c. X ELsteadensis (C. bicolor 2 X L. xanthine 3 ) came from 
the collection of C. Ingram, Esq. Cattleya X Lady Ingram (Eldorado ? 
X Dowiana aurea 3 ) and C. X Cecilia (Lawrenceana 2 X Trianaj 3 I are 
two other beautiful forms from the same collection. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons have again added several remarkable 
hybrids to the list, two of the more remarkable being Dendrobium X illustre 
(chrysotoxum 2 x pulchellum 3) and Phalsenopsis X Luedde-violacea. 
Other striking forms are Cattleya x Eros (Mossia: 2 X Walkeriana 3 ), 
C X Eurydice (labiata J X Aclandia 3 I, Uelio-cattleya X Lady Roths- 
child (L. Perrinii 2 X C. Warscewiczii 3). L.-C. X Myra (C. Triana 2 
X L. flava 3 ), L.-c. X Eunomia (L. pumila Havana 2 X C. Gaskelliana 3 ). 
L.-c. x Semiramis (L. Perinii 2 X C. Gaskelliana 3 ), and Calanthe X 
Masuco-tricarinata, besides several good Cypripediums. 

Among the fine hvbrids raised b\- Messrs. Sander may be mentioned 
Cattleya x Fowled (Leopold! 2 X Hardyana 3 ) and C. X Miss Measures 
(Lueddemanniana 2 X velutina 3 ). Lielio-cattleya X D. S. Brown (C. 
Triana; 2 X L.-c. X Schilleriana 3), and L.-c. C. G. Roebling (L. 
PUrpurata 2 X C. Gaskelliana 3), Sobralia X Amesia; (xantholeuca S X 
Wilsoni 3 ), and several fine Cypripediums. 

Masdevallia X Leda is a pretty little hybrid from M. Estrada: 2 and 
M. Arminii, raised by Captain Hincks. Dendrobium X gemma, from the 
collection of C. Winn, Est]., was obtained by crossing D. aureum 2 and 
0. superbum Hultoni ,7 • and Seleninedium X Finetiamim, from the 


collection of M. F. Finet, is descended from S. X cardinale ? and S. 
caudatum 5 . Two other L;elio-cattlcvas were described in these pages— 
namely. L.-c. X Trentonensis (L.-c. elegans J X L. pnmila 1 ), from the 
collection of the Hon. C. G. Roebling, and L.-c. X Andreana (C. bicolor ? 
X L.-c. X elegans). from the collection of M. Fournier, of Marseilles. 

Several Cypripediams h.iv. also been recorded from private collections 
during the year, ami glancing back through our pages we note the following : 
C. X Henry Graves I C. Lawrenceanum ? X C. X Marshallianum 3), 
from the collection of H. Graves, Esq.: G. X Louisa- (possibly derived 
from C. x Leenaum and G. X Ashburtonia), from R. lc Doux, Esq.; C. 
X St. Hilda (Boxallii $ X Curtisii 3), C. X conco-callosum and C. X 
calloso-niveum, from R. H. Measures, Esq. : G. x Hurrellianum (Argus S 
X Curtisii i ). from G. G. Roebling, Esq. ; C. X Rossianum (derived from 
C. barbatum and C. tonsum), from H. J. Ross, Esq. ; C. X Vannera: (C. 
Curtisii J X C. X selligerum majus <? ), from W. Vanner, Esq. ; C. X 
Atropos (C. X Ashburtona: expansum J x C. purpuratum $ ), from 
Reginald Young, Esq. : and others. C. X Mabelia; var. Lord Derby, 
which flowered in the collection of T. Statter, Esq., is the finest of the 
hybrids derived from C. superbiens J and C. Rothschildianum 1 . 

The foregoing are among the principal novelties of the year. A few 
may have been overlooked in this rapid survey, but others, which are known 
to be either synonyms or varieties of existing forms, have been purposely 
omitted, both among species and hybrids. Synonymous names are in- 
creasing far too rapidly. 


of this handsome little plant has been 
sent by Messrs. Janus Witch & Sons. Its history was given in our first 
volume (pp. „6, 29 i), hut we may again allude to' the remarkable way in 
which the character of the mother plant has been lost. It was obtained by 
crossmg Sophronit.s grandiflora with the pollen of E pidendrum radicans, 
the latter as many feet high as the former is inches, yet the influence of the 
Sophronitis is only apparent in the much dwarfed habit of the hybrid 
offspring. The structure of the flower is precisely that of Epidendrum 
radicans, enlarged to r} inches diameter across the petals, and the colour 

■ would have guessed 

t received a First-class Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society c- 
June j 4 th. 1890. We should like to see what would be the effect of 
ieversing the cross, as well as of again crossing the Sophronitis with pollen 
of the present hybrid. The result in either case would certainly be 






The phi 

it depicted in 

our ill 

ustration i 

lit;- 4» ' s a very beautiful hybrid 

• Mr. Bond ii 

1 the « 

C. Ingram, Esq., Elstead House. 


ng, from Laeli 

a pumi 

la Havana 

5 and Cattleya Dowiana aurea J. 

It was ei 

.hibited at a n 


of the Roj 

■al Horticultural Society on August 

i)th. i8g 

z, when it r 

a First-c 

lass Certificate. It possesses [in 


able combina 

" the chart 

ctcrs of the two parents, as will 

be seen 

by the Must 


in which. 

however, the sepals and petals 


to be white i 


of rosy-IB 

auve — a peculiarity often seen in 

photographic represen 


of this and allied colours. The s> pol-. and 


Petals are larjje and broad, and 
of the Lalia parent, shows al> 
shape and in its rich coloration. 
mother plant. It is a very h: 
seedlin-s raised from L. pumila 
from a photograph taken hv M 
times the peduncles bear a 

p. while taking some of the character 
t influence of the Cattleya. both in 
its dwarf habit it most resembles the 
me plant, and one of the best of the 
ana. Our illustration is reproduced 
Upper Clapton. Some- 


mple of flo 



Few Orchids are more popular in gardens than Ladia anceps, and its 
varieties have now become so numerous that a connected account of them 
will probably prove interesting to our readers. (Vein whom numerous 
forms have been received in this and preceding seasons. On former 
occasions we have treated other popular and variable species in the same 
way, notably Cattleya Trianae and C. labiata, Cypripedium insigne, and 
Dendrobium nobile, and we have the satisfaction of knowing that these lists 
have been much appreciated. 

Ladia anceps was originally described and figured in 18.55 <L'"dl. in 
Bot. Reg., XXI., t. 1751), from a plant which flowered in the establishment 
of Messrs. Loddiges, of Hackney. Two years later the variety Barkeriana 
appeared, after which came a long interval of about thirty years before 
Dawsoni came to light in 1868, and about ten years later commenced a 
series of brilliant acquisitions, which has been gradually growing up to the 
present time. 

The typical form has rose-purple sepals and petals, and a much darker 
lip, the throat brio" pencilled with radiating purple lines on a lighter 
ground. 1.. a. morad . '<- < .. 1892, ii.. () . t > 7 > 1 is synonymous. 

Var. Barkeriana ~I,:>!.ii. r,. : . /,<.,... ,. ,, M7 , „„ ly differs f rorn t he type 
in having the petals very little broader than the sepals. It flowered in the 
collection of G. Barker, Esq., of Birmingham. 

Scottiana {Will. Orel,. All,., VII.. ,. 325), , n:lv be described as a good 
form of the type with flowers a little darker than usual. It flowered with 
W. A. Scott, Esq., Nunfield, Dumfries. 

Var. obscura (Rchb. f. ex Will. Orch. Cr. Urn., ed. 7. p. 430) is described 
--■ having long dark-coloured sepals and petals, the former white at the 

base, and the front 

deep pnrplt 

Var. lineata (O'Brien in G. C, 1895. ii., p. 7M) is a richly-coloured form, 
in which the basal halves of the sepals are white, with some clearly-defined 
chocolate lines. It appeared in the collection of' Lord Rothschild, at Tring 

Protheroeana (O'Brien in G. C. 1896, i., p. 4 o) is a brilliantly-coloured 
form, with the sepals and petals white at the base, and the petals with a 
flame-like crimson flush on the outer halves. It flowered in the collection 
of Joseph Broome, Esq., of Llandudno. 

Schceders (Rchb. f. in G. C, (887. i., p. 7,) has flowers light rose wil 
rose-purple tips to the petals ; the sale lobes being bordered with rose- 
purpk^and the front lobe deep purple. It flowered with Baron Schroder. 

Ballantineana (G. C., ,891, i., p. 86) has the flower lightly suffused with 


crimson-rose, a little deeper on the petals, bee ing ,piite dark at the tips. 

and the lip rich crimson. It flowered in the collection of litiion Schredet. 
— F.C.C., R.H.S..Jan. t.j. 1891. 

Var. grandiflora I Will. Orch. Gr. Man. ed. fi. p. .451) is typical in form and 
colour, but has much larger Bowers.— G. C, 1888, i.. pp. 105. 07. 6g. 17. 
The forms called Chamberlain's var. (0. K.. III., p. 1) and Rosefield rar. 
(p. 34) are very similar. 

Crawshayana (Journ. ofHort., 1895, i„ p. 67, fig. 12) i, a very large, 
flowered rose-purple Conn allied to the preceding. F.C.C., RMS., Jan, 
15. 1805. 

Var. leucosticta (Kchb. f. in G, C, [885, 
which the petals are irregularly streaked wi1 
collection of Mr. Greenfield, of Dunstable. 

Var. radians (Kchb. f. in (i.e.. r88S.. i.. p. 298) is unieh like the pre- 
ceding, but has a white space at the base of the sepals ami petals. 

Oweniana (C, C, 1892, ii„ p. 744I is a richly-coloured variety, in which 
the segments are conspicuously flaked with white. It llouered in tin 
collection of G. D.Owen, Esq., of Rotherham. -Jmmt. of Hart., r8o2, ii., 
p. 569, Bg. 77. 

Dawsoni (G. C, 1868, p. 27) was the first white form, and appeared in 
the collection of T. Dawson Esq., at Meadow Bank. Glasgow. It has very 
broad, proportionately short petals, and a large deep purple blotch on the 
front lobe of the lip.— Q. A., I., t. 44. 

Var. vestalis (Kchb. f. in G. C, 1880, i., p. 126) approaches the pre- 
ceding in shape, but has the front lobe of the lip white, the purple 
pencillings on the side lobes alone remaining. It flowered in the collection 
of Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart. 

Hollidayana (O'Brien in C. C. 1894, i„ p. 166) is near Dawsoni, but 
has a shorter, broader lip. with a carmine-crimson blotch on the square 
front lobe. 

Amesiana (O'Brien in G. C 1888, ii., p. 660) has the shape and other 
details of Dawsoni. but the petals have a purple feathered tip. It appeared 
with Messrs. Sander.—>«ra. of Hort. 1895. ii- P- 5<>5. fe 73- 

Var. alba (Kchb. f. in G. C. 1879. i., p. 10) is an albino, having lost the 
purple pencillings on the side lobes of the lip. In shape it has been 
compared with Dawsoni, but there is a similar form with comparatively 
narrow petals which goes under this name. An albino called virginnlis 
if ""rii. of Hon.. 1887.I, p. 42. fig. 7), which appeared with F. A. Philhrick, 
Ksq.. of Bicklev. has also petals 1} inches broad. 

Schrcederiana (Kchb. f. in G. C, 1885, i„ p. 34*) is a very large pure 
white form, with the petals and front lobe of the lip very broad. The 
lobes are veined with purple. It flowered in the collection of Baron 


Schroder.— 0. A.. X., t. 473.— L. A. Hyeana, Lindmia, V.. t. 266, is 

Ashworthiana (O'Brien in G. C, 1894, i., p. 103, fig. 10) has almost the 
shape and other details of the preceding, but the front lobe of the lip is 
sparingly pencilled with purple.— F.C.C., R.H.S., Jan. 16, 1894. 

Var. munda (Rchb. f. in G. ('., 1886, i., p. 298 , it is said, would be 
Schrcederiana, were not the yellow colour confined to the three keels at the 
base of the lip. It flowered with M. L. Kienast, of Zurich. 

Stella (Rchb. f. in G. ('.. 1886, i.. p. 136) is near Schrcederiana. but the 
petals and front lobe of the lip are a little narrower. It flowered in the 
collection of (.. ('. Hill. Esq.. ■■{ Nottingham, and immediately afterwards 
in that ofC. Ingram, Esq., of Godalming.— 0. .1.. VIII., t. 329. Mr. Catt 
{<:. (".. [890, 1.. p. 239), thinks till- identical with vcstalis. 

Williamskna (Sander ex Will.O. Gr. Man., ed, 6, p. 353), is rather 
smaller than the preceding, and wholly white, except the purple veins of 
the side lobes. It appeared with Messrs. Sander.— 0. A.. IV.. t. rep. 

Sanderiana (Rchb. f. in G. ('., 1885, i., p. 1401. has longer and narrower 
sepals and petals than Dawsoni, but is much like it in colour. It appeared 
with Messrs. Sander.— Reichenbachia, ser. 1, II., t. 56. 

Var. amabilis (Rchb. f. in G. C, 1888, i., p. 104) is said to have a little 
purple marking on the front lobe and angles of the side lobes, the petals 
being broad. It may come near the preceding. It appeared with Messrs. 


p. 445) is described as bavin? 

mailer than usual, white, with the tips of the side lobes light 
colour and two reddish purple stripes on either side of the mid 
rppeared with Messrs. Sander. 

na (Rchb. f. in G. C, 1886, i., p. 298), it is said, would 
be Dawsoni, but for the rosy hue of the fine broad petals. The side lobes 
"1" the lip are also tinted with rose. It flowered with M. L. Kienast, of 

Var. dehcata ( Will. 0. Gr. Man., ed. 6. p. i5 i) has the sepals and petals 
white, stained with rosy purple, and the lip suffused with reddish-purple. 

Calvertiana (Rchb. f. in (,. ( '., ,s S ,. j, ; p _ y8) _ is described as ne ar 
Dawsoni, except that the petals are narrow- the side lobes of the lip 
bordered with rose and the front lobe wholly red-purple. It flowered in 
the collection of J. Calvert, Esq., of Woo, 1 Green 

Var. blanda (Rchb. f. in G. C, ,885, ,.. p. *o6) has the sepals and petals 
white with a light rosy hue, and the front lobe of the lip warm purple. It 
linear Calvertiana, and flowered in the collection of W. Cobb, Esq., 
01 Sydenham. 

Percivaliana (Rchb. f. in G. C, l8 8 3 , ,.. p. tio) has the sepals and 


petals light rose-purple, the side lobes tipped with amethyst-purple, and the 
front lobe deep purple. It appeared in the collection of K. P. Percival, 

Esq., of Southport.— 0. A., VI., t. 256. 

\ ar. rosea (Rchb. f. in G. C. 1880, i., p. 104) has light rose sepals and 
petals, the margins ofthe side lobes and the front lobe rather darker. It 
appeared in the establishment of Mr. W. Bull, of Chelsea. -<;,m/e„. 1884, 

Hilliana (Rchb. f. in G. C, 1881, i., p. 168) has the sepals and petals 

nearly white, and the lip bordered with light rose. It appeared with Missis. 
Sander.— 0. A.. IV., t. 146. 

Veitchiana (Rchb. f. in G.C., i88j, i., p. 2741. has sepals and petals white, 
lip light mauve-purple. It appeared with Messrs. Veitch.— G«nfe», [884, 
i., t. 446, fig. 7. 

Var. holoehila (Rolfe in '.'. (.. 1891, i.. p. 426) is a remarkable peloriate 
form, in which the lip is entire and petal-like, and the flower pale rosy-lilac 
throughout. It appeared ai Ig importations of the Liverpool Horti- 

A flower of this handsome variety has been sent by F. M. Burton, Esq., 
Highfield, Gainsborough, together with a note on its history. It was 
obtained from C. venustum S and C. Hookera: 3 , and was exhibited at a 
meeting of the R. H. S. on November 14th, 1893, under the name of C. X . 
rubrum, though the name seems to have been omitted in our report. It 
was, however, recorded shortly afterwards (Gari. Chynn.. 1893, ii.. p. 74'- 
Then it was described as C. X Burtoni by the late Mr. Gower (Garden, 
XLV., p. i,Si). who thought C. Lowii was one ofthe parents, which, how- 
ever. Mr. Burton corrected (I.e., p. 206). The leaves much resemble those 
of C. Hookera, and the scape is rather tall. The flower also is most like 
this parent, but the dorsal sepal has about nineteen light green nerves, as 
in C. venustum, the shape and ground colour approaching C. Hookera:. 
The petals are very similar to the last-named, but are flatter at the base. 
This part is light green, which gradually passes to the most brilliant purple- 
crimson in the apical third, the middle being spotted with dark brown. 
The lip has the shape and veining almost of C. venustum, though the latter 
'S partially obliterated by a suffusion of bronzy brown. The staminode is 
about intermediate in shape, and approaches the lip in colour. It is a well- 
shaped and brilliantly-coloured flower, and much the best we have seen from 
this parentage. Mr. Burton writes that he fully approves of the name 
above adopted, and thinks that it is based on the right principles. About 
twenty plants were raised, which commenced flowering when four years old. 


A very remarkable form of Cypripedium concolor has appeared in the 
collection of R. Brooman White, Esq., of Arddarroch, in which the 
petals are unusually long and narrow, being i\ inches long. The colour 
of the flower is light yellow, as in the type, and the dorsal sepal broadly 
elliptical-oblong, \$ inches long by i^ broad, the lower half being lightly 
reticulated with light purple-brown nerves in front, and a narrow dark 
line along the centre: spotted all over with a rather lighter shade behind. 
The petals each have a narrow dark line down the centre in front, and 
a few similar small spots near the base, while behind the nerves are 
covered with rows of minute purple-brown dots. The lip is ij inches 
long, and light yellow, with a few minute purple dots in front, and numerous 
ones on the side lobes. It is remarkably distinct in shape, but is 
evidently a variety of C. concolor. with which the foliage agrees. It 
was obtained as an imported plant about two years ago. 

R. A. R. 

WITH respect to this remarkable natural hybrid, described and figured at 
page 209 of the last volume, Mr. Hansen remarks, "Such nat. hyb. was in 
cultivation at Sander & Co., St. Albans, in l,S,S 7 . a water colouring of which 
I took at the time " (Orch. Hyb., p. 255). Is this identification quite certain ? 
If so, where is the plant now ? So fine a thing would hardly be lost, but 
Mr. Little's plant being an imported one. obtained from Mr. Tracey, of 
Twickenham, precludes the possibility of the two being identical. It would 
be mteresting to know the precise historv of the plant alluded to, and to 
see the drawing. If M r . Hansen knew of any record, he would have 
mentioned it, and it is desirable that the identification should be confirmed. 


Mai I be permitted I 

labiala which has re 

xainted for in the sa 
: parts, made up of t' 

The back sep 

is. two petals, and a column with two stamens. 

side petals are normal in colour, shape, and 

wo side sepals and the lip are wanting, a lower sepal taking 

the place of the latter. The 

shape somewhat like a long club, and bea 

nches long, perfectly straight 


in a line with the two sepals (anterior and posterior), two perfect anthers. 
Curiously enough the anthers are reversed, both facing inwards, the two 
column-beaks Ira/A) touching but free, overlooked by two column-wings, 
one on each flank, the hinges of the pollen-caps being as far apart as 
possible. I fail to find any trace of a stigma, but the overy is one-selled, 

The following diagram will pern ips show al a glance the position of 

S = Sepal. P = Petal. A = Anther. 
I might also state that the flower came alone on its pseudobulb, and 
without the usual sheath ; while another pseudobulb on the same plant is 
bearing two perfectly normal flowers. 

Personally, I wish to thank Mr. Rolfe for his very interesting and 
suggestive article, "The Structure of an Orchid Flower," in the December 
Review. When we see in the great family of Orchids so many varied and 
wonderful structures, each, apparently, being the means to an end, we 
cannot but wonder ;,7;v and hew thev came to be ; nnd although we may 
not yet be able to know why they exist, yet, thanks to modern research 
upon the lines adopted by that great naturalist, Charles Darwin, we are 
able, in a measure, to know how they came about: and by tracing 
the descent of the present-day Orchids to their probable source— the 
simple monocotyledon— we are able to get a little nearer to that more 
remote, but none the less interesting question, the origin of all forms 
of life. 

Charles C. Hurst. 

Burbage Nurseries, near Hinckley. 

[It seems highly probable that the organ called the "lower sepal" 
was the median petal unmodified into a lip, the more so from the fact of 
there being an additional stamen: and as this stamen occupies the 
position of a j, it would appear that both the lateral sepals and the 
corresponding stamens of the outer whorl— i.e., the side lobes of the lip- 
were suppressed. The alternative would be that these organs respectively 
were confluent in one, and the median petal absent, which is less likely, 
especially when one remembers that A 2 and A 3 are branches of the cords 
which feed the lateral sepals. It is a very curious and interesting flower, 
which we should have liked to have seen.— Ed.] 



The temperature ami general management of the plants for the present 
month should be as recommended for January, namely :— by treating them 
as liberally with air. warmth, and moisture a- the outside conditions will 
permit. Up to the time of writing, the weather for January has been 
quite exceptional for its mildness, enabling us to apply fresh air more freely 
than usual at this time of year, a fact which it is needless to add must 
promote a health) and beneficial effect. The atmosphere, too. considering 
its mild and damp nature, is tolerably clear, resulting in a good average 
amount of sunshine and light. Of course, as the days lengthen and the 
light increases so may the thermometer gradually rise, and a little more 
moisture be supplied, which will tend to encourage new growth. But by 
all means let everything in this direction be done gradually, or the result 
may be the reverse of satisfactory, for the weather just vet is not to be 
relied upon: and a spell of lovely warm spring-like weather may be 
followed by another of almost Arctic severity. It is at such times that 
those plants, having been hastened into growth, receive a check 
from which thev sonv tun. - ... vcr fnllv recover. 

The successful wintering of the plants in all departments necessarily 
depends largely upon the health and stamina which thev possess. No 
plant can remain vigorous if the compost in which it is growing is decayed, 
for it follows that the roots also will be more or less derived and when 
this is the case, a ven little drruwhl w,!l .me .,< . 'h.,„=,inn- 

Slze. To achieve this, neither excessive drying up in the winter is desirable, 
nor excessive watering during the summer : all that is required being a com- 
mon-sense method of treatment, which is one of moderation at all times, 

avoiding anything approaching coddling or excess in any direction. Under 
such circumstances strong plants will thrive, but it is the sick , mes which give 

months, unless specially cared for. By u;1 y of illustration let us sll| sc 

lave two I attleya.- : one is in vigorous health with plenty of roots in 
goo sound sweet compost, the other a weakly specimen having little or 
no roots, although in this ease the compost mav likewise be all that is 
necessary. In all probability the latter plant has' been allowed to get too 
bad before it was repotted, vvherebv its period of convalescence wall be 
greatly prolonged. It is only natural that such a "lint should demand at 
all times more attention For ;,, 

little more water during the 

It is such pla 

that must have < 

places in the fro 

them from view 

the whole a be 

frequently, they 

their recovery. 

so that their wai 

The orchid review. 37 

resting season would be required, or it would shrivel badly : it would want 
cleaning and freeing from scale and other pests move frequently than the 
strong one: and it eoidd not withstand s^. much bright sunshine. \e. 

lilts, that by some means or other have got down below pal. 
special attention if they Lire to survive and again take their 
nt rank. It is therefore anything but good practice ti> hide 
by placing them away behind other plants, in order to give 
tter appearance, for unless these weakly plants are seen 
invariably miss that extra attention so urgently needed for 
They should, if possible, be placed at some convenient place, 
nts can be the better supplied. 
The short-bulbed Mexican Ljelias are now past: they have indeed 
made a bold show for the last two months, and it is not easy to name a 
more useful family for mid-winter work, that is. supposing they are well 
grown; for if not, they are not nearly so satisfactory. On the whole we 
grow them pretty successfully, though there are one or two species which 
we would fain grow and flower better. The chief of these is that lovely 
L. furfuracea, which seems an especial slow one to grow properly. L. 
anceps is easilv lirst in freedom of growth ami (lower, and 1 think it must 
also take first place in point of beauty, especially the lovely white varieties. 
During the second week in January we had here out in bloom between 50 
and 60 spikes of the latter varieties ; one fine plant producing 19 spikes 
with a total of 73 flowers, an average of nearly four flowers to each spike. 
Several, however, had live full-sized flowers, the smallest number being three. 
This plant, of course, looked very handsome, and it it is needless to say that 
the whole of the bo spikes mingled with the few remaining coloured 
varieties of the same species made a very hue show indeed. I should, how- 
ever, here remark that all of the white Ladia aticeps do not yield flowers 
in such abundance. The above are the long-bulbed variety, having very 
dark green foliage and a bright coloured lip, I think generally known to 
the trade as L. a. Sanderiana. We have also other varieties not having 
this distinctive mark on the lip, which are equally rlorifcrous. but all have 
the long pseudobulbs and dark green foliage. There 
varieties which bear from one to two flowers on a spike on) 
very much from their value, and these have a much short 


typical anceps 

•mil, .r, 

id leaf. The cult 

ure of the Me 


„ Uelias,isontl 

whole, easv, 



in accordance w 

ith their very 

simple requirement 

There must 

t be to. 

3 much nursing 

r coddling, noi 


:st they be starve 

for the want 


or other simple 1 

tecessaries of life, 

such as repottii 

or re-basket 


required. I hav 

e occasionally 


n some where tl 

new growth 

r rathe 

r the last made 

pseudobulbs. ' 


■ overhanging tl 

sides of the 


:, the r 

:ew roots growinr 

; out into spa 

.vllere they soon 



or later come to grief. The ordeal of flowering to such plants is most 
exhaustive, and they soon afterwards collapse. I'nless I.adias have over- 
grown their pots or baskets, once in about three years is often enough to 
furnish new materials throughout, all else that is required being a top dress- 
ing every year. What is intended to be done to them, either in the way of 
repotting or top-dressing may be done during this or next month. It is 
well known that the Mexican Lielias require but little water during winter 

( ins end can lie attained the better if the plants are suspended near the 

The great and beautiful family of the Dendrobium is coming on apace, 
and will for some time hence do good service in the Show-house. Where 
good growth was put on last year, and afterwards well but wisely ripened, 
the flower buds will now be m a more or less advanced stage. Do not 
force or hurry them forward too much, the majority of the late winter and 
spring flowering kinds come much better and finer 'if allowed to come along 
quietly ma temperature of about 60 , receiving just enough water at the roots 

and atmospherically to keep the pseudobulbs plump. With the bulk of 
Dendrobes it is yet a little too early to do very much repotting, but there are 
instances where a start can be made so as to get as inanv as possible off hand. 
1 he seedlings yet too small to flower may be done and started gently into 
growth. There will doubtless also be others which are not intended to 
gth or size, which could also be done, 
1 as denied safe after flowering is over. 
Orchids be done with scrupulous care 
d the new roots take well to the com- 
and genial, between 60 ' and 70 , so as 
rth. Dendrobiums generally do best 
1 good culture is more reliable 

sllsp. nd, ,1 

when kept 

eptacles. Fresh sphagnum moss and the best of 

norous peat in equal proportions is the most suitable compost The 
back pseudobulbs render little -en ice off,.,- .,1 ,... .,.:.., .... r. n, , 


fourth year, 
the plant. These old pseudobulbs will mostly 
Igths of about three inches, and laid on sphagna" 
vrilP T '"""' ' '" S '" a " PI; "" S r, ' s,lUi "K- "liirl, may be called cuttings. 
1 in a out two years be sufficiently large to again replace with the parent 

supply of fresh healthv vonng stock. 
• necessary to form large specimens. 

rowing Dendrobiums there are mostly a few that are inclined to 
" e to the cultivator i„ 3 „ 101x . M u . ss depee< Mng muu . j, soos ed 



to decrease in si/r than to grow larger, which is needless to say extremely 
annoying. Such behaviour is not always distinctly traceable to any direct 
cause, although it cannot be questioned that there is a cause. I have known 
it arise through keeping the plants back too much, which necessitates a 
very cold temperature, in order to make them bloom much after their 
accustomed time. Hut whatever may be the reason such plants will 
persistently defy all attempts at coaxing into a better frame of mind. Per- 
haps it may be a 1). nobile or one of its numerous progeny, or it may lie 
some other species quite different. It will doubtless be potted up in the 
best of compost, be given the best of positions, and subjected to the most 
careful watering, yet even then it still remains obdurate. Perhaps new 
growth will duly "show, which would indicate that matters were all right. 
bat suddenly thev damp off : others mav follow, and suffer the same fate. 
Before the growing season is quite over, however, the plant will have 
succeeded in forming one or two puny small pseudobulbs. with a oao spend- 
ing number of roots. When you get such a plant and it should survive 
the winter, it is useless to waste time by trying to grow it in the usual 
manner. Take it out of the pot. cut off all the dead roots, separate each 
bulb at the base and lay them on damp moss on a shelf or somewhere .ml 
of tin way in the warmest house. Keep the moss well supplied with water 
during the summer, then from some part of these old bulbs will spring new- 
growths which will by autumn make nice little new bulbs, and these may 
afterwards be placed together and will soon make a good plant again. 

The foremost representative of the labiata section of Cattleya just 
now is Cattleya Triana; and its varieties, a most beautiful ami useful species, 
but one, unfortunately, owing to its being so very susceptible to fogs, rind- 
ing but little favour in London gardens. as they generally fail thereto expand 
their blossoms. Apart from tins it is one of the freest to grow and flower. 
It soon commences to root and grow after blooming, and the repotting or 
top-dressing should not then be very long delayed. Tht 
intermediate temperature is only required. C. Perciva 
flower on the whole is verv rich and pretty, cannot. I think, be compared to 
the first named for general usefulness. One thing very much against this 

.ugh the 

species i 

rily. and very 
oiften~ too, in country places, even after making average SWed pseudobulbs 
hillv colli mod witl si oaths Of coiir,. the failur. is n.'t - i great if the plants 
are ke il ra 1 er 1 d « inn when throwing up their spikes, but there is 
always a \-„,',' ,',. ,v, .',',, ■', .., 'il, ,i fails to erne, which makes it appear that C. 
Percivaliana is even more susceptible to atmospheric conditions than C. 

There are a large number of Oncidiums which lend themselves kindly to 
Cool house culture, making growth there much freer and stronger than 


when grown in more warmth. 0. serratum is one of these, and is 
now in flower. In growth it is very like 0. macranthum, and requires 
exactly the same kind of culture, growing at the coolest part of the house. 
They succeed best in pots on the stages, and should he potted in sphagnum 
moss and fibrous peat in equal parts, and at almost any time during the 
year, when they can be caught in the right condition. This is after being 
relieved from their immensely long and exhaustive flower spikes, when they 
again commence to push up growth. When in robust health these Orchids 
are a refreshing sight to see, such fine green health)- foliage and psendo- 
bulbs do the)- make, and such a bristling mass of roots do they send forth. 
The treatment is exactly the same as for other cool Orchids : watering 
them with great care during the winter : letting the compost appear dry 
for several days before giving water : and at the same time taking care not 
to get the atmosphere over moist bv to,, dan, nil," down : which 

abundance of air at all times when the outside weather will admit. 0. 
superbiens, O. trilingue, O. lamelligerum, and O. monachicum are very 

Kt-ep down aphides ami thrips at all costs. I find the best thing is 
Richardson's X L. All fumigating insectidc, as there is no fear of injury to 
either foliage or flowers. I use it in every house in accordance with the 
directions issued, and have not observed any bail results from its use. 
Neither the plants nor the atmosphere should be over dry when fumigating 
is intended, and once doing is generally sufficient to kill all insect life. 

Attend to the blinds for summer shading in time, so that they are 
ready for use when required. 

A FINE flower of a beautiful sulphur-vellow variety of O.lontoglossuin 
crispum has been sent from the collection of K. Ilrooman White Esq., of 

.ther form, quite similar as to colon 
s also enclosed, and a flower of ( ). 



The Dendrobiums are now coming on in force, and a series of I). Mobile. 
Wardianum, and crassinode brighten 141 tbe bouse, together with I>. 
fimbriatum oculatum, D. X Cassiope.and some other of the beautiful hybrids 
which now make such an addition to the collection in the spring months. 
Ccelogyne cristata has also begun to unfold its beautiful flowers, ami this 
species and its varieties will be a feature of tbe Cool bouse for some weeks. 
while Cattleyas Percivaliana and Triana: must also be added to tbe list. 
Laelia anceps in a series of purple and white varieties, together with 
Sophronitis grandiflora, Masdevallia tovarensis, Calanthes. ami several 
others mentioned in previous notes are also still flowering well, together with 
a number of good Cvpripediums. which undoubtedly stand in the front rank 
as useful winter-flowering plants, and will be increasingly SO as time 
goes on. 

Odontoglossums are now throwing up strong spikes, and a lew are 
already out, including 0. pulchellum and the beautiful little (). Rossii, which 
hangs side by side with Sophronitis grandiflora, and produces a most effective 
contrast. Phaljenepses are also progressing favourably, and. if tbe fog keeps 
off, will soon commence to flower, though some buds have dropped already 
from this cause. Hitherto the weather has been unusually favourable, and 
everything is looking very promising for the coming spring. 


Angr.eci-m Sakderianum.— Journ. of Hort., Dec. 26. p. 5911. fig. 01. 

Calanthe x GIGAS,— Journ. of Hort., Jan. 9. p. 25, fig. 4. 

Catasetum x Imperials.— Gari. Mag., Jan 25, p. 51. with fig. 

Cattleya i abut* (two-leaved).— Gari. Clmm.. Jan. 4. p. ij. tig. 2. 

Cypripedium x Allanianum superbum.— Gari. Mag., Jan. 18, p. 
33, with fig. 

Cypripedium x Eixiotianum.— Journ. of Hort., Jan. 16, p. 55- »§■ 8. 

Cypripedium x Euryades.— Journ. of Hurt.. Jan. 10. pp. 47- 59. 
"g. 7- 

Cypripedium ixsigne (sepals alike).— Card. Clmm., Dec. 28, p. 763. 

Oi,ovi,„;l,.ssi m citrosmum'.— Rev. Hort. Beige., Dec, p. 2(15. with 

Odontoglossum CER^EDlI.-^Garrf. Chron., Jan. 18, pp. 77- 79- "S- »■ 

Stanhupea Haskloyiana, Kchb. f— Bot. Mug., t. 7542. 


A raceme bearing four flowers of this very distinct plant has been sent by 
Messrs. James Veitch & Sons. It is recorded as having hern derived from 
Zygopctalum Mackayi ? and '/.. Burkei 3 . though, as in one or two other 
of the supposed crosses from /.. Mackayi, we believe that Z. intermedium is 
intended, these two plants having somehow become confused together. The 
flowers of Z. X leucochilum are over 2} inches in diameter, the sepals and 
petals light green, lined along the centre and spotted near the margin with 
dark brown, and the lip white except for the numerous striations of violet 
on the crest. The face of the column is also closely striated with violet. 
The flowers are deliriously fragrant. It is fairly intermediate in character, 
but most resembles the pollen parent in character. 

At the opening meeting of the year, on January 14th. there was a line 
display of Orchids at the Drill Hall, James' Street Westminster; this 
being largely due to the mild open weather which prevailed. 

The President, Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart.. Harford. Dorking Igr. Mr. 
\\ bite), staged a magnificent group, to which a Silver Flora Medal was 
given. In the centre was a splendid specimen of Ladia X Gouldiana with 
some twenty-five spikes, to which the special award of a Silver BanksW 
Medal was made. A Cultural Commendation was also given to a noble 
plant of Lycaste plana Measuresiana ; and Botanical Certificates to 
Masdevalha ludibunda, M. striatella, M. polvsticta, and M. p. purpurea. 
The group also included a number of Ladia anceps varieties, the rare and 
Odonto° nCidiUm X Whea,leyanum ' °" cucullatum. a fine inflorescence of 

nogossum coronanum miniatum, Masdevalha cucullata, Dendrobium 
*'"""' C ypriped'ooi X Lawrebel, C. x Leeanum Albertianum, C. X 
Morgan,* burfordiense, and others. 

E. Ashworth. lis,!., Harefield Hall. Wilmslow (gr. Mr. Holbrook), 
s loucc a very fine collection of cut Cypripcdiums. including fourteen 

Backhoiiseana. and Ladia X Finckcniana. with its two parents' L. albida 
and a wh,te form of L. anceps. A Silver Banks,.,,, Medal was awarded to 
the group. 

a,™,.'' MeaSUreS ' Es 1- Abridge Lodge, Camberwell (gr. »*'• 
. nch ^ n) ' '"'wed a Bronze Banksian Medal for a pretty little group. 
ibl " If J ^ SpeClmen of Vand » Amesiana with ten spikes, the remark- 
( -.L^ ° W ,- vpnpedium venustum Measuresianum, C. X Olenus, C. X 
Calypso superba, Odontoglossum X Humeanum, Lycaste Skinneri, L. S. 


alba, and Oncidium cheirophorum : a Botanical Certificate being awarded 
to the latter. 

S. Courtauld, Esq., Rocking Place, Braintree igr. Mr. Wright), sent a 
very interesting group of MasdevaDias, to which a Bronze Banksian Medal 
was awarded. It included M. fblvescens, M. hieroglyphica, M. leontoglossa, 
M. pictnrata, M. striatella. M. velifera, M. Wageneriana, M. x Gairiana, 
M. X Heathii, M. X Hincksiana, M. abbreviata and M. caloptera, the two 
latter each receiving a Botanical Certifl, ate. 

C. Ingram. Esq., Elstead House. Codalming Igr. Mr. llondi. t„vnr,l 
Awards of Merit for a fine form of Cattleya Percivaliana, called Ingrain's 
var., and for Ladio-cattleya X Cicero (C. intermedia J x Ladio-cattleya 
X elegans Turneri 3 1, the latter a very pretty form, somewhat resembling 
L.-c. X Schilleriana, but with the lip approaching C. intermedia in shape. 
and the sepals and petals light blush. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham igr. Mr. Ballantine), received 
an Award of Merit for Vanda X Charlesworthii, a pretty natural hybrid 
between V. ccerulea and V. Bensoni, which was described at pug,' 322 of 

T. Starter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield, Manchester (gr. Mr. Johnson), 

received an Award of Merit for a handsome form of Cvpripedtuiu X Calvpso. 
called Stand Hall variety, with the dorsal sepal covered with purple over 
full}' two-thirds of its surface. He also sent C. X Ceres, and a very 
pretty hybrid from C. X Ashburtonae 9 and C. X Numa 3 . called C. X 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild, Tring Park (gr. Mr. Hill), received a 

othborough, Tunbridge Wells 

• . : V sr.eeum sesquipedale, 

thgate igr. Mr. Whiften), Bent 

Sauderiaua, and Cypripcdiutn 

achmore Hill (gr. Mr. Cragg), 

igden. sent a flower of Cypri- 



insane Sanderianum, C. X Lathainianiim, and others. Special awards 
were Riven to the following:— The pure white Phaio-calanthe X Sedeni 
albiflora, which received a First-class Certificate, Selenipedium X 
Schrcederse candidulum (S. X Sedeni candidulum 2 X S. caudatum 
Wallisii 3 I an Award of Merit, and two forms of Cypripedium X 
Euryades, a spotted and a purple one, also each received an Award of 
Merit. These, it would appear, are forms of C. X Adrastus. 

Mes3TS. 1". Sander & Co., St. Albans, also received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a fine group, containing Dendrobium Johnson*, the pure white 
Ladia anceps alba, and others, Lycaste Skinneri, L. lanipcs. Odonto- 
glossnm X aspersum, O. Rossii, Phaio-calanthe X Arnoldise superbum, anda 
number of good Cypripedinms. Among the latter was a pretty hybrid 
from C. Curtisii ? and C. concolor 3 . called Minnie Ames, with pretty 
yellow flowers tinged with light rose: C. X Said Lloyd (Godefroyae S X 
venustum 3 |, C. X A. R. Smith (callosum 2 X Driiryi 3), C. X Henri 
Vander-Straeten (C. X Mrs. Canham f X C. X Leeanum 3 ), &c. 

Mr. \V. Bull. Chelsea, showed three well-flowered examples of Cattleya 
Walkeriana nobilior, and fixe Hue plants of the pure white C. Trianie alba, 
the latter receiving a First-class Certificate. 

Messrs. Httgh Low & Co.. Upper Clapton, staged a very effective group, 
to which a Silver Banksian Medal was given. It contained a beautiful 
example of Cymbidium Traceyanum, a von line Cvpriperiium X 
C. Sanderianum and others, together witli other showy Orchids. 

Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son. Upper Holloway also received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a fine group „f Cvpripediums", together with Calauthe 
X bella, Lycaste mesochlasna, and a few other showv things. 

Messrs. Heath & Son. Cheltenham, sent some good forms of Cyripedium 
X Leeanum, and others. 


L*lia anceps alba, L. a. rosea, I., autumnalis alba. L. I 

1 S">'h1 typical form f L^ 
of the varieties of Ueliaanc 

.- -C. II. I 

fooLd, Z « sh„„M p r Cam<:ya " y " Cm ^ » tertbl, pest where it ha, obtained I 

The Amateur Orchid 
Cultivator's Guide Book. 


THIS Book contains sound practical information for Amateurs and 
beginners in Orchid Culture. 

Second Edition. In Cloth, price 5 - ; post-free, 5 6. 

Can be obtained from the "Oli(llll) REVIEW " OFFICE, 





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Note!, 65 Masdevallia ■ 

Dies Orchidiame 66 lainii 

Botanical Orchids at Kew 69 Masdevallia Curlei 

Cattleya I.ueddemanniana varieties ... 70 Cypripedium X Lloydite 

Dendrobium sarmentosum ... 72 Calanthe rosea and C. rubens ... 

Dendrobium Farmeri and D.Palpebras 73 A trimerous Cypripedium 

Dendrobium .. Rolfere var. candidu- Odontoglossum crispum aureurn 

Cattleya Triam-e and its varieties ... 75 The Cattleya Fly 

Notice of Book 76 Dendrobium Ruckeri 

I-ycaste - Imschootiana 78 Calendar of Operations for March 

1 nigritum 79 Orchid Portraits 

An Amateurs Notes 80 Dendrobium nobile and its varieties 

Cattleya Triante Arkleana (Fig. 5) ... 81 Orchids at the Royal Horticultu 

The Hybridist 82 Society 

Masdevallia * Acis .. 82 Correspondence, &c. ... 



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JAMES VEITCH & SONS, IRo^al Erotic Hursert. 



VOL. I\.J MARCH, 1896. [No. j 9 . 

Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the Drill 
Hall, James' Street. Westminster, during March, on the 10th and 24th 
respectively, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour of 
12 o'clock, noon. 

A view of an Orchid house at Eaton Hall, Chester, the residence of the 
Duke of Westminster, appears in the Gardeners' Chronicle for January 18th 
last, as a supplementary plate, showing various autumn-flowering species in 

A figure of a fine group of the beautiful Dendrobium Phalsnopsis, as 
grown by Mr. James Cypher, of Cheltenham, is given in tl: 
Magazine for December 28th last <page 841). 

Three forms of the handsome Selenipedium X pulchellum, described at 
page 166 of our first volume, have been received from the collection of W. 
Vanner, Esq., of Camden Wood, Chislehurst. The one considered typical 
has the flowers nearly white, with the front of the lip and tips of the petals 
suffused with light rose. One called variety candidulum has the same parts 
very light blush, and the hairs at the base of the petals reddish purple. 
The flower is also larger, and, altogether, is a very beautiful nearly white 
form. The variety rubrum has the front of the lip, and the margins and 
epical halves of the petals rosy red. All are very handsome. The 
resemblance to S. X Sedeni var. leucorrhodum is remarkable, considering 
that the parentage is different. 

A hue five-flowered raceme of Odontoglossum Cervantesii decorum has 
been sent from the collection of the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain. M.P.. 
the individual flowers measuring 2} inches in diameter-an excellent 
example of good culture. 


A good form of Cattleya Percivaliana from the collection of F. Hardy. 
Esq., of Ashton-on-Mersey, in which the front lobe of the lip is similar in 
colour to the rest of the flower, namely light rosy purple. The throat is of 
the usual deep orange colour. It may be called C. Percivaliana var. bicolor. 

Referring to the note at page i of Cypripedium X Ashburtonffi with 
twin-flowered spikes, Mr. W. Wallace Lun't, of Boston, Mass., writes to say 
that the phenomenon is of quite frequent occurrence in his small collection, 
and that at the present time he has in flower the following, all with 
two-flowered scapes :— C. barbattim. C. callosum, C. insigne. C. 
Spicenanum, C. venustum, C. X vexillarium, and C. X Lathamianum. 
Excellent photographs of C. callosum and C. X vexillarium in this state 
are enclosed, and show that the plants are strong and well cultivated. 

A photograph showing three flowers of Selenipedium X Schrcedera all 
expanded together on the same spike is also sent from the same collection, 
and is interesting because the older flowers frequently fall off when 
; when quite fresh. 

The Cypripedium insigne with abnormal flowers figured at page j6i of 
our last volume is not flowering this season, as we learn from Mr. Appleton. 
We must wait until next winter to see if the peculiarity is permanent. 

A two-flowered raceme of Lycaste Skinned has been received from the 
collection of H. Gurney Aggs, Esq., Pippbrook, Dorking, and it is interesting 
to note that this is the third successive year in which the same thing has 
occurred. There are also seven single-flowered scapes on the same plant. 
It may be due to excess of vigour, caused by good culture. 

A very pretty form of Cypripedium X Macfarlanei, called variety 
giganteum. has been sent from the collection of W. P. Burkinshaw. Esq.. of 
Hessle, m winch the dorsal sepal is over two inches broad, and the rest of 
the flower proportionate. It is a seedling from C. Spicenanum and C. 
X calophyllum, and the character of the former is especially conspicuous. 
A very hne form of C. villosum and Dendrobrium Findlavanum giganteum 
come from the same collection 


<W,'Tr " f ^u artiC ' eS Wh ' Ch a PP e:,reti in th e last two numbers of the 

' ! ""'""' hllVL ' '"terested me a good deal. In the first place I would 

mention the ■mportant results obtained bv Mr. Massee in his investigations 

on the " Spot Disease of Orchids " (page" 19) It is always an important 


matter to know the nature and habits of an enemy, otherwise, in groping 
about in the dark, all one's energy may be uselessly thrown away. Much 
difference of opinion has been expressed as to the nature of this disease, 
and those who contended for its fungoid origin had at least some plausible 
reasons for their opinion, but it is now clear that the real cause is a sadden 
chdl when drops of moisture are on the leaves, and that the fungi after- 
wards found on the spots are only there because the decaying tissue affords 
a suitable nidus for their development. In this respect tin v differ from the 
Vanilla disease, which is a true parasite. 

It is interesting in this connection to note that the late Mr 
Williams always contended that the disease from wrong 
and was not infectious. Many years ago he wrote in his On 
Manual— «« The spot is the dread of Orchid growers. . . . Some assert 
that it is infectious, but this we do not believe. Indeed, we should have in. 
hesitation in placing a plant infected with spot amongst a quantity of 
healthy ones." He also pointed out that it was seldom troublesome under 
proper treatment. And it is further interesting to find that it was Dr. 
Lindley who first suggested the cause of the mischief. When at Hoddesdon 
two Phalamopses became affected with spot in the winter, and a leaf was 
sent to Dr. Lindley, who replied " ' that the plants had been kept too moist 
during the cold dark days of winter'— a reply which we have never since lost 
sight of. He was quite right, for it was a sharp winter, and these two 
plants had been kept wet by placing the bottom of the block in which they 
grew in a pan of water to keep off the cockroaches." Mr. Williams specially 
deprecated too much heat and moisture, as " under such exciting manage- 
ment they [the plants] are apt to become spotted and get permanently into 
a bad state of health — in short, the least chill, after growing in so high a 
temperature, is liable to induce disease." It is quite clear from these remarks 
"hat Mr. Williams thought was the cause of spot, and Mr. Massee's 
experiments not only confirm this opinion, but also show the precise wa) 
in which it is brought about, which is important, and goes far to indicate a 
remedy, or, at all events, how to prevent it. 

The serious outbreak of Cattleva Fly noted at page 44. I would next 
aUode to, if only to point a moral from the preceding paragrai 
Who have it should try to find out all they can about it, for there is sound 
sense in the concluding lines of the article just alluded to. I have had no 
experience with the pest, but the remedies suggested seem worth trying. 
Stamping the pest out is obviously the proper course, if one only knew how to 
s « about it. A friend suggests the advisability of burning the affected 


stock and buying more, but, apart from the expense there is the possibility 
that the new stock may also be affected, for it appears that it comes with 
imported plants. Better, I think, to try and find out all about its habits, 
in which case a remedy would almost certainly suggest itself. An eye 
should be kept on newly-imported plants, or those who have hitherto not 
been troubled with the pest may suddenly discover it in their collections. 

The article on " Cypripediums with identical names " (pp. II and 37) is 
very suggestive, and indicates the growing confusion in the nomenclature 
of hybrid Cypripediums, to which I have alluded on more than one 
occasion. Mr. Young must have exercised a good deal of patience and 
industry in compiling the list, and I rather think that should he undertake 
to collect the Cypripediums with identical parentage he will find it a still 
greater task, to say nothing of the difficulty our Editor might ha\ e in nndin? 
space for it, without displacing more important articles. If it only brought 
about a better state of things the space would not be wasted, but the 
question is whether those who stand most in need of such an article would 
take the trouble to consult it. The one clear thing is that this rapidly growirf 
confusion ought to be checked. 

it is not alone in Cypnpedium that mam unnecessary names are 
continually being given, for I frequently see references to this fact in the 
Rtview. Only last December I noticed that such a well-known plant B 
Eulophia guineensis had been re-described under a new name, together 
with Catasetum incurvum. In a similar way I see that the well-known 
La;ho-cattleya X elegans has been re-describe'd under at least four different 
names, which is suggestive of a great deal. An article on the Manufacture 
of Synonyms would be instructive, if not altogether entertaining reading- 

nation of this kind is generally so widely scattered 
naccessible. but witli the characters of each variety 
I arranged' in son.ethiii" like' sequence, it "ill >" 
letermine. pretty nearly, "at all events, any doubtful 
more of such ttsefa] lists in the future. 

my present budget, I would allude to the interesting 


•• Hybridist's Notes " contributed by Mr. Mead. Both the subjects 

treated of are important ones, on which further information might profit- 
ably he contributed by others who have made experiments. And now 
that attention has been specially called to these points, additional obser- 
vations are sure to be made. It is very curious to find that the influence 
of the pollen parent should be seen at such an early stage as the ripening 
of the embryo, though such a thing miglil perhaps have been expected, 
lint the subject of hybridisation is still almost in its infancy. 

In the recently issued Hand List of Orchids cultivated at Kew, it l« 
remarked that while the collection contains representatives of all the most 
beautiful and popular species, it is more particularly rich in others winch 
at first sight are not particularly attractive, though, on careful examination, 
most of them will be found to possess no small degree of charm and 
interest. There are many collections in which a few of these so-called 
"Botanical Orchids" are grown, and a few notes respecting those in this 
representative collection may. perhaps, serve to draw more attention to a 
somewhat neglected but very interesting class of Orchids, many of which 
are easily grown, very floriferous. and take up but little space, though they 
are often somewhat deficient in the size or colour of the flowers as 
compared with their more favoured brethren. Armed with a good magni- 
fying glass, however, some of them are found to possess charms quite 
unsuspected by the casual observer, and when grown in masses, as these 
plants should be, many of them are very attractive. Perhaps the term 
"Botanical "may be held to include all those which for various reasons 
are not generally cultivated, and these only it is intended to include. 1 he 
usual showy species are, of course, equally well represented. It is hardly- 
necessary to add that the plants are open to the inspection of the public 
every afternoon in the week, and attract a large number of visitors. 

Perhaps the most charming thing noted in walking through the houses 
-as a pan of Hemaria Dawsoniana. bearing several of its dainty racemes 
of white flowers, which are no, less beautiful than its elegantly variegated 
leaves. Some would deny it a place among botanical Orchids, but I think 
it can fairly be admitted. Maxillaria variabilis. ... both it= >ellow an 
purple varieties, was flowering very freely, also M. ochroleuca and M 
porphyrcstele, whose names are both equally descriptive of heir 
peculiarities. The dark purple column and light green.* segmenU ; ol 
the latter afford a curious contrast. Allied to the preceding are the Orm.thi- 
diums. of which O. densum and O. confertum are two cui - 


With few exceptions the species of Pleurothallis can only be termed 
botanical Orchids, and here were the curious P. immersa, something like a 
small P. Roezlii, but with the peduncle united to the leaf for a considerable 
distance, and P. longissima with long racemes of green flowers. Also two 
or three species of Stelis, whose flowers are remarkable for closing at various 
times of the day or night, and the curious little Scaphosepalum ochthodes, 
formerly referred to Masdevallia, were bearing numerous racemes; also 
Masdevallia melanopus. Of Restrepias were the curious R. ophiocephala, 
together with R. maculata and R. elegans, the two latter invariably being 

Of the Dendrobium group may bo mentioned the pretty little Australian 
D. Kingianum, and the very curious Megaclinium falcatum, while Erias 
included E. velutina and E. cristata, the latter bearing two-flowered racemes 
of white flowers from the axils of yellow bracts, the lip also being yellow. 
Tainia penangiana and T. latifolia were flowering freely, with the Philippine 
Pholidota conchoidea. Epidendrum was represented by E. fuscum and E. 
Spondiadum, the latter with light purple flowers, and Ponera by the curious 
little P. juncifolia. Among Saccolabiums were S. hainanense and S. 
Mooreanum candidulum, while Gome/a was represented by G. crispa. 

Of Cypripediums may be mentioned C. Bullenianum, C. Victoria- 
Maria;, and the interesting natural hybrid C. X siamense, also the Brazilian 
Selenipedium Sargentianum, though these are perhaps not more botanical 
than some other things not included in these notes, which might have been 
considerably extended by the inclusion of plants which are more generally 

The history of the handsome Cattleya Lueddemanniana was given at 
page 272 of our last volume, and we may now give an account of the 
different varieties which have been described, some of which are flowering 
at this season. 

The first mentioned is the one called C. speciosissima Lowii by M r ' V 
Anderson (Cm/. CI,,;,,,.. 1868, p. 404). but the description seems to apply 
to an entire importation of something like a thousand plants brought by- 
Messrs. Hugh Low & Co. from Venezuela, and thus may be considered to 
represent C. Lueddemanniana generally, and not any particular variety- 
The description given seems to refer to an average or 'fairly typical form, 
of which a figure is given in Kcichmbachia (ser. 2, I., p. 71, t. 34). 

\ ar. Buchanan.ana (C. speciosissima var. Buchananiana, Will, and T. 
Moore in Orel,. All,., VI., t. 261) is a fine form, which appeared in the 
collection of J. Buchanan, Esq., Morningside. Edinburgh. The sepals and 
petals are rosy lilac, the latter being three inches broad, and the front of 


the lip rich magenta, which extends down the centre uf tile disi 

1) I the two light Yellow blotches. Thus it upproi. li. th. 

typical form very Dearly. 

Var. Regina (C. speciosissima Kegina. Rchb. f. in Card, (hron., [884, i., 
p. J72) is a very large form, which appeared in the collection of Sir Trevor 
Lawrence. Hart.. Burford. Dorking, and is described as having the ovary, 
column, sepals and petals of a rich purple colour, while the lip 1- deep 
mauve with the usual Yellow- spots. Reichenbacli described it as one of the 
grandest Cattleyas ever seen. 

Var. Malouana (C. spsciosissim 1 var. Malouana, Lind. in Lindtnia, I.. 
p. p. yg. t. 47) appeared in the establishment Compagnie Continental 
d'Horticulture, of Brussels, and has rosy magenta Bowers, with the front of 
the lip somewhat spotted with a darker tint, and the disc similarly -trial, d. 
almost obliterating the usual Yellow blotches. 

Var. Ernestii (C. speciosissima var. Ernestii, Will. Orel,. C,r. Man., ed. 7. 
p. 186) appeared in the collection of T. Statter, Esq., of Whit, lid, I. 
Manchester, and has deep magenta Bowers, the lip profusely spotted with 
deep mauve. Thus it must come rather near the preceding. 

Var. splendidissima (C. labiata var. brilliantissima, Card. Wurld. 
I., pp. 569, 570, with fig.) appeared in the collection ofW. I 
Downside, Leatherhead, and has deep rose flowers, with an amethyst, 
purple feathered blotch at the apex of the petals, and the front lobe of the 
Hp maroon-purple. . . 

Var. Roebhngiana (Orel,. Rev., III., p. 98) *PP eared in the ™Hect,on of 
C. G. Roeblmg, Esq.. of Trenton, New jersey. The petals are 4 tnches 
broad, and light blush pink, with a purple stain along the nuddle of the 
upper half, and the front lobe of the lip rich purple crimson. 

Var. Schrcederiana (Rchb. f. in Card. Chro,,., 1886, .., p. 554' » a ™> st 
beautiful form, which appeared in the collection of Baron Schroder. 1 he 
Dell. Egham. and may be compared with C. Mossi* in pom 
of colour. The sepals and petals are white, also the ground colour of the 
lip, but the front lobe is broken up by a number of mauve purple -. 
whtle the disc is also striped with rosy lilac on ^ge-veil ow J. 
was imported by Messrs. F. Sander & Co., who ... 
Certificate for it at the Orchid Conference in 1S85 

Var. alba (Orchidophile, 1886, p. 3 6 5) 

a charming albino, which 

been imported bv M. Godefroy-Lebeuf. It is pure whrte «,< .<h « cep, on 

..r^... ..r^ .^^ ,.,,.. fr.. v.wi^r^ :t v^r:r^::^v;::'^::^:r»:.^."i: 

,jt Autlr-nshaw, Manchester. 

U tftE OliCIIll) REVIEW 

A magnificent flower of the typical form has been sent from the collection 
of W. S. M'Millan, Esq., Maghull, near Liverpool, in which the petals are 
barely under3 inches broad, and the rest of the flower equally woll developed. 
Mr. Robertson, the gardener, writes that the house in which these plants 
are grown is 42 feet long by 12 feet broad, and 9 feet high, and that the 
plants are suspended in teak baskets in the centre of the house, together 
with Cattleya Warscewiczii, Dowiana aurea, Triana, and Lielio-cattleya 
X elegans, and that Cattleya Lueddemanniana is placed nearest to the 
ventilators. When the plant starts it grows very rapidly, and flowers as 
soon as, or just before, the young bulb is finished. The plants are kept 
very dry in the summer and also i:i winter, but twice a year, in springand 
autumn, a considerable quantity cf tree leaves is placed in the house. Lath 
roller blinds are used for shading, but a good amount of sun is given. Last 
year the plants grew and flowered twice, and this winter they are three 
weeks earlier than last, so that a second flowering is again anticipated. 
The plants are certainly grown with great success, as the present Hotter 
and two sent last year amply testify. This habit or' growing and flowering 
occasionally a second time has also been observed elsewhere. It is a 
magnificent Cattleya when successfully grown, ami deserves more attention. 

This pretty little Upper Burmese Dendrobium has now flowered in several 
collections, and on February nth last Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., of * 
Clapton Nursery, received a Botanical Certificate for it from the Royal 
Horticultural Society, under the provisional name of D. fragrans. It is a 
native of the Shan States, Upper Burma, and is one of those men- 
tioned by Mr. R. Moore in his interesting paper on the Orchids of the Shan 
States (Supra, III., pp . l6 g- 172} as having been found withi n about 30 mil" 
of Lake Inle ,l.c, p. I;i) . r t flowered with Messrs w L . Lewis & Co., 
of Southgate, in January. 1895, and shortly afterwards with Mr.J.«- 
Moore, of Bradford ; and this year with Messrs. Hugh Low & Co.. as above 
mentioned, and at Kew. It is allied to D. barbatulum, Lindl., and V- 
Fytcheanurn, Batem., but in its branching habit reminds one of D- 
Falconer,, except that the growths are more erect. The flowers are about 
the sue of those of D. Fytcheanurn, and the sepals, petals, and front lobe 
» the lip are white, and the basal part of the lip very light green with 
numerous hght brown radiating lines on the side lobes. The disc is WJ 
Th"T' aS '" U ' barlKltul " m - The flo we r s are almost as fragrant as violets- 
le is gi\e-n in allusion to the sarmentose or very twiggv habit. 

R. A. R- 



A (.hud ileal of uncertainty has been felt as to the limits of the above two 
species, and as the latter lias again appeared in cultivation during recent 
years a few notes about them will probably be interesting. 

Dendrobium Farmeri originally flowered with \Y. 1". ('.. Farmer. Fs.p. 
of Nonsuch Park, Cbeam, Surrey, in March. [848, when it was exhibited 
at the Horticultural Society's rooms, in Regent Street, and was awarded 
a Silver Banksian Medal. It had been received from Dr. McClelland, of 
the Calcutta Botanic Garden, in the previous October, as 1>. densifloruni. 
but, proving different, was figured and described by l'axton \\lag. of Bot., 
XVI., p. 241, with plate). Various other figures subsequently appealed. 
but for a long time nothing was stated about the habitat, though it is now 
known to be a native of the eastern part of the lower Himalayan zone and 
the Khasia hills, also In the forests of Moulmein. The stein* are quad- 
rangular, and the flowers borne in long pendulous racemes, the sepals and 
petals being more or less deeply tinged with pink, and the disc of the lip 
deep yellow. 

D. Palpebral appeared shortly afterwards, having been received from 
Moulmein by Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, who flowered it in November, 
1849, and shortly afterwards it was described by Dr. Lindley (/en™. Hart. 
Soc., V., p. ;;). a was compared with D. densifloruni, but is nearer I). 
I'armeri, having similar stems, but the racemes are shorter, the Bowers are 
a little smaller, the sepals and petals white, and the lip not so broad. 
The name was given in allusion to the base of the lip being fringed with 
hairs, like eyelashes. It was discovered by Thomas I.obb. In i860 a 
Plant which flowered in the houses of MM. Jakob Makov & tie. at l.iege. 
was figured and described under the name of D. I'armeri var. albiflomm 
<E. Morrin BOg. Hort., X.. p. 321, t. 21). which apparently belongs to 
D- Palpebral Nothing further was stated as to its origin. Subsequently 
it was also figured in Flore de$ Stmt (t. 2,461). 1" 1868 another plant. 
which had been introduced from Moulmein by Messrs. Hugh Low A < "•■ 
was figured and described under the name of D. Farmeri album (Regel, 
Gurten/tora, XVII., p. 321, t. 595). and this is precisely identical with I). 
Palpebra: in every respect. 

In 1864 a plant flowered at Kew, which had been sent from Mouhnen, 
by the Rev. Mr. Parish, and was described and figured under the name of D. 
Farmeri var. aureo-flava. (Hook. Bot. Hag., t. S4SI-) Of this Mr. Parish 
remarked :— " What if I were to say that Farmer, and I). 
chrysotoxum were one and the same ? I know both of them extre. 
'ing had them £ 

There is no mistaking the 

' without the flowers. Two days ago, on going down into my ga 



I was astonished, and could hardly believe my eves, at seeing a panicle of 
the golden flowers of D. chrysotoxuni proceeding from the hulbs of D. 
Farmeri ! the only difference being that the labellum is here rather more 
pointed, and not so round as in D. chrysotoxuni." Sir William Hooker 
pointed out further that the fringe of the lip was also essentially different 
in the two species (and, he might have added, the bracts also), finally 
concluding that the new form was quite distinct from D. chrysotoxuni, but 
only a yellow-flowered variety of U. Farmeri. Although so distinct from 
D. Farmeri at the first glance, further examination fails to reveal any other 
important difference beyond the colour. Like D. Farmeri, it is a very 
handsome plant. 

K. A. K- 

The history of Dendrobium x Rolfea audits handsome variety roseum 
are given at pages 113 and 114 of our second volume, where also both are 
figured. A most beautiful white variety has now appeared in the collection 
of T. A. Gledstanes, Esq., Manor House, Gunnersbury, which maybearthe 
above name. It was obtained as an imported I), nobile, ami agrees witli 
the two above named in having lost the characteristic maroon blotch of D. 
nobile, only retaining the crimson-purple radiating lines at the base of the 
side lobes, and a paler stain between them. All the rest of the flower is p"« 
white, with the faintest tint of pale sulphur on the lip. The pseudobulbs 
are slightly flattened at the sides. The variety roseum also appeared as an 
imported D. nobile, and presents the same arrangement of colour on the 
lip, while the apex is suffused with rose-pink, together with the whole of the 
sepals and petals. The original D. X Rolfea;, on the contrary, is an artificial 
hybrid, raised and named by Messrs. F. Sander & Co., who state that D. 
primulinum 9 and D. nobile J were the parents. It has precisely the 
same arrangement of markings at the base of the lip, and the same absence 
of the characteristic maroon blotch, and, from this circumstance, one cannot 
avoid the conclusion that the two wild varieties are also hybrids from the 
same two species, which are known to grow together in Sikki.11. That they 

nts of agree- 

ment betweer 

1 the wild 


All three 

particularly s. 

a, on accor 

to make furt 

her experi 

varieties of I) 

■ nobile as 

may be amici 


to be 

Jile is clear, and the various poll 
ificially raised plants are too obvious 
arming little plants, and the present one 
s purity of colour. It would be worth W " ' 
with these two species, using the choi« r 
rents. Other examples of the wild hybn» 


We have again received a series of flowers of this very polymorphic 

Cattleya, and may attempt to point out their relationship to the numerous 
existing varieties, of which we gave a complete account at pp. 114— 1111 of 
our last volume. The majority- have flowered out of recent importations, 
and may not be absolutely identical with the forms previously named, 
but at all events they closely resemble them, so far as the descriptions 
enable us to judge. It is hardly necessary to add that this Cattleya is one 
of the most useful plants flowering at this season, as it is represented in 
almost every collection, and frequently in numerous forms. 

Three forms from the collection of E. A. Bevers. Esq.. "f Oxford, may 
first be mentioned. Yar. tricolor has the front lobe of the lip crimson-purple. 
the disc yellow, and the rest of the flower white. Var. I" lias the sepals and 
petals deep blush, with purplish-rose lip, which becomes decidedly paler at 
the undulate margin. Var. delicata is well know 11 as having uniformly light 
blush flowers, except for the yellow disc. 

From the collection of John Powers. Esc]., Swanswell, Coventry, 1 9 

a form responding to var. Backhouseana. The sepals and petals arc light 
blush pink, and the latter have each a crimson-purple somewhat flamed 
blotch at the tip. The front of the lip is also crimson-purple. 

Three other fine forms have been sent from the collection of John S. 
Moss, Esq., Wintershill, Bishops Waltham. One has blush pink sepals 
and petals, with the whole of the front lobe of the lip and ape.x of the side 
lobes rich purple-crimson, the throat being of the usual pale colour, with 
the yellow disc much reduced. This we should refer to the variety fulg.-ns. 
or very near it. Another has sepals and petals blush pink, the latter being 
over 2\ inches broad, and the front lobe of the lip rosy magenta, the disc 
being slightly veined. It may be referred to var. formosa. The third form 
lias a remarkably open lip," even to the base, which gives additional 
prominence to the disc, which is yellow with a whitish margin. The front 
of the lip is purple-crimson. If the open lip proves constant, we are un- 
certain which variety this can be referred to. 

A splendid flower" of the beautiful albino. C. T. alba, from the collection 
of R. Brooman White, Esq., of Arddarroch, has the petals two inches 
broad, and the lip equally well developed ; the throat deep yellow, all 
the rest of the flower of the purest white. 

A rather small form, with blush segments and the lip very prettily 
coloured, comes from the collection of R. B. Macbean, Esq., of Lancaster. 
A zone of white occurs round the deep yellow disc and inside the narrow 
Pink margin of the side lobes, while the front lobe is purple-crimson. It is 
probably not yet fully developed. 



Hand-List of Orchids cultivated in the Royal Hardens. Knc. London. 

Printed for Her Majesty's Stationery' Office by Eyre and Spottiswoode. 

1896. l2mo., pp. 225. 
A SERIES of Hand-lists of plants cultivated at Kew is in course of prepara- 
tion, and the last issued is devoted to Orchids. The preface occupies 
twelve pages, and the remainder consists of an alphabetical enumeration of 
the species, varieties and hybrids in the collection, with the authority, 
native country, and as often as possible a reference to a published ti^urc- 
for example— Acinkta BABKEKI, Limit. Mexico. Bot. Mag. t. 420J— and thus 
will be very useful to those who are in any way occupied with Orchids. 
It is printed on one side of the paper only, and thus space is afforded for 
additions, if necessary. The list contains about 200 genera, 
and fifty garden hybrids. The preface contains much interesting matta 
about the collection, from which the following is extracted. 

The collection of Orchids cultivated at Kew is essentially different f 
any, at least in this country, in the possession of a private collector, and 
perhaps its only rival is that of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. 
Its main object is botanical, and to represent the family Orchids in as 
ehensive a way as possible. The scientific interest attaching to 
very great. Hut even as regards form thev can only be studied 
their varied and 

:d for 

. from 


from dried specimens with great difficulty, and as regard: 

ss-fertilisation which thev exhibit thev°eannot be studied in 

the dried state at all. 

While the Kew collection contains representatives 


d and popular species, it is more particularly rich in 

others which at first si 

ght are not particularly attractive. Most of these. 

however, on careful ex 

amination will be found to possess no small degree of 

charm and interest. 

Orchids have beei 

1 continually cultivated at Kew from their earliest 

introduction into this 

country. The varied fortunes which have attended 

the collection practica 

llv reflect the history of the progress which has been 

made in the art of gro 

win" Orchids mid r ■ titi '• 1 • mditions. 

In the first editlo 

n of Alton's Hartus Kc ■cn-.i-. is non-British specie 

are enumerated as ci: 

L.vated at' Kew, Sir J. E. Smith wrote.-''^ 

have scarcely seen am 

' one species of this genus (Epidendrum), except i» a 

dry state, before the j 

ear 1787, when E. cochleatum flowered at Kew, nor 
92, that E. fragrans, of Swart/, exhibited its rich ana 

was it till October. 17 

elegant bloom in the s 

iame collection. At present, several species are to 

seen flowering in the 

spring and autumn." In the work just mentioned 

Phaius grandifolius wa 

s figured and described under the name of Liniodorum 


Tankervillia:. A peculiar interest attaches to this plant because it was in 
it, and at Kevv, that, in 1802, Francis Bauer, who was " resident draughts- 
man for fifty years to the Royal Botanic Garden." discovered and figured 
the "nucleus of the cell," an all important body, the first description of 
which was published by Robert Brown in 1833. 

By the time the second edition of the llvrlus /\V,. cj/wn was issued, in 
1813, the number of exotic species had grown to 84. belonging to 30 em, 1.0 
the majority being epiphytal and natives of the West Indies. -, few being 
East Indian, South African, and Australian. Roxburgh sent a nuiubei of 
species from India early in the present century, and of these John Smith 
wrote: — "I found growing in iSjj. on a shelf above a title, against tin- 
back wall in what was then called the propagation house, the Aeiides 
growing and flowering freely, its roots clinging to the back wall, as also 
Saccolabium guttatum. There were also plants of Dendrobium Pierardi 
and D. cucullatum flowering freely, which had recently been brought home 
from Calcutta by Mr. Pierard." At this period, with the 1 sceptions above- 
mentioned, the Orchids at Rew "were potted in common soil and plunged 
to the rim in a tan bed." 

According to John Smith {Records, pp. 229, i.j" 1 : " Between the years 
1823 and 1825 a considerable number of species wire received from 
Trinidad, forwarded by Mr. David Lockhart. the Superintendent of the 
garden, amongst which were the first plants of Stanhopea insignis. Oncidium 
Papilio, Lockhartia elegans, Catasetum tridentatum, [onopsis paUidiflora, 
and others, all of which were epiphytal, and many of them being sent grow- 
ing on portions of branches as cut from the trees, which, being accompanied 
by instructions from Mr. Lockhart as to how they should be treated, led 
to the successful cultivation of epiphytal Orchids." 

In 1845 the span-roofed house which now forms the east wing of the 
Tropical Fern House was erected on the site of an old stole, and Sil 
William Hooker described it in 184b as " occupied with a rich and 1,1, Mini- 
able collection of orchideous plants (of which a gnat proportion was pre- 
sented by Her Most Gracious Majestvl." This gift was recorded by him 1,1 
'844 as the entire and valuable collection of orchideous plants formed at 
Woburn Abbey, which, on being offered to her by the present Dukeol 
Bedford. Her Majesty was gracioush pleased to accept and to send to the 
K-val Gardens at Rew." Continuing Sir William Hooker's account of the 
"ouse : " the centre is filled with a handsome slate staging so large as to 
admit of a raised walk through the centre, thus enabling the visitor to look 
down upon each side of the house, while over Ins head, and from the ratters 
on either hand, are suspended wire baskets filled with ep.phyte 
As the house in question open 

tabled to remove the splendid epiphy 

another and cooler 5 
blossom I 


heated atmosphere, and thus preserve them in beauty for a much longer 

In r8a6 the collection was further " increased by the noble bequest of 
the Rev. J. Clowes, of Broughton Hall, near Manchester, who willed his 
splendid collection of OrcHAeee to the Royal Botanic Garden." 

According to John Smith (Records, p. 235) " in 1848 the number of 
species cultivated at Kew amounted to 755. and in 1850 to 830." By the 
same authority it is stated in 1864 to have been 638. Four years later the 
Botanical Magazine records about 400, but in r872 the number of species 
and varieties in cultivation was 85 1, belonging to 138 genera. Since then 
the collection has steadily increased, and in 1891 a list of those which 
flowered in the previous year, 766 in number, appeared in the Kew Bulkta. 

Speaking of hybridisation it is remarked :— " The great range of species 
which Kew has at its command suggests attempts of this kind. And in the 
genus Disa it has produced crosses which are easy of cultivation and will 
probably become popular as ornamental plants." 

This handsome hybrid was described at page 8 of our first volume, and 
may be remembered that there was some doubt about its parentage. 

hug from Lycaste Skinneri, but Maxillaria nigrescens was sa; 

ollen parent. We, on the other hand, could see no evidence < 

t" be the 

, uui iouna strong indications of the influence of Lycaste cruenta, whictl 
we had no doubt was the other parent. M. Van Imschoot has now written 
confirming this opinion by documentary evidence. He has discovered 
among his records that both the above named crosses were made, but that 
it was the cross with L. cruenta from which L. X Imschootiana was 
obtamed, not fromthe other, as wasat first thought. This is very satisfactory 
rom every point of view. M. Van Imschoot sends a flower from Un- 
original pl Mt , together with one from Mother seed] Qut of the same 

batch, which has decidedly larger and paler flowers. The sepals of the 
are nearly 2 | inches long by Qver m |nch broa(Jj while the 

eh longer and proportionately broader. The ground colour 

-h. el- 

latter i 

ailed variety pallida. Both show the most unmistakable evidence 
of L. cruenta, both in the shape and colour of the lip, " 
sepals and petals. They are certainly very handsome. 

olour instead of lijdit ivll,,w. and the purple-red dots 
m v"b nT ded ' The ktter ' which <=«»"- * little nearer to L. Skinneri, 
may be called variety pallida. 1 

- both in the shape and colour of the lip, and 



Siimi- time ago Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., of Clapton, imported a Cypri- 
pedium from Borneo, which they suspected might prove new, as it differed 
in the foliage from any of the known species from that island. It has now 
flowered, and although quite different from any of the well-known species, 
is stillprobablynotnew.forthere is one Borneahonewhich, though described 
fourteen years ago, is still practically unknown. The following is the 
original description :—'! A Bornese introduction of the New Bulb Company, 
Lion Walk. Colchester. Leaves like those of Cypripedium virens. light 
green, with darker reticulations. The flower comes near to that of Cypri- 
pedium barbatum. The colours are those of a very dark variety. The 
odd sepal is oblong, acute, not almost circular, thus coining nearer that of 
Cypripedium purpuratum. The veins stand much nearer to one another. 
Thepetalsare much narrower, and the marginal warts stand partly over 
the middle to the apex. The equal sepals form a very narrow body. There 
are obscure warts on the stalk of the lip. Staminode like that of Cypri- 
pedium barbatum. but with intermediate small teeth in front, and longer 
angles on each side of the dorsal sinus. Thus it is near Cypripedium 
barbatum. but it appears quite distinct."— Rchb. f. in Gard. Ckrm., 1882, 
»'•, p. 102. 

Whether this plant has anywhere lingered in cultivation is doubtful, 
at all events I have never been able to ascertain what it really was. though 
I believe that Messrs. Low have now re-introduced it. Their plant, at all 
events, has leaves closely resembling those of C. virens : the dorsal sepal 
is much smaller than in C. barbatum, with which the species can perhaps 
best be compared ; the petals are much narrower, and the warts extend 
"early to the apex: and, lastly, the staminode agrees fairly well with the 
above description. There are one or two discrepancies, but these may be 
'"ore apparent than real, for it frequently happens that the tirst flowers 
produced after importation are somewhat abnormal, and it is most unlikely 
that there should be in Borneo two different species each possessing the 
characters above pointed out. We have here another example of the 
difficulty of identifying a species from an imperfect description, when Un- 
original specimen is carefully hidden away so that no one can possibly refer 
<<> it. If there should be any one who saw the original C. nigritum, or who 
knows of any existing plant, I hope they will help to clear the matter up. 
for under the circumstances the above identification can only be a pro- 
visional one, and there is another curious form in cultivation rather near 
( -'. barbatum. but with a very narrow dorsal sepal, which was at first thought 
«o be abnormal, and of which no one seems to know the native country. It 
is to be hoped that materials will in time be forthcoming to settle these 


doubtful points. In colour, Messrs. Low's plant much resembles C. 

barbatum, but is not equal to it in point of beauty. 

R. A. K. 


to the genial weather, and a host of beautiful Orchids are now in fuil bloom. 
Cattleyas Trian* and Percivaliana have been very good, the former in 
several light and dark varieties, and the supplv is not over yet. A good C. 
Lueddemanniana has now come out. and some fine trusses of C. amethyst... 
glossa, which is a noble plant when well grown. The two Laelias now in 
flower are L. harpophylla and L. glauca, and both are very' good. Phals- 
nopsis Schilleriana, P. Aphrodite, and P. Stuartiana are as beautiful as 
they always are at this season, and the former, especially, is superb. 

The Dendrobiums are now making the greatest show! and include several 
forms of D. nobile, some magnificent Wardianums, D. Findlayanum, D- 
luteolum, D. Hildebrandii, and among hybrids D. X Ainsworthii. X Leech- 
lanum, X Cassiope, and X chrysodiscus, are now the best. Three fine 
pans of Coelogyne cristata, with its beautiful varieties alba and Lemoniana. 
form a charming trio. I cannot imagine an Orchid better worth growing 
than this, for it gives very little trouble compared with the display it mate 
at this season. Ada aurantiaca invariably blooms well about this time of 
year, and is a plant which evervone should possess, on account of its 
unusual colour. Oncidium splendidum, O. tigrinum, and Lycaste mesochlsna 
are also flowering well. No one who has a warm house, or even an ordinary 
stove, should be without some plants of the good old Phaius grandifolius, 
which never fails to throw up some fine spikes every season, and when wJ 
grown is a really noble plant. P. maculatus, too, on account of its spotted 
rayes is worth growing, and is now in flower. Aerides Vandarum and 
'" ' '' ' '""" l »-l>inum are also too good to be overlooked just now. 

ine Odontoglossums are coming on well, and include some good forms 
ot O. enspum and luteopurpureum, O. gloriosum, and the natural hybrids 
U- X Andersonianum and O. x Wilckeannm. together with many of *« 
Mexican species, as maculatum, nebulosum, Krameri. CErsted,,. 
I'"'- l.< Hum. and K„ ssi i, the two ^ ^^ ^ free , y Cochlioda 
"sea i„ also very good. The spring-Howcring Cvpripcdmnis are coming of 
nul S °T u "" 5 ° f Ca "° SUm : ""> Aorus being alreadv out. A larp 
thaTT bri " iant thi " KS are thro "'"« "P »««'»B'v- » nd : •"'" ^Kthen, 

matter ff aCqi " S,tlon ' E »l°phiella Elisabeth*, and these will &*■ 



The subject of our present illustration \ Fig. 5) is tin- beautiful Cattleya 
Trianje Arkleana. which was described at page 10 j of our last volume. As 
there pointed out, it flowered in tin- collection of John \V. Arkle. l'.^|.. a 
West Derby, Liverpool, from an imported plant, and proved quite excep- 
tional in its brilliant colour. Its perfect shape and beautifully undulate- 
petals and lip are seen in the annexed photogi a ph. which was kindly sent 
by Mr. Arkle with the original flower, and its dimensions may he inferred 
when we state that the petals were fully 2} inches broad. The colour of 
the sepals, petals, and base of the lip is beautiful blush pink, and the from 

lobe of the lip glowing purple-crimson, which 

colour extends round the 

apex of the side lobes and right into the throat, completely obliterating the 
yellow blotches so characteristic of this species. As regards colour .t " 

comparable with the brilliant C. Warscewiczii saturata. Mr. Arkle now 
writes, that the flowers are again expanding and are the same ,n form and 
colour as last vear, but, he thinks, a little larger. It was imported from 
Popayan, and is a good robust piece, with three leading bulbs, two of which 
carry- each two flowers, and the third only one. It was the hrst Cattleya 
Triana; Mr. Arkle acquired, and he must be congratulated on so 


exceptional a variety, for it is as good in form as it is brilliant in colour. 
Last year he obtained a number of others — all imported plants— which 
have not turned out quite so well as they should have done, owing, it is 
thought, to a spell of warm weather which set in just as they had finished 
off their bulbs, when they again started into growth. It is hoped that this 
season they will settle down and do better. We do not know if others had 
a similar experience with this species last season. 


remarkable series raised by Captain Hincks, of Richmond, Yorks.. to 
whom we are indebted for a photograph and a two-flowered raceme. Itrsa 
seedling from M. abbreviata, but, unfortunately, there is a little uncertainty 
about the other parent, though a glance at the flower shows a multitude * 
those remarkable iridescent violet hairs, which can only have come from M. 
Veitchiana or some hybrid derived from it. Captain Hincks made two 
crosses with M. abbreviata, using the pollen both of M. Veitchiana and M. 
X Chelsoni, and sowed seeds from each cross, but is uncertain fromwhW 
the present seedling was derived. M. X Chelsoni was obtained from ■■ 
amabilis S and M. Veitchiana 3 , and we are inclined to think that M. * 
Chelsoni rather than M. Veitchiana was one parent of the present 
seedling. This, however, is only because of the small size of the flower of 

present one, for we fail to trace anv other direct influence 

of M- 

amabilis in it. Further experiments may. perhaps, settle this doubtful point, 
and the cross with M. Veitchiana, at all events, should be repeated. '« 
habit, the plant most resembles m' abbreviata. though the scape is taller, 
and, at present, only two-flowered. The flowers, too, approach those » 
this parent in shape, though modified in size, shape, and colour. T" 
sepals are eight to nine lines long, divided to the middle, and the ta'B 
about two lines longer still. The sepals inside are strongly suffused «.. 
orange-yellow, very little of which is apparent on the dorsal one, but » 
are densely covered with the remarkable iridescent violet hairs of > l 
Veitchiana, while on the inner angles of the lateral ones are the character- 
istic purple spots of M. abbreviata, but more maroon in colour. The peB 15 
and lip a l so resemble those of this parent in shape, the former beinR white. 
and the latter much spotted with maroon-purple on a yellow ground. " '' 
a very pretty little plant and remarkable because the parents belong'" 
such different sections of the genus " We believe it is the first M** 1 
raised from a species of the Amanda- or \I oolvsticta "roup. 


Masdevallia x Shuttryana vak. Chaubrrlainii. 

A very handsome variety of Masdevallia x Shottryana has been raised 
in the collection of the Right Hon. J. Chamberlain, M.P., by Mr. Barberry, 
of which we have received a flower. The original type, as may be remem- 
bered, was obtained by crossing M. caudata Shuttleworthii S and M. 
coccinea Harryana 3 , and flowered in 189a, „, the collection of Sir Trevor 
Lawrence, Bart. The present one is the reverse cross, according to a Inf. 
*om Mr. Burberry, and is a gnat improvement on the original. The 
perianth measures 1 1 inches long, and is divided to the middle, while the 
tails are rather longer than this, the dorsal one being 2J inches long. The 
flower is about intermediate in shape between the parents, and the coloui is 
light rose-pnrple, except on the dorsal sepal, which is whitish yellow, vein,.! 
and suffused near the margin with light rose-purple. Tins organ much 
resembles M. caudata in shape, and some minute darker sp-ils on the 
lateral sepals show the influence of the same parent. The petals and Up 
are intermediate in character. It is a wry pretty hybrid, and received an 
Award of Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society on February nth last. 
Cypripedium x Lloydia?. 
This is an interesting little hybrid raised in the establishment "f «^-q,. 
F. Sander and Co., St. Albans, from Cypripedium Godefroyie 5 and C. 
venustum 3 , of which we have received a flower from the collection of 
R- H. Measures, Esq., The Woodlands, Streatham. The vegetative organs 
we have not seen. The flower is quite intermediate in shape, though on 
the whole it most resembles the mother plant. The dorsal sepal is mate. 
acute, concave, over 1^ inches long, and with about nineteen light green 
lines on a pale whitish ground, and a few traces of purple spots on the 
nerves. Petals oblong, 2 inches long by ten lines broad : the ground colour 
I'ale yellowish white with a few dull purple blotches and many minute 
spots, mostly on the nerves, and in some cases slightly suffused. Lip 
"Wong, equalling the petals, and whitish yellow with greenish yellow 
nerves, except round the mouth, where they are dull purple. Staminode 
reniform, apex obscurely tridentate, colour yellowish, veined and suffused 
with dull purple except round the margin. The characters of the pollen 
Parent are most strongly represented in the dorsal sepal and in the veimng 
of the lip. I t i s a verv distinct little plant. 

Masdevallia x Curlei. 
A pretty hybrid raised in the collection of A. Curie. Esq., Priorwood, 
Melrose, N.B., from M. macrura S and M. tovarensis 3- The leaf and 
scape most resemble the seed parent ; the latter is 10 inches long, and bears 
one or two nearly white flowers, with a few minute purple dots on the face, 
a slight blush tint at the back, and pale greenish tails. The column, lip, 


and bases of the petals' show some purple spots and stripes, as in the seed 
parent, whose influence is less aparent in the flower than in the vegetative 
organs.— O'Brien in Card. Chron., Jan. u. p. 40. 

Some interesting facts respecting these two species have come to light in 
a series of plants which have recently flowered in the collection of 
A. Worsley, Esq., of Isleworth. A batch of imported bulbs was offered 
for sale at one of the auction rooms, and was purchased by Mr. Worsley. 
A number of them began to push up spikes, and on flowering, proved to be 
the well-known old C. rosea, to which it was then thought all belonged. 
Other plants pushed up later, and these proved to belong to C. rubens, I 
species of comparatively recent origin. An interval of over a month 
elapsed between the flowering of the two species, which are so much alike 
that until the very different flowers appeared no difference was observed. 
C. rubens is a native of the Langkawi Islands, lying off the west coast of 
the Malay Peninsula, whence also Messrs. Hugh Low & Co. have obtained 
C. rosea, and these facts probably serve to fix the origin of the batch of 
bulbs obtained by Mr. Worsley. Of course the two species are thoroughly 
distinct, for C. rosea has an entire lip, while in C. rubens that organ is 
strongly four-lobed. as in C. vestita : and both are charming little plants 
when well grown. 

C. rosea was first discovered by Thomas Lobb. near Moulmein, and 
flowered with Messrs. James Veitch & Sons in December. 1851, b™* 
originally described and figured by Dr. Lindlev, under the name 0< 
Limatodes rosea (Paxt. PI. Card., III. p -- t 81) The Rev. Mr. Pari-h 
also found it in the same locality. and"sent plants to Messrs. Hugh 
Low & Co., one of which was figured in the Botanical MagazifU (t. 53'"' 
In 1881 it was transferred toCalanthe by Beutham (/™ra. l.iim.S,*.. XVIII-- 
P- 309), and has rightly been known as C. rosea ever since, I am not 
aware that the Langkawi localit 

: such a distance from the original habit 

C. rubens was described in 1890 by Mr. Ridley (Gard. Chrm., 1890.^ 
P- 588) from specimens brought from the I an-kawi Islands bv Mr. Curtis 
and plants were sent to England, which in due time flowered, and those 
which flowered with Mr. Worsley are identical. The plant described by 
me in 1892 under the name of Cahinthe vestita Fournieri (Gard. C*"*' 
1892, i p. 488) must also apparently be referred to the same. It «■>* 
from Messrs. F. Sander & Co., of St. Albans, with the record that it had 
flowered w„h M. Fourmer, of Marseilles, and had been introduced f">n> 


Borneo, though as to the latter point I am now convinced that some 
mistake has been made. I originally pointed out its evident affinity with 
G. rubens, which I had not then seen, and now I think the two ate 
identical. In this case the species is very variable in colour, for there were 
two forms, one darker pink, one blush, and one pure white, and 
the two latter may be termed varieties delicata and alba. The flowers arc 
smaller than in C. vestita, to which it is nearly allied, though the exact 
relation it bears to this and allied forms still remains a little doubtful. 


A VERY curious flower of Cypripedium X Harrisianum, sent by Mr. 
Steinmetz, of Bruges, is noted in the Gardener's Chronicle for February 22nd 
ip. 2j8l. It is described as having three sepals (the two lowc I 
detached one from the other), two lateral petals, and a lip. The ...luiun. 
which is the most remarkable feature, has three shield-like staminodes, 
representing the outer stamens. A 1. A 2. ami A .). "f Darwinian notatx 
and three perfect anther-bearing stamens corresponding 
viz., a 1, a 2, and a t. It is remarkable that all the 


have been thus developed, as the lip appears 

been "f the us 

character, in which case it is difficult 

account for the presence of A : 

traced to 11 

of the 

and A 3 as separate organs. It would be interesting to know wh 
stigma was developed, and whether each stamen was 
Abnormal flowers are frequently very instructive, but the conditi 
present one is rather a mystery. 


A Mos, brilliant variety of Odontogram crispum has been -en, from 
the collection of \Y. Thompson. Esq.. Walton (.range. Stone by Mr. 
Stevens, which mav be referred to the above. The ongina pUntwa 
exhibited by F. A. Philbrick. Esq.. of Bickley. a. a "-ting o «h, K a. 
Horticultural Society in February. ,884, and received a -c. • 

cate. It is described as having sepals and petals d eep lemo ' ^ >^ 
former being spotted with brown, and the lip yellow, "-ng two bro- 
spots on the anterior part. This practically <*sc"bes <he one n°w^ « 
which Mr. Stevens remarks flowered in February. .883, but U does^ ^ 
remember to have seen it since. Mr. ™°»P^ ™? M ho „. far it 
Merit for one bearing the same name on June 12th. 1.94 
differs from the present one we cannot say, as the po.nt does no. appear 
have been recorded. 



Improvements in Orchid baskets now chiefly take the form of arrange 
ments for preventing the water supplied to the plants from running off at 
the sides without passing through the compost, and thus failing to do its 
proper work. It is partly in order to avoid this that dipping the plants 
has been so largely practised, though there is the further reason of wishing 
to avoid the dripping of water on to the plants growing beneath, which is 
an equally important matter. Some time ago we gave an illustration of the 
West Patent Orchid Basket, in which, by an ingenious arrangement of the 
top and side bars, the water was deflected inwards, and thus was obliged to 
pass through the compost. Messrs. Edward Seasell and Son, of Sheffield, 

Fig. 6.— Seasell s Patent Orchid Basket. 

send us a specimen of their Patent Orchid Basket, in which the same end 
is secured by a different arrangement, namely, of making the top of the 
Basket out of one solid piece of teak, in which a large circular saucer- 
s aped opening is made, something like the rim of a pot. The basket is 
well and substantially made, and the above illustration will give a good idea 
of its general character. It is claimed that by its use not only must the 
water thoroughly moisten the compost, but that the four corners being left 
on, prevent the loss of water by too rapid evaporation while the solid top 
gives entire rigidity to the basket, and also facilitates the potting of the 
Show! V reCe ' VedaCertificat =°fMeritatthe Sheffield Chrvsa„then..m> 

■J HOW lUSt .Novnii „.,- 


In 1890 I got the above fly with some imported l.afia [uirpurata. ami 
can feel for anyone who has the pest. I tried fumigating, lighted randies 
at night, cutting off infected pscudobullw and piercing with a needle where 
I saw the young growths had got the grab at work, but found these methods 
were of no use whatever. I then let the new pseudobulbs get full grown. 
and by drawing a soft hand up and down them could detect where the grub 
was located, by feeling a slight and often a decided protuberance on the 
pseudobulb. This we cut open with the smallest knife we had. and got out 
from one to five grubs, some of which were straw colour and others dark 
brown. It is quite easy to find the grubs by this method, without even 
looking at the bulbs. By observation we got to know when to expect the 
flies to come out and caught about twenty, and very beautiful they ale 
when newly out of the bulb; it is long, with a blue body and yellow mark- 
ings. If I should get the fly again, I should not wait for its coming out, 
but pierce the protuberances with a very fine carpenter's bit, as a knife 
makes a rather clumsy looking hole. The time when I got the flies out of 
the Lselia purpurata was just after this period, and they come out between 
10 and ii a.m., when the sun is bright and warm. 

Hvkki.ev Gardens. J ami:s Hamu ' '"*' 

This rare but pretty little Dendrobium is now .1 ring freely at Ke« 

from plants recently sent from India, and it is now evident that the locality 
originally published is erroneous. It origmally flowered ir. the e„l I.-.,,.,, of 
S. Rucker Esq., of Wandsworth, in .«4J. ™d was described by Dr. 
Lindley (Bo/. AY .. XXV., Mix., p. «>• who remarked » A Manilla ,.- plan, 
whtch has lately flowered with Mr. Rucker. It is sweet-scented, handsome, 
and distinguished by its clear nankin-coloured flowers, the Up of which is 
a little stained with rose-colour." Immediately afterwards .. was figured 
(/.c.t.60), when the author added- "We presume it to be one 01 . 
Cumming's discoveries in the Philippines, although no trace of it is to b, 
found allgnTdried specimen,, A drawing from CaU.u£,£wev*, 
shows it to I a native of the Khasia hills, besides which . 1 . - 
with at Nimbong, in Bhotan, at 4 »oo feet elevafon by M, U ■ - 
effectually dispotes of I.ind.ey's doubtful locality. It has he general nab* 
ofU.l ut » > it is most allied, but has smafler flow r» w, 
narrower segments, and the side lobes of the up regularly striped 1. 

fe , ■■ r.i v irt U stroii'dv vdlosc. it is in 

reddish brown. The central line of the lip - 5 J R A. K 

teresting to be able to dear up its history- 



Bv H. A. lirRBlRKV. Highbury, Moor Ciecn. Birmingham. 
The temperature for the month should range as follows :— 

The Cool House. — Day, with sun, 6o° to 65° ; without sun, 55 to 60 : 
night, 55 ; morning, 50 to 55 . 

The Intermediate House. — Day, with sun, 70 to 75° ; without sun, 
65 to 70 ; night, 6o° to 65 ; morning, 58° to 6o°. 

The Warm House.— Day, with sun, 8o° to 85°: without sun, 70° to 
75 ; night, 65 to 70° ; morning, 65 . 

The days are now lengthening and the light becoming stronger, there- 
fore we may gradually increase the supply of water at the roots without so 
much fear of bad results following. 

Ventilate freely on all suitable occasions, both night and day, more 
especially in the Cool departments. Beware, however, of the piercing east 
winds, which are accompanied sometimes by bright sunshine, running the 
thermometer up rapidly, and ofttimes prompting the cultivator to put 
on too much air. Rather than do this use the roller blinds, which should 
now be in position, and at the same time keep the ventilators closed. 

The season of growth is now at hand, and, with more solar warmth, the 
plants will soon begin to push out new roots and growth. When this is 
seen they may be re-potted or top-dressed. Increase the supply of moisture 
atmospherically by thoroughly damping down twice daily, morning and 
evening. Repotting may now be said to have commenced in earnest ; on 
every hand are to be seen plants which require attention, and many others 
are hastening on to that goal, therefore it is necessary to be on the alert to 
keep pace with the times. 

The Anguloas, I see, are pushing forth new growth and flower buds, which 
appear simultaneously. If it is necessary to repot them this month is a 
good time to do it, for if left until they have passed out of bloom the growth 
is far advanced, which renders repotting irksome and dangerous. These 
plants grow best in pots, and the compost should consist of two parts of 
good lumpy peat to one part of sphagnum moss. After repotting, the plants 
should be watered with care, enough being given to keep the compost just 
moist, until the roots have commenced to take hold, when they may be 
watered more freely, and given occasional doses of weak liquid manure unti 
the pseudobulbs are matured, when they should be well rested throughout 
the winter in the coolest house, well up to the light. 

Thunias, too, should now be repotted. They are best grown in pots, 
about four strong bulbs to a 32-siired pot. As each bulb will have its ol 
roots removed entirely away, it will require to be made firm in its posi" " 
by the aid of a stick thrust in the compost, which should be a mixture ol 


fibrous peat, loam and silver sand. Let the pots he drained half full with 
crocks, and press the compost in moderately firm. (live hut very little 
water until the new growths are about six inches high, which will tend to 
keep the pseudobulbs dwarf, and generally ensures free blooming. After 
this water may be given with greater freedom, with a little weak manure 
water occasionally. Let Thunias be grown in the full sun. in such a house 
as the Mexican or Cattleya house, or they will also grow well anil strong in 
the wannest house, hut they are not quite so reliable to Ho«cr. 

An eye should be given to the Habenarias. which have Urn enjojing a 
rest: they will soon now push new growth from the crowns, and when this 
is Seen to he taking place thev should be repotted. They are best anil 
most successfully managed if grown singly in small put-, a large no being 
big enough for one large tuber. Let the crown of the tub. a be level with 
the rim of the pot, and let the pot also be filled up level to its rim with 
broken crocks, peat, and sphagnum moss : water carefully at first, and place 
the plants well up to the light in a warm genial house, such as would suit 
Dendrobes that are just starting. As time and growth advances so will tin- 
plants delight in a larger supply of water. 

Bolleas, Pescatoreas, Stenias, Warscewiczellas, and such like Orchids, 
many of which will now be passing out of flower and breaking anew to 
form fresh growth, should now be attended to and repotted. There are 
some very beautiful and most interesting things amongst them, especially 
in the two first named genera, but they are not the freest of all to grow, and 
hence they have fallen out of cultivation somewhat. To get them to do 
well generally requires a little management. The most important point, 
however, is to find a suitable position for them, and this must be sought 
for in the warmest house— that is, cither the East Indian House, or an 
ordinary stove— at a part which is rather shady and which keeps pretty- 
regular in temperature and is naturally moist. Bright sunshine is harmful. 
hut they do not require to be kept so heavily shaded as IS sometimes 
supposed, especially when their position suits them in other matters. 
Thev tnav either be grown in pots or in baskets, and both answer equally 
well, though of the two I prefer the former. The pots should be crocked 
three-parts their depth with quite clean crocks and charcoal, a stout stick 
should be fixed firmly in the centre, to which the plant can be made steady 
^d well elevated above the rim. so that the sphagnum moss-I never use 
peat to these-may be built up con.cally to its base from where the new 
roots appear. Thev are fond of a good supply of water when growing 
freely during the summer, but during winter will take much less, m fact the 
"««» nuv then get quite white and crisp before water is applied Of 
course this last is one of those little matters in which the weather should 
he the principal guide, as with all other Orchids. 


The deciduous Calanthes must not be potted up too early. Let the 
new growths get an inch or two long first, and that will not be before the 
beginning of next month. On the other hand, the evergreen kinds, such 
as C. Masuca, C. veratrifolia and others, should either be repotted now or 
held over until the flowering season is past— about May or June. These 
Orchids grow best if potted up in a good rich compost, such as fibrous loam, 
leaf-soil, and lumpy peat mixed together. The pots should be thoroughly 
well drained nearly three parts their depth, so that the water— of which 
they like a good supply during summer —may pass away quickly from the 
roots. They are best grown in intermediate temperature. 

There are a number of other Orchids which are best suited with 
exactly similar treatment to that which the Dendrobiums best enjoy, and 
which have been resting with that genus during the winter in intermediate 
temperature ; such will again be moving into active growth and must not 
now be neglected. These are the Mormodes, Catasetums, Coryanthes and 
Cycnoches. The culture these genera require is nearly identically the 
same. They are all most likely to give the best results if grown in baskets 
in the Warm house, and in a very light position. The compost should 
never be allowed to get sour for want of renewing; certainly two years 
should be the outside limit, in fact, I think it is better to make a practice 
of giving new sweet materials for the plants to root in annually. Such 
would be the best safeguard against their deterioration, which it is well to 
avoid, for when this takes place some trouble is experienced before they are 
again brought to a sound state of health)- vigorous growth. Employ the 
best «,f fibrous peat and sphagnum moss in equal proportions, and make 
quite sure that the plants are tied firmly to sticks, or to the wires of the 
baskets, or they shake about when being handled, and the roots are unable 
to get a firm hold, which is most undesirable. The above cultural remarks 
will also apply to the Chysis, which are just starting to grow and will soon 
be showing their flowering spikes. Re-basket the plants after blooming- 
Of the pretty blue Acacalhs cyanea similar remarks may be made, 

; >h<HiM 

materials. Xow is also a good ! 

repot Pha.uses of the grandifolius type, also the Eulophia guineensis. The 
compost advised above for the evergreen Cahnthe- suits them admirably, 
and they should be given the warmest house 

Continue to repot or re-basket any of the Dendrobiums that need it " s 
soon as possible after they have passed out of their flowering stage, and 
afterwards place them in their proper growing quarters, where thev will be 
gradually mured to more warmth and moisture as the spring advances. 
U- tormosum is a very handsome Orchid, and comes in verv useful during 
the autumn months. It is not an easv one to keep in good health, and 
must have plenty of warmth to do so. It should be grown in small pans 


or baskets, and suspended at the hottest part of the house. It is Inst to 
re-basket, or to pick out the old compost and supply fresh annually, and 
this should be done just as the new growths begin to push forth. 1). 
Lowii. D. Bensonire, D. bigibbum, D. Dearei. 1). Maccarthite, I), 
macrophyllum, and D. Phalaenopsis require similar treatment. A very 
pretty and very cool-growing Orchid in flower just now is Odontoglossum 
X aspersum. It is a natural hybrid between O. maculatum and ( >. R.issii. 
Tin:, hybrid varies very much in detail, like its parents, some forms being 
washy in colour, whilst others have a groundwork of a beautiful golden 
yelk™, blotched and barred with bright chestnut-brown, and these are 
great acquisitions to the group. 

I mentioned in my last Calendar a few beautiful Oncidiums which love 
the temperature of the Cool house. There is another section of the same 
genus which I would here mention as doing best in the same department, 
supposing one important point be strictly observed, and that is to see they 
are kept dry after flowering in the autumn, and throughout tin winter 
months. I refer to those lovelv species which brighten up the house with 
their vivid colours in the dull autumn and early winter months, when there 
are but few other things in bloom, such as O. Forbesii, O. crispum, O. 
varicosum, and its large variety, Kogersii, O. tigrinum, and O. t. 
unguiculatuni. With the exception of the last two. these are best grown 
suspended, and all during the season before mentioned must be given but 
little moisture. They will now, however, begin to grow, and will require 
more water, gradually supplied. They are Orchids that do not take well to 
root disturbance, but this must be done about once in two years, as it is 
most important their roots should be kept in a sound, healthy condition. 
This operation should be done when the new growths are an inch or so 

One of the most useful Ccelogynes is the old and well-known I . cnstata. 
and it is very easily cultivated. It is best not to pull this species about too 
much when repotting. Unless the pseudobulbs are growing over the run 
of the pot it will scarcely ever require to be taken out of it. hut simply 6U 
in any hollow places with fresh peat and moss, without which the plant 
wonld in time get loose and shaky, presenting a more or less starved 
appearance, and small under-sized growth resulting. It will now soon 
have finished flowering and will be starting into growth, and this is there- 
fore the best time to do it up. Ccelogynes delight in a liberal supply of 
water during the growing season, with frequent supplies of weak liquid 
manure. After "rowth is completed they should have a long dry rest 
throughout the winter months, or they fail to bloom satisfactorily. The 
Mexican and Cattleya house temperature is the most smtable for C. cnstata. 
as indeed it is for most of the genus; for instance C. Sandenana, I . 


Massangeana, (". fuscescens, ('. cotrugata. ('. barbata, C. ocellata and most 
others, though C. Dayana, C. speciosa, C. Parishii, C. pandurata. and C. 
asperata are the better for a little more warmth. 

Be careful still with the watering of all Orchids, especially those kinds 
which have for the past few- months been quite dormant, Cenerally 
speaking all will require an increase, but it should be very gradual, for until 
there is greater activity with the roots and growth, and until we can rely 
upon more assistance from the outside conditions of the weather, a little 
will still suffice to keep the plants healthy-. I have written a good dial 
on watering because I am convinced it is a most important subject. 1 
have attempted to deal with the matter previously so as to enable 
readers to form an idea as to the quantity of water required at the various 
seasons of growth. But I find it is no easy task to write down instructions 
that are not absolutely free from the fault of being liable to be misunderstood 
by beginners in Orchid culture. It is one of those lessons which cannot be 
taught by theory- alone, but requires a certain amount of practice before the 
artificial requirements of an Orchid can be known. When once this is 
grasped it is soon seen how perfectly simple it is, and the cultivator will 
then withhold or apply water without hesitation or delay, whereas previously 
he paused in timid doubt, not knowing what was right to do. Like every- 
thing else it is so simple to do when one knows. For those who do not 
understand, the happy medium policy is the best one to adopt, for >« 
keeping too dry there is a danger of starving, and this is equally as bad as 
keeping too wet. I don't know if I have ever stated exactly my own prac- 
tice in watering, but if not it is through fear of misleading. During » 
winter months one day in the week only is here set aside for watering. W 
during the summer we allow two days, which are generally Saturday and 
Tuesday. Most plants on those days are found to require water, and have 
it without stint ; but of course there are always exceptions. Some W 
not want it so often, while others require to be examined more frequently. 
Ladia crispa (sometimes known as Cattleya crispa) is very sim*» 
in growth to Ladia purpurata, and should be grown with that spec"* 
having the same treatment in every respect with the exception ° 
the time in repotting, as it is much later in making up its growths and in 
flowering. The new pseudobulbs are now only half-way advanced to the" 
completion, consequently it must be about August before they can flower- 
after winch is the best time for repotting. 

Odontoglcssum citrosmum will now- be starting to grow. The pb»* 
have been kept very dry since November, in fact the pseudobulbs M* 
shrivelled a little, which is not really desirable, though it cannot be help* 
sometmaes. Continue to keep them on the dry side until the flower sp*' 
appear from the centre of the new growths "which will be shortly, ^ 



afterwards moiv water should be given. Cattleya Warneri is now well 
advanced, and may lie watered as soon as it looks dry. hat with Warso 
wiczii, which is just starting to grow, it is different, as it i^ a shy flower. 

and but little water must l>c given until the new growths are tw three 

inches high. C. Gaskelliana is also breaking well and should either Iv 
repotted this month or left over until immediately after flowering. If in 
bad condition at the root thev would be best A^no now. 

Aeranthus grandiflorus, Lindl.— Gari. Uog., Nov. 30, p. 764, with 
fig. : Orch. Alb., t. 514. 

BlFRENARIA I YKIAXTI1 ISA, Kehb. f.— Bot. Mag., t. 74(0. 

Cattleya x Mantinii.— Gari. Mag., Feb. N. p. 83, with fig. 
Cattleya Tkianj; alba.— fount, of Hort., Feb. 6, i>. 113, Bg. 17. 
Cypripedium x Gertrude Holuncton. foum. of Hort., Jan. 2, p. 
J. fig- 1. 

Cypripedium x James Buckingham.- -Joum. of Hort., Feb. jo. ,.. 159, 

fig. 2J. 

Dendrobium luteolum.— fount, of Hurt.. Feb. 13, pp. 142. 14.1- fig- J'- 

Lycaste Smeeana, Rchb. I— Orch. Alb., t. 516. 

Odontoglossum crispum Ashworthianum.— Gari. Cknm., Feb. 15. 
PP- 196, 197, fig. 26. 

Odontoglossum maxillare.— Gari. Mag., Feb. 22. pp. 116, 117. with 

Odontoglossum Schlieperianum flavidum.— Orch. Alb., t. 515. 

Renanthera Storiki, Rchb. S.—Orch. Alb., t. 51.5. 

Vanda Sanderiana, Rchb. f.— Garden, Feb. 1, p. 88, with fig. 

Zygopetalum Gautierl— Garden, Feb. 15- P- IlS - '■ '"5.S- 

A series of beautiful forms of Dendrobium nobile has been sent from the 
collection of O. O. Wriglev, Esq.. Bridge Hall. Bury. Among those 
described at pages 147 to 150 of our last volume may be mentioned the 
varieties pulcherrimum and Sanderianum, together with four other large 
and richly coloured forms, two of which probably come under the head of 
D. n . giganteum 

». n. m-,b,l,„s.' from the collection of W. P. Burkinshaw. Esq.. of Hessle. 
^ a magnificent flower j| inches across the petals, which latter are fully an 
■nch broad. D. n, elegans, from the same collection, has the petals as broad 


but a little shorter. Three or four other large light-coloured forms are also 

enclosed, showing that the plants have been very well grown. 

A curious form has flowered in the collection of R. Ashworth, Esq., 
Newchurch, near Manchester, in which half the flowers have the inner 
angles of the lateral sepals stained with maroon. A smaller number on the 
same plant have only one sepal so marked, and the remaining fourth are 
without these markings at all. It presented the same peculiarity last year. 
I his hp-hke colouration of the lateral sepals is characteristic of the variety 
burfordiense, though we believe the peculiarity is constant in that form. 

The forms of this popular and useful species are becoming rather 
umerous. Some others have been received, but call for no special remark, 


g only good ; 


The display of Orchids at the Drill Hall, James Street, Westminster, on 
February nth last was a very good one, and above the average for this 
particular season, doubtless owing to the mild weather which prevailed. A 
ber ot Awards were made, and, singularly enough, two exhibitors each 

received an Award of Me 
previously been overlooked. 

The Preside 

for the old Cypripedium villosum, which has 
Lawrence, Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. White'. 

group, to which a Silver Hanksian Medal was given. 

included a fine basket of the beautiful Dendrobium X burfordiense, covered 
with its pretty rose-tinted flowers, and a splendid specimen of D. X 
Uominianum, Masdevallia X Fraseri, M. melanopus, Cypripedium villosum 
aureum, and four others to which Special Awards were given. A fine 
specimen of Pleurothallis Roezlii, bearing numerous drooping racemes of 
arge vinous-purple flowers, received a Cultural Commendation, and three 
others each secured an Award of Merit. These were :-Masdevallia X 
Henrietta; (M. ,gnea ? x M. caudata Shuttleworthii 3 ), with salmon-pink 
flowers, vemed with a darker tint ; Dendrobium X pallens, a very 
delicately-tinted flower, of which D. Findlayanum is said to be one parent, 
and Cypripedium villosum, of which some fine examples were shown. 
<ne K.ght Hon. J. Chamberlain, M.P., Highbury, Moor Green, 

zzi t.™ <gr -These t er t t r very interesting h >- brids r ise ir 

rorri u " Masd e™llia X Shuttrvana Chamberlanu (M- 

of W ^ 2 X M - "»d*a Shuttleworthii'*), to which an Award 

U*cUaloT, g,¥eD ; and Dendrobil ™ X Andromeda (D. X Amsworthii 

flowers tinged whh pink ^TTJ * I ""* *«* f ° rm *** "^'^ 
K u witn pink, and the disc of the lip purple. 


The Hon. Walter Rothschild, Tring Park (gr. Mr. Hill 

Award of Merit for a fine plant of Houlletia tigrina bearing two racemes, 
one with two, the other with four flowers. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham (gr. Mr. Ballantine) showed a 

fine Odontoglossum X Andersonianuin, and the magnificent t). crispuin 
nobilius, with seventeen beautifully blotched flowers on the spike. It is 
one of the best examples of this species ever seen, and deserved the award 
made to it of a Silver flora Medal. 

R. I. Measures. Esq.. Cambridge Lodge. Camberwell Igr. Mr. Chapman), 
received a Silver Banksian Medal for a good gruup. including Dendrobium 
X Dominyanum, D. nobile Ballianum, Saccolabium bellinum, a richly. 
coloured Cattleya Triame. t'vpripedinm X Pegasus ,('. X Leeanum ? X 
C. X Morganiae 3). a very pretty hybrid. ('. x Olenus. C. x Leoniie. 
C. X Calypso superbum. and C. villosum. the latter receiving an Award ol 

E. Ashworth. Esq.. Harefield Hall, Wilmslow. staged a vcr\ tine -roup 
of cut Orchids, to which a Silver Banksian Medal was given. I I 
plants of Denbrobium X Wardiano-japoniciun. and a tine Cvpri|>ednun 
called C. X Leysenianum (C. barbatum Warnerianum 1 X C. bellatulum 
3 ), one of the numerous forms of C. X Richmanii. to which a special 
Vote of Thanks was given. 

J. T. Gabriel, Esq., Elmstead, Leigham Park Koad. Streatham (gr. 
Mr. Guyett), staged a group of finely-flowered specimens of Coelogyne 
cristata. to which a Silver Banksian Medal was given. 

Fran Ida Brandt, Villa Brandt. Riesbach. Zurich, received an Award of 
Merit for a very fine Odontoglossum Rossii rubescens. 

A. J. Hollington, Esq., Forty Hill. Enfield (gr. Mr. Ayling), sent three 
good Cypripediums, called C. X Mrs. Fred Hardy iC. superbiens t X C. 
bellatulum 3 ), C. X Annie Ayling (C. Curtisii ? X C. concolor 3) with 
rose-coloured petals densely dotted with dark purple, and C. X James 
Buckingham (C. X enfieldense ? X C. bellatulum 3 )■ a line rose-parple 
flower spotted with chocolate, to which latter a.i Awaid of Merit was given. 

E. H. Woodall, Esq.. St. Nicholas House. Scarborough igr. Mr. 
Hughesl. sent a good plant of the pretty orange-red Odontoglossum retusum. 
to which a Cultural Commendation was given. 

W. C. Walker Esq., Percv Lodge, Winchmore Hill (gr. Mr. 
Cragg), sent Dendrobium speciosum. which received a Botanical 

F. W. Moore Esq., Roval Botanical Gardens, Glasnevin, sent 
Selenipedium Klouschianum and Maxillaria porphyrostele, a Botanical 
Certificate being given to the latter. 

T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield, Manchester (gr. Mr. Johnson), 


sent a form of Cypripedium exul, C. X amabile, C. X Bragaianum), and 
C x Jamesonianum (C. Arthurianum 9 X C. X Leeanum superbum i). 

Messrs. James Yeitrh & Sons, Royal Exotii Nursery, Chelsea, staged a 
very fine group, to which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It included 
Epidendrum x Wallisio-ciliare, some splendid firms of Cattleya Triara, 
Saccolabium violaceum Harrisonianum, Phaius Blumei, Dendrobium X 
splendidissimum grandiflorum, I), x YVardiani-japonicum. I). X Cordelia 
and D. x C. flavescens, Selenipedium x Dromio (S. x cardinale ? X 
caudatum var. Uropedium 3 ), Cypripedium X Germinyanum, C. X lo 
grande, and C. X Lathamianum 3 . 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, also received a Silver Mora Medal 
for a fine group, including Pescatorea Klabochorum and P. Lehmanni, 
Phaiocalanthe X Arnoldia, Phaius X Cooksoni, Dendrobium X Sibyl, D.X 
Vannerianum, D. x Curtisii (D. X Cassiope S X D. aureum 3 ), D. 
Johnsonje, Ladia anceps Schrcederiana, L. a. Sanderiana and L. a. 
Hollidayana, Lycaste Skinneri alba, Cattleya Triame alba and others, a 
fine Cypripedium X Rothschildiamim. Trichopilia sanguinolenta, Oncidium 
cheirophorum, &c. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Clapton Nursery, staged a very pretty group' 
including a number of good Phakenopsis Schillcriana and P. Stuartiana. 
Cynorchis Lowii. Cymbidium Lowianum, numerous good Cvpripediums, 
and Dendrobium sarmentosum (Rolfe), a prcttv little species to which a 
Botanical Certificate was given under the name of I), fragrans. 

Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son. Upper Hollowav. also received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a good group, in which Cvpripediums figured largely, 
together with Ladia glauca and the beautiful Pescatorea Lehmanni. 

Messrs. Heath & Son, Cheltenham, sent Cattleya Trianae Ernesti, and 
another brilliant form, Dendrobium Findlayanum giganteuni. a very fine 
form of Phalienopsis Schilleriana, and P. X Yeitchiana, a most interesting 
hybrid between the last-named and P. rosea. 


' ' '' asrard. J he Odontoglossum is curiouslv abnormal, and i 
doubtful. Jhe Dendrobium maybe considered a pale form of I). X Rubens 
J. B., Hessle. Ladia anceps Ilarkeriana. 
H. G, Haslingde 
A- R. S., Troy, 
more hereafter. 

fair"'.r p i'caT hitbV ' Cyl "" ipediUm *■*«»!* very large spots. C., good b 
G. H California. Will reply as earl> as possib|e 

■ "■> R- Y., and others. Many thanks. Shall not be lost sight of. 

The Amateur Orchid 
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The Hybridist 

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Cattleya Fly 

Cypripedium Victoria-Maria: 

An Amateur's Notes 

Boianical Orchids at Kew 

I Note on periods of ripening of seed ... 

; Seedlings of Dendrobium nobile 

j Masdevalliarosea(Fig7) 

Diphyllous Cattieyas 

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Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held dating 

April, on the 7th and 21st respectively, when the Orchid Committee will 
meet at the usual hour of 12 o'clock, noon. 

Attention has sometimes been called to Cattleyas which open white but 
gradually become tinted as the flower becomes older. An example of I . 
labiata appeared in the collection of R. B. Macbean, Esq.. in November 
last, which, we are informed, opened as white as Ccelogyne crista!:,, but 
became darker every day until it finally reached a decided lavender t.nt. 
It is evidently not an albino, though the colouring matter d.d not develop 
before the flower opened. 

A flower of the charming little Dendrobium X Roeblingianum, described 
at page „, of our first volume, has been sen, from the collect,,,,, ,, he 
Right Hon. j. Chamberlain, M.P. It is a seedhng from D. Rocta* 
fertilised with the pollen of D. nobile, and well combines the characters of 
^ .. ~.. . ..,u — 1« t*M>n> the raisers. 

wo par 

. Pitcher and Manda were the raisers. 

Two flowers of a curious Odontog.ossum with both hp -de*- 
abnormal, are sent fron, the collection of D. B. Rappart, E ^' ° f /™ 
Cheshire, winch, owing to the peculiarity, cannot be certa.n.y determined 
.hough they may belong ,0 a hybrid between O Hal.n and O. ^*~ 
was as at first supposed. The crest of the l.p B onl> rerj p 
■feveloped, but it may behave differently at another tone ot no^ 6- 

t, -friv or the Bogota form of O. 
A very fine flower of Odontoglossum **££* ^ under this 

'"teopurpureum with nearly white ground, ongmaiu ues 


name, comes from the collection of R. Brooman White, Esq., of Arddarroch, 
measuring i\ inches across the toothed petals. The sepals are wholly 
brown except at extreme apex and base, and the petals very heavily marked. 

Odontoglossum X Andersonianum, from the same collection, is also very 
fine, the segments being seven lines broad, and well blotched on a pure 
white ground. O. X Wilckeanum splendens has the segments long and 
narrow, and the petals much undulate. The ground colour is white, and the 
large blotches deep red-brown. 

A large plant of the handsome Arachnanthe Cathcartii is now flowering 
in the collection of H. J. Ross, Esq., of Florence, bearing as many as ten 
racemes, with numerous flowers open at the same time. It is rare in 
cultivation, and does not always succeed as could be wished, but when 
grown properly is a very striking object. It has a rather rambling habit. 

The remarkable Poggio Gherardo variety of Cypripedium X Dauthien 
in the same collection is also bearing eight flowers, and is really a beautiful 
object. The history of this interesting sport is given at page 20 of our 
second volume. 

A fine flower of Cattleya Triana: delicata has been sent from the collec- 
tion of John T. Arkle, Esq., West Derby, Liverpool. It is from a plant 
imported a year ago, and the raceme bears three flowers. Another flower 
of the beautiful C. T. Arkleana, figured at page 81, is also enclosed, and 
shows precisely the same character as last year. 

Most forms of the charming little Cypripedium niveum are more or less 
dotted with purple, but a flower sent from the collection of Colone 
Marwood, of Whitby, by Mr. Horner, is an absolute albino, as there is not 
a speck of purple anywhere. It was imported about a year ago as • 

We have received a splendid inflorescence of twelve flowers of Cattleya 
aurantiaca from the collection of E. A. Beveis, Esq., of Oxford, which is 
one of six borne by the plant. The flowers are of the most brink"' 
orange-colour, and quite perfect. A complete account of this handsonw 
species is given at pages 83 and 99 of. our last volume. Those who""" 
obtain the beautiful natural hybrid Cattleva X guatemalensis should cross 
this species with C. Skinneri. 

Two very good forms of Cattleya Triana; come from the same collect'""- 
one fairly typical, the other a large delicate blush form, with purplish t 
pale margined lip. which may be referred to the variety Io. 


A four-flowered raceme of a most beautiful form of Cattleya Schradera 

is sent from the collection of HamarBass. Esq., Byrkley, Burti 
by Mr. Hamilton. The flowers are nearly pure white, with just the 
faintest trace of delicate blush, and the usual light orange disc. The petals 
are 2} inches broad, and the lip beautifully undulate. 

A richly-coloured flower of C. Lueddemanniao* isalso sent from the same 
collection, which has the peculiarity that the dorsal sepal is completely 
united to one of the petals, and yet retains its characteristie texture and 
venation. It is probably an accidental malformation. 

Among the European terrestrial Orchids in the collection of H. J. Elwes. 
Esq., Colesbourne. Gloucestershire, are some good forms of On-his militaris. 
O. longicruris. and Serapias Lingua, of which we have received examples. 
They are very pretty little plantsand succeed well, the latter inrreasingfieeK . 

Some fine flowers of Miltonia Roezlii and its variety alba are also 
enclosed, together with the charming little Pleione humilis tricolor, and 
Cymbidium madidum with 32 flowers. 

A distinct and beautiful form of Cattleya Trians not mentioned in 
our list at pages 114 and 199 of our last volume is the variety lilacina, now 
flowering in the collection of Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham. 
The front of the lip is lilac-purple, the disc yellow, and the rest of the 
flower pure white. 

The middle of March is late for Cypripedium insigne Sanderar. yet 
we have received a beautiful flower from the collection of E. H. Woodall, 
Esq., of Scarborough. We suspect it has been grown very cool. The 
flower is of a brilliant clear yellow. 

Mowers of the beautiful Cvpripedium X Cycnides and C. X William 
Lloyd, noted at p. 504 of our last volume, are again sent from the 
collection of R. H. Measures, Esq., of Streatham, to show how different 
th ey are, although both are said to have been derived from C. X 
Swanianuin and C. bellatulum. Mr. Measures remarks that the former 
shows so much of C. barbatum, both in the leaf and flower, that some 
doubt must be felt as to the records. 

A magnificent flower of Lycaste Skinneri comes from the collection of 
E. A. Beveis, Esq., of Oxford, in which the sepals are 3* >nches long by 
°«r I* inches broad, and the petals and lip equally well developed, the 
former strongly suffused with rose-purple, and the front lobe of the latter 
">uch blotched with rich crimson. 



A RATHER interesting question is raised by Mr. James Douglas in the 
Gardeners' Chronicle for February 29th, respecting figures of Orchids. 
Speaking of Stanhopeas, at page 264, he remarks :—" The figure of S. 
Haseloviana in the Bot. Mag. for January, has again brought to my mind 
an idea which has been there before : whether or not in the production of 
these coloured plates it would not be better to have the flowers photo- 
graphed in the first place : and if not the flowers, because they are to be 
coloured, certainly the parts of the flower that have not to be coloured, and 
the drawing of the plant itself, which is sometimes given. In the plate 
alluded to, are the tops of the column and the pollinia in two positions ( 
I make these comments because I had some excellent photographs from 
the Rev. F. D. Horner some three or four years ago of Stanhopea tigrina 
flowers, and they certainly were very different from the coloured plates of 
long ago. and the modern ones do not seem to be any better." 

I have nothing to say as to the particular plate in question, though 
with respect to photographic representations generally I think there can be 
no doubt as to their superior accuracy, as compared with drawings. II 
practice, at all events, very few artists succeed in giving the perspective of 
the flower and the relative amount of light and shade with anything like 
that degree of accuracy seen in an average photograph, and even the 
outlines and proportions of the different parts of the flower in many recentl) 
published drawings leave much to be desired. Some time ago a friend 
brought me three figures from the horticultural journals of a new hybrid 
Cypripedium, all drawn from the self-same flower (there being but one), 
and all were different, both from each other and from a photograph of the 
said flower : indeed, evidence derived from the text was required to sho« 
that ali were intended to represent the same thing. 

Of course my remarks are intended to apply to illustrations in Mart 
and white, because no process of photographing colours has yet 
perfected, though some recent experiments have yielded promising ' e " a ^ 
How far photographing the plants first and colouring them after" 
would succeed is perhaps doubtful, though I am perfectly certain th» 
camera that was ever made would give representations at all hk e M 
figures that I could mention, a certain Eulophiella among the number . ^ 
process of reproducing colours by photography would revolutionise 
horticultural works. 


Even in the matter of reproduction in black and white many photo- 
graphic illustrations are very imperfect, because of a difficulty inherent to 
the process— namely, that ordinary photography does not give different 
colours in their proportion as seen by the eye, some coming out too light, 
and others too dark. But much of this difficulty can be obviated by the 
use of isochromatic plates and coloured screens. Even without these useful 
accessories photographic reproductions are generally more recognisable and 
more life-like than drawings, and it is interesting to note how rapidly pho- 
tography is coming to the front for all purposes where accuracy is of prime 
importance. And in this connection I cannot avoid alluding to the valuable 
series of photographic illustrations which have appeared in the pages of 
the Orchid Review, which should convince anyone of the value of the 
process generally. 

Two or three times I have had occasion to mention the series of named 
hybrids derived from Cypripedium barbatum and t'. bellatulum, the last 
time as recently as February (pp. 36, 37), and I now see another addition 
to the list. In a report of an exhibit by Sir Trevor Lawrence at the Royal 
Horticultural Society's meeting on 10th March last, I read :— " Among the 
Cypripediums, C. X barbato-bellatulum (barbatum Warneri X bellatulum) 
was certainly the brightest of the ' Charles Richman ' class." (Gard. Cknm. 
March 14, p. stf.) This name is given in accordance with the botanical 
rule of naming hybrids— at all events with the exception that the name of 
the pollen parent is put last in the compound name, instead of first— and 
I now hope that this much-named hybrid will be allowed to rest. After 
being baptised a few times in Latin, a few more in the vernacular, and now- 
according to the canons of botanical nomenclature, one feels inclined to ask 

* verv fine form of Cattleya Trianie has been sent from the collection of 
D - B. Rappart, Esq., Lisca'rd. Cheshire, in which the petals are four inches 
long by over 2§ inches broad, and, with the sepals, of a deep rose-p.nk. 
The front lobe of the lip is rich crimson-purple, and the throat deep yellow. 
& ^ brighter in colour than the type, as well as much larger, and may be 
called C. T. superba. Some flowers on the same plant which opened a 
fortnight earlier are said to have been even larger than the one sent. A 
small light-coloured form is also sent, from a plant which arrived as a 
seedling on a piece of C. T. alba. It has now flowered for the hrst time on 
a bulb tiv e j nches long . It has not ye t properly developed. 



Restrepia sanguinea, Rolfe. — A pretty little species allied to R. 
pandurata, Rchb. f., but with wholly crimson flowers, excepta small yellow 
area at the base of the column and lateral sepals. It was introduced from 
Columbia by Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Heaton, Bradford, with whom it 
flowered in November last. — Kew Bulletin, 1896, p. 44. 

Dendrobium ouadrilobum, Rolfe.™ A species of the section Cadetia, 
sent to Kew by F. A. Newdigate, Esq., M.P., of Nuneaton, and flowered 
in the collection in October last. The leaves are small for the section, and 
the flowers large, uniformly pale whitish-green, and with a four-lobed lip, 
in allusion to which the name is given. Though received with other 
Dendrobiums from Australia, it is suggested as probably a native of New 
Guinea, or one of the adjacent islands. — Kew Bulletin, 1896, p. 44. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LONGiscAPUM, Rolfe.— Sent to Kew by Mr. Yeoward. 
Curator, Botanical Station, Fiji, in 1891, and flowered in November last. 
It is remarkable in having a long scape and short raceme, and a long 
attenuated lip. The flowers are light green, except the foot of the column 
and the lip, which are red-purple, the latter passing to yellow at the apex.— 
Kew Bulletin, 1896, p. 45. 

Bulbophyllum MACROCHILUM, Rolfe.— A Bornean species allied to 
the preceding, collected by Dr. Haviland, but not yet in cultivation— p. 45- 

Bulbophyllum attenuatum, Rolfe.— Another curious species allied 
to the two preceding, introduced from Borneo by Messrs. Linden, Brussels, 
who flowered it in October, 1892. The sepals are veined with maroon- 
purple on a lighter ground, and the rest of the flower suffused with the same 
colour.-A>u- Bulletin. 1896, p. 45. 

Laxhm subulatum. Rolfe.-A curious little plant introduced b) 
Messrs. F. Sander & Co., from the province of Minas Geraes, Brazil, 
differs from the three other species of the genus by its subulate leaves an 
smaller flowers, the latter being pale green, with a little suffusion of pm k ,n 
the sepals.— Kew Bulletin, 1896, p. 46. d 

Epidendrum atrorubens. Rolfe.— A Mexican species with dark re^- 

irlinm. and al 

th Messrs- 

purple flowers, belonging to the section Encyclium, and allied 
selligerum, Batem, and E. plicatum, Lindl. It flowered 

a, Lin*' 

Linden, Brussels, in October 1892.— Kew Bulletin. 1S96, p. 44- 

Spiranthes metallic.*, Rolfe.— A species allied to S. picta, wj- 
but with the perianth segments only about half the size, and the lea * e - ° o| 
peculiar olive-brown or metallic shade, frequently bearing a n '"" '^ 
smaller spots. It first flowered with Messrs. Veitch in 1882. The «o« 
are light green, with a whitish lip.— Km Bulletin, 1896, p. 4 6 - I)r , 

Macopes Sanderiaxa, Rolfe.— This is the plant described b) 


Kranzlin, under the name of Ancectochilus Sanderianus, but belongs to 
another genus. It is allied to M. argyroneura, Rolfe (Hasmaria argyroneura, 
Miq.), but is very different in the foliage.— A'.';. lUdldm. iSyh. p. 4;. 

Holothkix JoHNsrosi, Rolfe.— An East Tropical Afn, 
collected at the Upper Mlanje Platean, nearZomba, by Sir H. H.Johnston. 
It is allied to the South African H. condensata, Solid., but has large) 
flowers anda five-lobed lip. -Kew Bulletin, [896, p. 47. 

BULBOPHYLLUM ORTHOGLOSSUM, Kranzl. — A species of thl S 

group, allied to B. mandibuiare, Rchb. f., which flowered in the collection 
of M. Wendland, at Herrenhausen, Hanover. The Bowers are large and 
yellowish-green, with numerous brown stripes on the sepals and petals, li 
is a native of the island of Sarangni, and was discovered by M. Midiolit/. 
one of Messrs. Sander's collectors. — Card. Chron.. March 14. p. 32G. 

A plant of this species, in the collection of H. J. Elwes, Esq.. Colesbourne, 
Gloucestershire, has produced a splendid raceme of ten flowers, which 
indicates excellent culture on the part of Mr. Lane, who has charge of it. 
Many people find it difficult to grow well— probably through not giving it 
proper treatment — but it is a striking plant when it does succeed, and 
Schomburgk speaks of the stems as sometimes from five to six feet high. 
Some notes on its culture were given at pages 281 and 284 of our last volume, 
and Mr. Lane has obligingly sent the following note on his treatment :— 
The plant was purchased in flower of Mr. James Cypher, of Cheltenham' 
in the spring of 1894. It was rested during the summer in the Cattleya 
house, and when starting into growth in the autumn was potted in a 
mixture of peat, sphagnum, and charcoal, and placed in the East Indian 
house in a rather shady position, where it grew strongly and gave m I 
raceme of eleven flowers in the spring of 1895, The same treatment was 
given the following season, but the plant is not quite so strong this spring, 
for, as you will see, it has ten flowers only. I think my treatment differs from 
that generally recommended in this, that I do not give a large amount of 
water during the growing season, as I find the plant make a small quantity 
of roots in proportion to the top growth, also as the plant makes Its growth 
during the dullest months of the year it is never or rarely syringed over- 
head, as I think is usually recommended to be done rather heavily. I give 
^ough water during the resting season to keep the growths plump and the 
'eaves green. As the leaves are developed on the young growths they 
gradually fall away from the preceding ones. I find the plant may be 
Propagated in the same way as Thunias, by old stems up into 
P'eces and laying them on growing sphagnum. 



Dendrobiums are emphatically the plants of this particular season. 
especially the varieties of D. nobile and the numerous beautiful hybrids 
partly derived from it. of which \v< haw received numerous examples from 
different correspondents. 

A series of flowers sent by Mr. James Cypher, of Cheltenham, are 
particularly well grown, and include several fine varieties of D. nobile, as 
nobilius, splendens, pulcherrimum, Cypher!, pendulum, and Cooksoni, in 
the best condition ; a magnificent D. Wardianum with petals l\ inches 
broad, two forms of D. fimbriatum oculatum, one darker than the other ; 
together with D. X Ainsworthii, D. X A. roseum, some giant forms of D. 
X Leechianum, and D. X Apollo. The course of treatment followed by 
Mr. Cypher, by which such splendid results are attained, was detailed at 
P a ges 53 to 55 of our last volume. 

Messrs. Hurst & Son, Burbage Nurseries, Hinckley, send a very tint 
flower of D. n. nobilius, from the original form, having short and broad 
very dark segments, as figured at t. 214 of the Orchid Album : also D. n. 
Cooksoni, D. X Leechianum, and others, together with a good flower ol 
D. infundibulum. 

A very fine Dendrobium Wardianum comes from the collection of 0. 0. 
Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury, in which the petals are over l\ inches 
broad, also D. nobile giganteum, and two very good forms of D. 
Phalsnopsis, a plant which is always beautiful, though more useful later in 
the season, when it has fewer rivals. 

The delicately-coloured D. nobile Ballianum comes from the collection 
of R. Ashworth, Esq., of Newchurch, near Manchester, together with 
several others. 

A large amount of variation is seen among recent importations of D- 
nobile, and many of the forms do not correspond with those already 
described, but in order to avoid a multitude of varieties we think that only 
the more distinct ones should receive distinguishing varietal names. 

A leaf, flower, and photograph of the above hybrid have been received 
from the collection of Reginald Young, Esq., of Sefton Park. Liverp°° L 
together with the following note :_•• A flower of Cypripedium X Crossianum 
m my establishment was crossed by my gardener, Mr. Thos. Poyntz, wit 
the pollen of C. X marmorophyllum, in January, 189.. In January, 1S9* 
the pod having ripened, the seed was sown on its own pot. On the 8tH 


June, l8g{, my gardener disci >vered eja' seedling only. huMin aiming tin 
sphagnum, which h;ul become luxuriant in growth, anil to all 
the seedling at that time was already several months old. The first flowei 
was partially open 1st March, 1896." The flower sent shows distinct 
evidence of its parentage: in general shape. perhaps, being most like I'. X 

mar rophvlluin. while the characters of C. Hooker* and ('. vcniistiun are 

easily traced. It is a bold and well-formed flower, though the colours are 
less decided than could be wished. The dorsal sepal is bright green with 
about seventeen olive-green lines, and a broad while margin. The petals 
are light green at the base and light purple at tin' apex, the intervening part 
being nerved with purple-brown on a lighter ground, and with a very few 
purple-brow 11 spots. The lip is veined all over with purple-brown on ., 
rather lighter ground ; and the staminode large, round except at the apex, 
and suffused with light purple on a pale ground. All the segments are short 
and broad, and of good substance. The leaf is green, and rather obscurely 
tessellated. We should suggest crossing it again with some vei\ datk 
flower, as C. X Creon or C. X Harrisianum superhum. 

The parentage of Cypripedium X Lachesis (C. X Crossianum J and C. 
X marmorophyllum <f ), suggests an interesting question as to the 11; ming 
of certain possible hybrids, as detailed below. Tracing it back to the species 
from which it was derived, the parentage may be thus tabulated :— 

( X Crossianum 5 | venustum 3 

C. X Lachesis,; (Hookers 5 

( X marmorophyllum 3 |barbatu m 3 
From this it will be seen that the component parts of this hybrid are 
i insigne, } venustum, i Hookera, and i barbatum. Now other hybrids 
might easily be raised from the same four species in identical proportions, 
as shown in the following table :— 

, , . „ 1 barbatum ? 

I x Ashburtoms S |insigne 3 

(a.) C. x ?i [Hookera 1 

JX Atys 3 j venustum 3 

1 barbatum 5 

I x calophylhim 1 |Venllstum 3 

<bl C. X ': (Hookera: 5 

I X Echo 3 \ i ns igne 3 

The reverse cross in either of the above instances would, of course 
Produce seedlings of the same composition, or C. X Cassiope might be used 
in Place of C. X Atys, C. X amethystinum instead of C. X marmorpnyllum 


orC. X Meirax or other barbatum X Venustum hybrid in place of C. X 


Query : Should the products of these various crosses be considered 
synonymous with C. X Lachesis, varieties of it, or be entitled to entirely 
new names ? - Reginald Young. 

[A very curious question is raised in the above note, which it is not easy 
to answer absolutely. It has previously been pointed out that certain 
definite results might be obtained in different ways, as in the cases above 
cited, and bearing in mind the well-known variability of hybrids, especially 
of secondary hybrids, it seems quite probable that certain seedlings of the 
hypothetical crosses a or b might be more like C. X Lachesis than like 
other seedlings out of the self-same capsule ; and it is even possible that 
they might be so identical as to be indistinguishable from it, and in the 
latter case, at all events, a separate name would be meaningless, even in a 
florist's sense. We are inclined to think many secondary hybrids are not 
worth naming, and if only those which showed some distinct improvement 
on their predecessors were named and recorded these plants might be treated 
in the same way as florist's flowers, which they undoubtedly are. In the 
case of crosses between distinct species— primary hybrids— we think ever) 
distinct cross should be recorded, whether an improvement or not, and all 
subsequent seedlings should come under the original name, a distinct varietal 
name being added where such a course seems desirable. If this course were 
consistently followed we think the records might be kept free from 
much confusion. — Ed.] 


This striking form was exhibited at the Royal Horticultural Society I 
meeting on March loth last, by Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., and has since 
passed into the collection of J. Bradshaw, Esq., The Grange, Southgate. 
is most allied to the one known as O. X hebraicum lineoligerum, but differs 
in having the ground colour entirely bright yellow, and all the segments 
narrower and much acuminate, the lip being l£ inches long, and the sepas 
two inches. The spots on the lower halves of the sepals and petals ; a« 
numerous, red-brown, and somewhat elongated or line-like, as in the oro 
above named. It flowered out of a batch of Odontoglossum cnspum, »» 
of the numerous hybrids between that species and O. g lono ' 

,, which 
cr ispuin 

though the 

characters of the former are less apparent 

In shape 

bears a remarkable resemblance to 0. cirrhos 

however, is 

a native of Ecuador, far away from where 

grows. It i 

s a very pretty variety. 



An interesting hybrid was raised some years ago by the late Mr. Spyers, 
in the collection of Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., Kurford, Dorking, from I), 
speciosum 9 and D. Kingianum 3 , and a good plant was exhibited at ih. 
Royal Horticultural Society's meeting on March loth last. Looking at Mr. 
Hanson's book we find the record at p. iqS— •■ Dendrobimn kingianimi- 
speciosum (Kingianum ?) White, for Lawrence, Dorking. K.H.S.. h 
22nd, "9j." How this record was obtained we cannot say— and we fail in 
trace it — but in any case it is incorrect. No meeting was held on the date 
given, and the record does not tally with one from Mr. White himself, which 
accompanied a raceme of flowers, and which was taken from a note book 
kept by Mr. Spyers. The plant distinctly combines the characters of the 
two parents, those of I), speciosum being particularly well marked in the 
vegetative organs, though the pseudobulbs are considerably smaller than in 
that species, as would be expected. The racemes are about six to nine inches 
long, and bear from nine to twelve flowers, which are white, three-quarters 
of an inch long, and borne on longish pedicels. The lip is time-loin d. and 
marked all over with light purple spots and streaks, arranged in radiating 
lines, the front lobe being verv broadly rounded. It is an interesting little 
plant, and is apparently very floriferous. 


This handsome hybrid Zygopetalum was exhibited at the Royal 
Horticultural Society's meeting on March loth last, by M. A. A. Peeters, 
of Brussels. It was obtained from Z. intermedium 5 and Z. Gautieri 3 , 
and well combines the characters of the two parents. The sepals and petals 
are ij inches long, and purple-brown in colour, except at the base, which is 
light green. The lip is broadly obovate and, slightly longer than the 
sepals, 1 4 inches broad, and wholly suffused with purple, with darker violet- 
Purple radiating nerves, and quite smooth. The crest is whitish with 
numerous purple ridges, and the column wholly deep purple. The flowers 
are fragrant. It is a richly-coloured and handsome hybrid. 

Dendrobium X WlCANI.E. 
A very charming hybrid Dendrobium has been raised in the collection of 
Sir Frederick Wigan, Clare Lawn, East Sheen, by Mr. Young, from I) 
nobile J and D. signatum J, of which we have received the two-flowered 
raceme. The flowers have the general shape of the former, and measure 
ii inches across their broadest diameter, but the segments are a litt e 


narrower, and nearly pure white, with just a trace of very pale sulphur. 
except at the tips of the petals, where there is a faint flush of pink. The 
lip is more open than in D. nobile, like the sepals and petals in colour, except 
that the area round the disc is pale primrose. The blotch is rather smaller. 
and not quite so dark as in D. nobile. All these modifications shew tin 
influence of D. signaturn, and as both parents are very floriferous, it is 
certainly a very promising thing. The cross was made in March, 1891, 
the seed sown in April. 1892. and the flowers now sent are the first ones 
produced. This charming little plant is dedicated to Lady Wigan. 

Dendrobium x Harold. 

This is a very pretty hybrid raised in the collection of X. C". Cookson. 
Esq., Cakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne, by Mr. Murray, from Dendrobium 
Findlayanum t and D. Linawianum 3 . The pedicels are nearly three 
inches long, and rosy in the upper part, and the sepals and petals rosy except 
near the base, which is paler, and the petals at this part nearly white. The 
lip has a pink disc and rose-coloured apex, the remainder being nearly white. 
It distinctly combines the characters of the two parents, though those of 
D. Linawianum are the best marked throughout. The long pedicels should 
make it very handy for cutting. 

Dendrobium x Kenneth. 

This is a very pretty hybrid Dendrobium, raised in the collection of N. 
C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyns, by Mr. Murray, from »• 
Bensonae $> and D. Maccarthia; 3 . The sepals and petals are pure white, 
nearly two inches long, the former five and the latter seven lines broad, 
and the lip i| inches long by seven lines broad, very acute, and white, with 
a large maroon blotch. The cross was made in May, 1889, and the seed 
sown in July of the following year. Although the flowers sent are a good 
deal modified in shape, as compared with D. Bensonai, the influence of 
the pollen parent is less apparent than in most cases, but may be traced i» 
the shape of the sepals and petals. Their colour might at first appear 
curious were it not known that the union of purple and yellow often give 
white, as in so many of the forms of D. X Ainsworthii. where the yellow 
of D. aureum is invariably lost. The present hybrid is a very charming 
thing, and received an Award of Merit from the K. H. S. on March iot 

Another very handsome hybrid has been raised in the establishment 
Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, from Epidendrum Wallisii? and E. 
Endresio-Wallisii 3 , thus being a cross back to one of the parent spe« 
of the original hybrid. The result is very interesting. The flowers art 


borne in terminal racemes, as in tile pollen parent, but air <li larger, and 

show more of the character of E. Wallisii. The sepals and petals are rah 
dark brown, and spotted with dark red-brown, each spot having a narrow- 
pale ring round it. There is also a small whitish area at the extreme base 
of the segments. The lip is white-, with a yellow area at the base and a 
number of rosy-purple spots. The habit is neat, as in the pollen parent. 
The racemes bear three to five flowers. A good plant was exhibited at tin 
meeting of the R. H. S. on March ioth last, and received a First-class 
Certificate. It is now- in the rich collection of Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart. 
Messrs. Yeitch now send us flowers of a remarkable variety of the same. 
in which the sepals and petals are entirely light yellow, and tin- disc of the 
lip nearly half red-purple, partially arranged in radiating lines. In other 
respects it agrees with the type. It is very pretty and strikingly distinct. 
and illustrates once more the variability of secondary hybrids. 

I THINK your correspondent who wrote in the March number on the 
Cattleya fly, has not discovered the true fly or grub. I have, unfortunately. 
had a long and bitter experience of both, and have inspected many pupae, 
from which my gardener has hatched out the perfect insect. The fly is 
small, shining-black, and very hard. I enclose a dead specimen with this 
letter. Furthermore, although we have Lslia pnrpurata. and other species 
growing in the infected Cattleya house, we have never known a single 
Lselia to be attacked. It would appear then that there are two distinct 
enemies to be dealt with, one ravaging the Cattleyas, and the other the 

We have cut away hundreds of infected growths, fumigated, and trad 
every known remedy ; but really we seem almost as far off the end as ever, 
while the vitality of the plants has been seriously impaired. I shall boy no 
more Cattlevas until all traces of the enemv have vanished. 

Herbert MnxiNOTOH. 

Bromsgrove, Worcestershire. 

[The insect sent is a small black fly. exactly tdentical with some previously 
received from Mr. F. Koeslin, of Tvnemouth, and we have no ou ' 
the true Cattleya Fly. The fly alluded to by Mr. Hamilton at page 87 as 
founeion Ualia pnrpurata, is evidently something else, but whether he 
cause of the mischief, or a parasite on the other, we cannot say We 
hope that those who can throw any further light on this .natter w 
fail to do so.— Ed.] 



Tins curious species was introduced to cultivation soon after C. 
Chamberlainianum, to which it is nearly allied, and, indeed, for a time it was 
thought probably a variety of it, which, however, appears not to be the 
case. It is very similar in habit, but is a more robust grower, with a taller 
scape and differently coloured flowers. In both the leaves are oblong, and 
obscurely tessellated with two shades of green. The scapes are erect, and 
bear numerous broadly oblong, obtuse, conduplicate bracts, which, as well 
as the flowers, are developed in succession, the same scape remaining in 
flower for a long period, though generally only one or two flowers are 
open at the same time. In the present species the dorsal sepal is broadly 
elliptical-oblong, an inch long by nearl y as broad, and light green with 
a cream-yellow margin. The petals are linear-oblong, much twisted, 
ciliate, about ij inches long, and light green suffused near the 
margin with very light purple. The lip is oblong, subcompressed 
at the sides, l4 inches long, and very light green with a yellowish green 
margin, and the staminode ovate-oblong, subobtuse, hairy at the base, and 
the colour olive-green. As these characters have proved constant in a 
large number of plants it is evident that it must be considered a species 
distinct from C. Chamberlainianum, though nearly allied. It also is a 
native of Sumatra, though from another district, and was introduced J 
Messrs. F. Sander & Co., of St. Albans. 

R. A. Rolfe. 

The additions to my Orchids in flower for the present month number o ' 
a score, besides which some of those previously mentioned are still keepm,- 
up a succession of bloom, especially Ccelogyne cristata, Cattleya Ina • 
Odontoglossum Rossii, Dendrobium nobile, which I consider as among t e 
most valuable Orchids for keeping up a succession of flower at this sea 

Dendrobiums just now occupy the first place, and among the add "° ms 
I must enumerate the beautiful D. Devonianum, whose pendulous stern^ 
are literally wreathed with flowers, D. primulinum, monihforme, can 
ferum, Jamesianum, and the beautiful D. X Venus, which I think is J»» 
unsurpassed among hybrid Dendrobiums. Cattleya Lavvrenceana. t00, [f 
put in an appearance, and two or three forms of Masdevallia Chimera, * ^ 
some plants of Chysis bractescens are now at their best. This, I « ' j.^ 
a very attractive Orchid when well grown, and its flowers are almos 

Eulophiella Elisabeths; is now well in flower, and will evidently m 


a good Orchid for the Warm house, where it succeeds well. Ii is verj 

distinct from anything else, and the flowers, though not hi.. 
numerous, and last well. Cymbidium eburneum is as good as it always is. 
and Maxillaria Sanderiana, Cyrtopodium Andersoni, and Epidendrum 
evectum are now flowering well. Angnecum citratum is verv pretty and 
distinct, and the ranks of Odontoglossum arc swelled bv s,,m,' good plants 
of O.cirrhosum, a very graceful species. Miltonia cuncata. ton. >. flower- 

Additions among ("ypripodiinns worth noting arc C. hirsiitissiinuin. 
exul, concolor and niveum, and these are being followed by - ■. 
and among them the hardy species C. pubesccns. a flower or two of which 
are already out. This species is well worth growing in pits, which i an he 
brought into the house when in flower, as it is so distinct from the tropical 
kinds, and. moreover, very handsome. 


One of the most interesting of the numerous botanical Orchids now 
flowering at Kew is Bulbopyllum barbigerum, which will doubtless form a 
centre of interest for some weeks to come. It is hardly necessary now to 
point out how quickly the long hairy lip responds to the slightest breeze, 
and pops up and down when the ventilators are open, as if endowed with 
mobility on its own account. The sensation a plant of it caused at one of 
the Temple shows will long be remembered. A plant of the curious 
Australian Dendrobium teretifolium is also flowering well, with its pendulous 
habit, whip-like leaves, and graceful racemes of white flowers. I), parcum 
With braching habit and small yellow-green flowers, and I), secundum with 
one-sided racemes of pink flowers, may also be mentioned, while other allied 
Plants are Cirrhopetalum csespitosum and the curious little Trias picta. 

There are several Odontoglossums which are only botanical Orchids, 
and of these O. ramulosum is bearing a raceme of its small yellow and 
brown flowers. The rare Mormodes Hookeri has a raceme of its deep purple 
flowers with hairy lip, and Maxillaria Houtteana two or three of its brilliant 
red flowers. Other interesting plants are .Eonia polystachya. Lockhartia 
Regans, Xvlobium corrugatum, Amblostoma tridactylitum, Cymbidium 
madidum, and Trichocentrum triquetrum, the latter a striking little plant 
w «h iris-like habit and large light yellow flowers spotted with orange. 

Holothrix Lindlevana, sometimes known as Tryphia secunda, ,s a pretty 
H »le Cape species with erect racemes of small white flowers and deeply 
!°bed lip. p elexia macu!ata and p. olivacea are also both now in flower. 

,,, the orchid review. 

In the Pleurothallis group may be mentioned the curious Octomeria 
juncifolia, Pleurothallis gelida with numerous erect racemes of green flowers, 
the curious little Scaphosepalum swertisefolium, also Masdevallia Benedicti 
and M. triangularis, both flowering very freely. Some of those mentioned 
last month (page 69) are also still in flower, and the above are the principal 
additions at the present time. 

The following are results from a large number of observations, and may be 
interesting in connection with Mr. Mead's notes at page 41. Vnlas seedling* 
hare been obtained, it is not right to assume that the seed was either good or 
ripe, and the results given here are all taken from cases in which the seed 
produced healthy plants : — 

Calanthes — 4 to 5 months (dozens of examples). 

Cypripediums-ftom 7 to 13 months, but in most cases 10 to 1 1 (hundreds of examples). 

Selenipediums-in all cases a much shorter time than Cypripediums (scores of examples 

Dendrobes— from 9 to 1 7 months, in a usual way 14 to 15 (many scores of examples). 

Masdevallias— 4 to 7 months (probably i(j dozen of examples). 

Odonloglossums— 12 to 17 months (two cases only in which plants have been raise )■ 

1'hajus— 6 to 9 months (several examples). 

From careful observation I am strongly of opinion that the period 
necessary to produce fertile seed depends on the period usual with the see • 
bearing parent, and that the pollen parent has little to do with the period 
necessary for the seed to ripen. 


Oakwood. Wvlam-on-Tvne. 

At page 168 of our last volume a note was given on a batch of seedlings in 
the collection of N. C. Cookson, Esq., of Wylam-on-Tyne, obtained > 
crossing Dendrobium nobile nobilius with the pollen of D. n. CookS °™' 
From the same seed-pods some good forms of each parent were oVasa *' 
together with a series of forms grading down to ordinary D. nobile- 
of these plants passed into the collection of F. H. Moore, Esq., of Liverpo . 
and the first flower produced was noted at the same time, though thro 6» 
some confusion with the others it was mentioned as an ordinary form ^ 
D. nobile. This year the plant has produced eight flowers, one of wb*» 
again sent, and is almost identical with D. n. Cooksoni, the petals 
almost metamorphosed into lips as in that. 1 1 is very remarkable that s ^ 
a series of forms should have been obtained from the same seed-po • 
course they are not hybrids, both parents being forms of D. nobile- 


Opg present illustration represents a beautiful specimen of MasdevalHa 

rosea from the collection of Major General C. B. Lucie-Smith, The Acacias. 
Worthing. Some notes on the method of culture employed wen given at 
page 154 of our second volume, and we may here further remark that daring 

'he summer months, from the end of May to about the beginning of 
October, the cool Orchids are grown in sheltered places in the open a.r, 
'hose loving the most shade being placed in a small court-yard, with the 


entrance covered by a canvas screen. They are placed on a stage erected 
over a border planted with hardy ferns, and are in the most perfect health. 
During the rest of the year they are cultivated in a small house, and the 
temperature kept rather low, sometimes falling to 40 in winter. These 
are the conditions under which the above specimen was grown, and the 
photograph indicates very clearly that the treatment is suitable. A plant of 
Masdevallia racemosa had also nine growths and 135 leaves. Other plants 
which succeed well under this treatment are Epidendrum vitellinnm. 
Cochlioda Noetzliana, various Odontoglossums, Oncidiums, and Masdevallias. 
Cattleya citrina, Ccelogyne cristata, Cypripcdium insigne, Yandas ccerulea 
and Kimballiana, Sophronitis grandiflora, Lielia majalis.and various others. 
The open-air shelters in which these plants are grown are fitted with 
skeleton frames on which light canvas shading is stretched, to break the rays 
of the son, and the keen winds when the weather is rough. The results 
prove that if care is taken to keep together the species which require similar 
treatment, especially with regard to sun and shade, many of the coolest 
Orchids will grow and flower abundantly, year after year. Masdevallia 

■ of the coolest-growing species in the genus, as it occurs 

■A hi:- J 

Ecuador, where the climate is naturally cool. We have to 
thank the gallant Major for the photograph. 


In a recent issue of the Orchid Review (vol. III., p. 37°). l note that ! J" 
think it remarkable that a Cattleya usually producing monophyllous pseiraV 
bulbs should at times come two-leaved. We have five cases of this descrip- 
tion here in the Cattleya house, and I have photographed and sent yM 
prints of two of these, the larger plant being C. Gaskelliana, and the other 
C. labiata (vera). Allow me to tender you my hearty appreciation of your 
work as demonstrated in the Review. _ „ CT 

Edward 0. Orp". 
South Lancaster, Mass., U.S.A. 

nuch obliged for the photograph-, winch 

, the observa- 

v occasionally develop t 

1'. H- 

group.-- Pseudobulbs always monophyllous.- which would have been^t 
expressed as— "Pseudobulbs normally 111. mophyllous." When Mr 
Moore first called attention to a diphyllous bulb of C. labiata we s« 5 P ec ^ 
that he had a plant of the hybrid C. X Victoria-Rcgina (s»#n». IU " P ' ^ 
%. 1), but when he afterwards sent bulb, (lower, and l' 1 '" 1 """', ;,,,,, 
immediately saw it to be typical C labiata It is quite possible that 
species of the labn.ta ..„„,, „', 1V ',.,.,,;„„', ,. v develop ,li P hyllo»s p«ado 


I (JUITE agree with " Argus " in his remark that it is time that the too 

common practice of giving new names to hybrids of identical parentage 
should be checked. The list he suggests would. 1 am sure, be too long for 
reproduction in your pages, and I do not think it would be of an\ practical 
good as a preventative. It seems to me that what has already been done 
cannot now be remedied, and it would be useless to point out the names of 
those most guilty in this respect. It also seems immaterial whether tin 
fault has been intentional or simply committed in ignorance. The point 
now is, how best to remedy the evil fur the future. 

It surely would not be asking too much to request the Orchid Committee 
to decline to take notice of hybrids presented under new names in all eases 
where hybrids of the sane parentage have been previously recorded. And 
the task of keeping a correct list for reference, showing at a glance whethei 
a hybrid of such and such a parentage has already been named, should not 
be beyond their power. With such a record it would be easy to see what 
crosses have been made, and the names given to the production, bidders 
of gardening papers might also assist in this work. 

I was pleased to note that you have recorded Sander's hybrid Cypri- 
pedium x Said Lloyd as C. X Lioydiie. I think there are obvious objections 
to naming Orchids after living people, whether ladies or gentlemen, unless 
latinised. Leaving out other obvious considerations, there is the possibility 
of wishing to add a varietal name, and such additions as expansum, rubrum. 
nigrum, &c, &c, would not appear well after the name of a lady. 

Reginald Young. 
Sefton Park, Liverpool. 


The following note on the collection of cultivated Cypripediums at Kc« 
is extracted from a letter published in the Gardeners Chronicle for Feb. 15th. 
last (page 20J) . There are sixty species of Cypripedium (including 
Selenipedium) ,n the collection, and, except only the rare C. Faineanum, 
these are all that are known to be in cultivation. Of the hundreds of 
hybrids now known (in the list published in the Gardener* Chronicle last 
vear, February 16, p. 199, there are 522 enumerated), only thirty-two are 
represented at Kew. During the winter the more delicate species are kept 
in the small private houses, where the conditions are more suitable than .n 
'he large houses to which the public are admitted: but anyone specialty 
interested is permitted to see the plants in the private houses. Of these 
fourteen species and seven hybrids are in flower. 



By H. A. Burberry, Highbury, Moor Green, Birmingham. 
The temperatures given last month should still be maintained. The 
weather is sometimes very changeable and trying this month, which 
necessitates watchfulness and consideration in the matter of ventilation, 
so that the plants may not receive a sudden check caused by too much cold 
air blowing directly upon them ; or, on the other hand, by insufficient air. 
shading, or moisture. Shading from bright sunshine must now generally be 
adopted for all Orchids except those in the Mexican house. Damping down 
should be done twice daily in all departments. 

Thrips and Red Spider must be well kept under from the beginning, by 
employing remedies already advised. For the former fumigate with XL. 
All vapourising insecticide, and for the latter sponge frequently with 
Kilm-right, or soft soapy water. 

The repotting of any Orchid should be pushed on with when it is seen 
to be in the proper condition, which, with but few exceptions, is when new 
growth is appearing and new roots are just pushing out. After repotting 
always expect the plants to shrivel to some extent, but prevent them from 
doing so as much as possible, by giving extra attention in such matters as 
protection from the sun, keeping the surroundings moist, and slightly 
spraying the surface of the compost and the foliage occasionally, until re- 

This is the most suitable time of the whole year to buy newly-imported 
plants. If purchased now they start to grow almost immediately, and wi 
often do as well the first season as others which are quite established. 
Cattleya labiata, I see, has again passed under the hammer at Protheroe 
& Morris's in large quantities. When received, they should not be taken 
at once into the Cattleya house, for fear of the Cattleya fly, which may be 
lurking concealed within the mass of old roots and bulbs. Let all dea 
roots and other rubbish be trimmed away, and the remaining foliage an 
pseudobulbs washed with a wet sponge ; then, if possible, let them be place 
in a house which is being fumigated with XL. All, which will probably ki 
any fly that may have escaped. Much of this pest has, I believe, late) 
been imported with this particular species. They may afterwards be taken 
to the Cattleya house and placed on the stage in an upright position, where 
water should be supplied to the roots— not too frequently at first, in ° r « r 
that they may resuscitate gradually, but surely. Soon the pseudobul s 
will become plump, and directly new growths and roots are appear"",' t '<? 
should be potted up and treated as established plants. The same treatmen 
should be practised with all other species of Cattleya when newly ''"P 01 ^' 
and I would advise growers who intend increasing their collec 10 


with newly-imported plants to do so during the spring or earlv summer. 

An importation of another grand Orchid has. I observe, latch taken 
place, in the form of Vanda Hookeriana. This species, like Vanda teres. 
which it closely resembles in growth, delights in a moist and sunny part 
of the warmest house, near the glass, and copious syringing during the 
growing season. Even when inactive in winter it should not be allowed to 
become very dry. The base of the steins should be well secured in crocks, 
nearly up to the rim of the pot. leaving enough space only for a surfacing 
"I sphagnum moss, which will soon grow. The long and slender stems 
will then require the aid of sticks to support them in an upright position. 
Be careful not to deluge too freely when newly imported, until new roots 
begin to push, after which the risk of swinging them too often is remote. 

A fresh consignment of Vanda ccerulea has also arrived. 1 would advise 
growers against tampering with this -or, indeed, any other species of 
Vanda — by cutting away the leafless stems when life remains in the roots 
that are still attached. This is sometimes practised in order to bring the 
green leaves lower down to the pot, to make what is supposed to be a more 
handsome-looking plant. In such a procedure there is no common sense. 
The stems and live roots may, however, be sunk in the pot as low as is 
possible. I prefer for these Vandas perforated pots : the air then has 
access, in a more or less degree, to the roots, which is to some extent 
necessary, they having previously been exposed. I also prefer pots of a 
rather large size, so that the stem may go to the bottom without crushing. 
Fill up the pots with mixed crocks and charcoal broken small, nearly level 
with the rim, working them well in between the roots, and then surface 
over with a layer of about an inch of sphagnum moss, pressed firmly down. 
The roots that are beneath the moss should be kept moderately well 
supplied with water. Thus the plants are started, and will do well for a 
time. Ultimately they grow taller, and will make a mass of aerial roots, 
which cannot be lowered beneath the moss if those already there are still 
living ; and it is not good policy to do so. It is at this stage that Vanda 
ccerulea first commences to deteriorate, and will surely do so if the wants 
of these aerial roots are neglected. Place the plants together, so that the 
roots (not the foliage) may be well moistened by syringing them several 
times daily with tepid rain water. Vanda ccerulea will grow well under 
general Cattleya house conditions during the summer, removing to a little 
warmer but well-ventilated house for the winter, when it should also be 
kept fairly moist at the roots. ... 

Amongst other arrivals I notice the name of Miltonia spectabths which 
b best grown in baskets or pans suspended in a warm house, but will also 
do fairly well in intermediate temperature. The be* c ° m ff <^™ 
fibrous peat and sphagnum moss in equal parts. 

uld here mention 


that newly-imported Orchids should never be allowed to produce flowers 
until they have made new pseudobulbs. If allowed to do so, Cattleyas and 
Laelias, Dendrobiums, Odontoglossums, aad others, will occasionally push 
a spike immediately they are received, but such spikes should be at once 
removed, or the plant will become so weakened as to be almost beyond 

The deciduous kinds of Calanthes are now at a right stage for re- 
potting. They should be done annually without fail. Having been 
kept dry since flowering the new growth will be an inch or so high, 
sturdy, and healthy, with plenty of new roots pushing from the base. Let 
the compost be three-fourths good turfy loam broken in small pieces, and 
the remainder leaf soil and coarse silver sand. The pots should be drained 
about half their depth, and not over large, but of a reasonable size in 
comparison to the bulb or bulbs which they are intended to hold. They 
may either be grown singly, or two or more in one pot : I prefer the 
former. They are most likely to grow well and give best results if potted 
firmly. Pot to about half an inch below the rim of the pot so as to 
facilitate watering. Let the base of the pseudobulb be inserted a little 
beneath the surface of the soil, and secure it in its position by a stick 
thrust into the soil. The compost, of course, at the time of repotting will 
be somewhat moist, and the plants should require no water for about a 
week. Afterwards they should be watered about once a week for a few- 
weeks, after which the supply may be gradually increased as the foliage 
becomes stronger and the roots more plentiful. Let Calanthes be grown in 
the warmest house and well up to the light ; a shelf is a good position '" 
them. If the pots are new they should be well soaked in 

In our Mexican house the repotting, top-dressing, and the putting ° 
everything straight, is now practically finished, and as a reward the roots 
that are pushing forth are seen to delight in the new sweet compost. Our 
chief aim when repotting is always to get the new roots to enter 
compost as soon as possible after showing, because then not only are they 
out of harm's way, but are capable of rendering much more assistance to 
the plant than when exposed. With a view to attaining this end « 
endeavour, if possible, to get the new compost well up to the rhizome oft e 
last-made pseudobulb, so that at least the newly-made roots of the tire 
year may enter, and those of the following year or two before the plant M 
again repotted may have a fair chance of doing so. When the plants «■ 
large specimens this task is not easy of accomplishment, and can only ^ 
done at the cost of a good deal of time and patience, for the. » 
generally to be divided piecemeal and again reformed into a comp 
handsome looking plant, without burying the back pseudobulbs- if « c 



possibly be avoided. It is against Nature to smother Orchids up by placing 
the back pseudobulbs beneath the compost : although I admit at time*, 
owing to tile peculiar formation of the plant, it cannot !>»■ altogethei 
avoided. Avoid it. however, as much as possible, and try to git ttir 
rhi/ome from the oldest to the newest pseudobulb to lie neatly but firmly 
upon the surface of the compost. Schomburgkias grow well in this 

Ladia superbiens has just passed nut of bloom, and is starting t" grow. 
and should now be repotted if necessary. It should bedone in the sameinannei 
as Cattleyas or Lselias. Schomburgkia Tibicinis is best managed if grown in 
a pan or basket, and suspended. The Barkerias, too. should l>c suspended 
in this sunny house, and must be made firm in their pans with moss, after 
which the grower is powerless to train the new roots into the moss, or to 
cause the young breaks to appear at the base of the old pseudobulb. Thc\ 
more frequently come half-way up, and the roots will start from the same 
point, pushing straight out into the air; consequently they an 1111 
straggling growers, and all they require is full sunshine close to a ventilator 
and abundant syringing when growing two or three times daily. The 
flowers of some Barkerias, however well the plants are cultivated, are very 
small, and give but a poor return for labour bestowed. The true B. 
Lindleyana is the best, and is perhaps the only one that I can recommend 
as being really worth growing. It has flower stems only a foot long : the 
flowers are brilliant in colour, closely set together, and of good substance, 
lasting a long while in perfection. Let no Orchid be passed by during the 
potting season if it can be possibly be avoided whose roots are in a badly 
decomposing compost. If a doubt should exist it is better to err by doing 
it than the reverse, as when repotted we know that the plant is on the right 
side, and although a slight check may result it is only for a time, and the 
plant will soon recover, and again make good healthy growth. To a 
practical grower of course there is no hesitation, a glance at the general 
condition of the surface roots, and the colour of the foliage is enough to 
>now linn what is going on beneath. 

Our work here for the present month will principally Ik- amongst the 
Cattleyas and Dendrobiums, beginning with the former, and finishing as far 
« we possibly can with the latter. Before its expiration most of the 
C Triana: will be finished, also C. Dowiana aurea. C. Bowrmg.ana. C. 
Rex. Ladio-cattleya X elegans, and a few others that may be sufficiently 
advanced. Always give good drainage. I am an advocate for firm potting, 
the compost of peat and sphagnum moss should be worked well in between 
the roots without breaking them, and made firm by pressing it down with 
a stick. Firm potting is also best for Dendrobiums. Many oi 
grown in shallow- pans or baskets, therefore but few 1 


The very pretty Trichopilia suavis is now producing its flower spikes, 
and all the species of this genus, including those formerly called Pilumna, 
are best grown in a shady part of the Mexican house, or in the Cattleya 
house, and if treated exactly like a Cattleya will grow well, and keep free 
from that black disease which often takes them off if kept too wet or cold. 
The same conditions are also necessary for Burlingtonias, which should be 
grown in baskets near the light, as also should Cattleya citrina. No doubt 
this species is best grown on blocks of wood. The best blocks are made of 
living apple or pear, or, failing these, plum, whitethorn, the common 
dogwood, or maple may be used in a green state. Next in order come 
blocks of teak wood, which resists decay and fungus for a long time. If 
ordinary deal is used it should be charred before using. 

Disas may now be removed to a cool frame facing north, or otherwise 
they must have a specially cool place selected for them in the Odonto- 
glossum house. They may now be freely supplied with water throughout 
the summer, and care must be taken to keep them quite clean and free 
from insect pests. I have discontinued growing Vanda Kimballiana in the 
Cool house, finding that the Intermediate house temperature suits it better. 
It should now be given fresh moss and plenty of moisture. V. Amesiana 
will also grow well in the same house. The pretty little orange-coloured 
Odontoglossum retusum is now in flower ; also Cochlioda Noetzliana and 
C. vulcanica gigantea. We find all these grow thoroughly well in the 
coolest house. 

Some kinds of Cypripedium, when newly imported, are not so easy to 
establish as others. C. Stonei, C. Lowii, C. Haynaldianum. and such-like 
species, often give some trouble to keep from dying. They should be kept 
well shaded in a fairly moist house. The roots should be moistened occa- 
sionally, but water had better be withheld from the leaves for a time. < 
is best to set the plants on damp moss, propped upright. The system o 
laying them about on the stages, or suspending them by their heels an 
syringing them, is not to be commended. The repotting of the establish 
plants must be continued as they commence to grow after flowering. Wj 
the compost be of good lumpy peat and sphagnum moss, mixing m a i 
fibrous loam and silver sand, and pot firmly. Never insert the old ba 
roots into the new pot without first freeing them from the old materials- 

The disbudding of aerial growths from the pseudobulbs of Dendro buim» 
has previously been advised. A question from a correspondent, aSB 
whether or no they should be removed, reminds me that others may f^ 
be uncertain in this matter. " Some newly-imported plants of Dendro u>^ 
nobile have broken into growth at many points of the old bulb=, »- j ^ 
from the base." Providing a reasonable quantity of growths appear 
the base— and such is mostly the case— those from the top must be remov 


If there is no life at the base, then leave the aerial growths to the nmnbei 
of one to each pseudobulb. In such a case, however, the plant would In- 
best simply laid on moss, so that the roots could enter it, and not !»■ potted 
up properly until the following year. If the plant is a rarity, tin ■><■ top 
growths, when they appear, may be propagated by taking them off when 
about two inches long, with a heel of the old pseudobulb attached, and 
potted in thumb pots, when they will make nice little pseudobulhs the first 

Cattleya Percivaliana Ingram's var.— Jam. of HorU, Feb. 17, 

pp. 128, 129, fig. 26. 

Cattleya Schrosderjb.— Jam. of Hon.. March 12. p. 221). fig. .17. 

CVMBIDIUM X LoWlO-EbCRNEUM — Gari. Mag., March 21. p. 19O, 
with fig. 

Cypripedium Mastersiahum — Gari. Mag.. March 14, p. [66, with 

Cypripedium Sani.ek.amm. Kchb. (.-Card. Ckrm., March 14, p. 
329, fig. 45. 

Dendrob.lm X L.EECHIAHUM.-/<*m. of Hart., March .2. p. 22,,. 

Dendrobium WARDIANUM.— Joum. of Hort.. March 12. p. 237. 

fig. 40. 

Dipodium paludosum, Kchb. f.— Boi. Mag., t. 74°4- 

Epidendrum X elegantulum.-/™™. of Hort.. March .6, p. 25.. 

fig. 46 ; Gari. Citron., March 21, p. 3 61 . fi K- 49- . ^ 

Feb o£EE£ 3 'iS SC—UKUM.-^ *«, W * 

hg " rf „ x» , ™„k,-« P,tt.anlm.-GW. World, Feb. 29, 


PP. 413, 414. with fig. . „. 

Phaio-calasthe X Sedeni albiklora.->»™. of Hon., j 

"wLea plor.da.-G.*. Cnro,,, Feb. 29, pp. -4.*. * f 

STAHIOPEA OCULATA GUTTULATA.-G.rn*. Chro,,, Feb. 29, p. ** 
^'Jycopetalum X PERRENOKW.-C™*. Ckro,., March «. P . 367, 

n g- 30. 



Tin ki was an exceptionally tine display of Orchids at the Drill Hall, James- 
street, Westminster, on March loth, when the Royal Horticultural Society 
held its third meeting for the present season, exhibitors to the number of 
thirty putting in an appearance. 

The President, Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. 
White), staged a particularly fine group, to which a Silver Flora Medal was 
given. It included several beautiful Dendrobiums, as D. X Thalia (D. X 
Ainsworthii X D. nobile nobilius), D. X Luna, D. X The Pearl, D. X Euterpe, 
D. X melanodiscus, D. X Ainsworthii. D. cruentum, D. nobile, and D. X 
Kingiano-speciosum (D. speciosuni 2 X D. Kingianum 3 ) with several 
racemes, C. X barbato-bellum (C. barbatum Warneri ? X C.bellatulum 3 )C. 
X calloso-bellum, and a very remarkable variety of C. X conco-Lawre 
called Janus, in which one petal and half the dorsal sepal were yellow, 
while the rest of the flower was purple: C. Rothschildianuni, Lslio- 
cattleya X Thetis (L.-c. X exoniensis X L. pumila), two plants of the 
handsome Cattleya Triana Leeana. Calanthe X Stevensii, a well-flowered 
plant of Camaridium Lawrenceanunl, Epidendruin X Endresio-Wallisii, 
&c. The following received Special Awards :— Cymbidium X Lowio- 
eburneum, said to be the reverse cross of C. X eburneo-Lowianum, First- 
class Certificate; Dendrobium X Clio (D. X splendidissinium grandiflorum 
X D. Wardianum), Award of Merit : and Brasso-cattleya X Lindleyana 
(Rolfe), a splendid plant with eighteen flowers, Cultural Commendation. 

T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield, Manchester (gr. Mr. Johnson), 
showed a fine group of remarkably well-grown Dendrobiums, to which a 
Silver Flora Medal was given. It contained the beautiful D. nobile 
Amesia:, D. n. nobilius, D, n. Statterianum, and other forms of that species, 
the beautiful D. x Rolfe*, D. X splendidissinium grandiflorum, and other 

W. Vanner, Esq., Camden Wood, Chislehurst (gr. Mr. Robbins), 
received a Silver Banksian Medal for a neat group of good things, including 
the handsome Phaius X Cooksoni, P. X Martha;, Odontoglossum X 
Wilckeanum, Calanthe Regnieri, good forms of Cattleya Triana, Coelogyne 
cristata Lemoniana, Cypripedium X Calypso. C. X Creon superbum, 
Ladia harpophylla, Dendrobium luteolum. Sophron.tis grandifiora. 
Cymbidium X eburneo-Lowiaimm, and others. Odontoglossum crisp"'" 
Arthurianum, a very richly blotched form, received a First-class Certificate, 
and the pretty little Dendrobium velutinimi, a Botanical Certificate. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egliam (gr. Mr. Ballantine), sent cat 
spikes of several magnificent Orchids, and received a Silver Banksian 
Medal. It included the magnificent and unique Odontoglossum Pescatore. 


Veitchianiun. thi' handsome (). crispum Rex. a large spike of Odontoglossinu 
brevifolium. Calanthe X Baron Schroder, a large ami very nchlv-colourcd 
hybrid, and a form of the same with lighter i- .Inured ll i\\ i-. 

Norman C. Cookson. Esq., Oakwood. Wyl un-on- T\ m <gr. Mr. Murray), 
exhibited a number of beautiful hybrids, to live of which Awards of Merit 
were given. These were Lselio-cattleya X Doris, a charming thing 
described at page 7Q of our second volume, Dendrobiuni X Doris (1. c. p. i|Ji v 
D. x Cassiope virginale, D. X dulce, Oakwood variety (D. annum ? x I). 
Linawianum 3 ), and D. Kenneth (said to be from D. Bensona ? and I>. 
Maccarthia: 3 ). D. X Harold, a pretty form obtained from 1'. 
Findiayanum 5 and D. Linawianum 3 . was also shown. 

Charles Winn, Esq., The Uplands. Sclly Hill. Birmingham (gr. Mi. 
Armstrong), was awarded a Silver Banksian Medal for an excellent group, 
including Dendrobium Wardianum, L'pland variety, remarkable for the 
unusually large blotches on the lip. a very good Cattleya Triana-. ami a tin. 
collection of Dendrobiums, including eight fine forms raised in lh 

Sir F. Wigan, Clare Lawn, East Sheen (gr. Mr. Young), exhibited 
Miltonia Roezlii splendens, a very large and richly-coloured form, with 
twenty-eight flowers, to which a Cultural Commendation was given. A 
good Dendrobium nobile, good plants of Ccelogyne sparsa, the fine 
Selenipedium X Perseus superbum, and the pretty hybrid Dendrobium 
X Wiganias (D. nobile ? D. X signatum 3 )• 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Cooke), received 
an Award of Merit for Cattleya Trianaj Crawshayana, a large and very 
richly-coloured form. 

Welbore S. Ellis, Esq., Hazlebourne, Dorking (gr. Mr. Masterton), 
received a Cultural Commendation for a well-grown pan of Ccelogyne 

C.J. Lucas, Esq.,\Varnham Court, Horsha 

Duncan), showed 

a fine plant of Dendrobium Kingianum, to which both a Botanical ( ertdtcate 

and a Cultural Commendation were given, also Cyrtopodium punctatum. Ax. 

J. \V. Arkle, Esq., Holly Mount, West Derby, Liverpool, sent a two- 

flowered spike of the handsome Cattleya Triana.-Arklca.ia (figured at page 

8l), which, however, was rather past its best. 


pretty hybrid Dendrobium X Findlayano- Wardianum : a promismg thing. 

C J. Crossfield, Esq., Gledhill, Sefton Park, Liverpool (gr. Mr. Barklex I, 
exhibited a beautiful Cattleva Triana alba. 

C. j. Ingram. Esq.. Elstead House, Godalming (gr. Mr. Bond), sent 
Cypripedium X viridiflorum, whose parentage was not recorded 

F. W. Moore, Esq., Royal Botanic Garden, Glasnevm, sent the cunous 
Oncidium saltabundum. 


R. I. Measures, Esq.. Cambridge Lodge, Camberwell (gr. Mr. 
Chapman), sent Cypripedium X Winnianuni and C. X Wottoni (C. 
callosuni 2 X C. bellatuluni 3 )■ 

The Hon. Mrs. Packenham, Fordingbridge (gr. Mr. Church), sent some 
good varieties of Cattleya Triana;. 

Pantia Kalli. Esq., Ashtead Park, Epsom, exhibited a small yellow- 
flowered Sobralia, since called S.luteolum, Rolfe, a form of Odontoglossum 
X Andersonianum, and O. Rossii rubescens. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild, Tring Park (gr. Mr. Hill), sent Cypripedium 
X Morganias from one of the original plants. 

G. \V. Rovve, Esq., Claremont Drive, Timperley, Cheshire, showed the 
beautiful white Dendrobium nobile Amesise. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden, sent Dendrobium nobile 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, staged a remarkably fine group, 
to which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It included Dendrobium X 
Cybele and D. X C. nobilius, D. X Euryahis, D. X /Eneas (D. japonicum S 
X D. crystallinum 3 ), D. atroviolaceum, Cypripedium exul, C. X 
Germinyanum.C.Victoria-Mariie.C. X Winnianuni, C. X microchilum.Lslia 
harpophylla, and L. glauca, a good Trichopilia suavis, Ccelogyne enstata 
alba, &c. A First-class Certificate was given to Epidendrum X elegantulum 
(E. Wallisii $ X E. X Endresio-Wallisii 3 ), a handsome hybrid about 
intermediate between the two parents, and an Award of Merit to Laeho- 
cattleya X Doris var. Xantho, the reversed cross of the original, and much 
lighter in colour. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, staged a group of fine things, to 
which a Silver Banksian Medal was given. It included Phaius X Cooksonl, 
P. X amabihs, P. X Martha, Spathoglottis Kimballianum, S. Lobbii, 
Lycaste Skinneri leucoglossa, Angraxum sesquipedale and A. Humblotn, 
Odontoglossum Pescatorei, O. X Wilckeanum.O. luteopurpureum, Ccelog)™ 
cristata alba, Vanda Bensoni anchorifera, Anguloa uniflora (Syn. A. al a 
magna), Maxillaria sanguinea, and various Dendrobiums and Cypriped |ums ' 
The curious little Dendrobium glomeriflorum, with sessile heads of hg t 
pink flowers, almost like clover heads, received a Botanical Certificate^ 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Upper Clapton, also receive 
Banksian Medal for a fine group, including good forms of Cattleya Trans. 
Cymbidium Lowianum, several good Dendrobiums, as Devomanuni, 
Hildebrandii, primulinum, cretaceum, nobile, crassinode, Findlayanum, 
superbum, and Phalamopsis, Odontoglossum gloriosum, and various f 
of O. crispum and O. X Andersonianum, Miltonia Roezlii, Cypripe diun 
Winnianum, C. X T. W. Bond, &c. , 

Mr. J. Cypher, Cheltenham, also received a Silver Banksian Medal 


i forms 


fine group, in which well-grown Dendrobiums were conspia s. ;is 1). X 

Rubens, D. X nobile Cypheri, and other fine forms of D. nobile, and hybrid! 
from it. It also contained Epidendrum xanthinum. E. X O'Bricniaiimn. 
and its two parents, E. radicans and E. evectum. and some nice plants ol 
Odontoglossum blandum. 

M. A. A. Peeters, Saint Gilles. Bruxelles, sent several very line thing*, 
including Miltonia X Bleuana, M. X B. nobilior, and the interesting 
Cypripedium x Harrisianura virescens, described at page 29(1 "I our last 
volume. A First-class Certificate given to Miltonia X Bleuana anrea. 
with clear yellow markings at the base of the lip. and an Award ..I Merit t" 
the handsome Zygopetalum X Perrenondi ('/.. intermedium t X /. 
Gautieri 3 ). 

Mr. W. Bull. Chelsea, sent Lycaste Skinneri alba with a me) luge 

Messrs. B. S. Williams S Son, Upper Holtoway, lent a plant of 
Catasetum discolor vinosum. 

Messrs. John Laing & Sons, of Forest Hill, also included a few Orchids 
in a collection of miscellaneous plants. 

At the meeting held on March 24th there was again a very brilliant 
display, the various groups staged containing numerous examples of 
Dendrobium nobile and its varieties and hybrids, many good forms of 
Cattleva Trianas, and numerous Odontoglossmns, especially of tin- 
series of hybrids between O. crispum and O. gloriosum. We must content 
ourselves with noticing the more remarkable examples in the various 

F. Hardy, Esq.. Tyntesfield, Ashton-on-Mersey igr. Mr. Stafford),received 
a Silver Flora Medal for a brilliant group, consisting largely of well grown 
plants of Dendrobium nobile and its varieties and hybrids, a well-flowered 
plant of D. X Schneiderianum receiving a Cultural Commendation. D. n. 
Bailianum, a fine plant of I), nobile nobilius, and 1). n. Amesife deserve 
special mention ; also a good Odontoglossum x muhis and Cypripediani X 
Swinburnei niagnilieiim. 

An Award of .Merit was given to the magnificent Cattleva Trianae 
Reine des Beiges exhibited by Sir Trevor Lawrence, who also sent a flower 
of Ladio-cattleya X exoniensis curiously out of season. 

A similar Award went to Odontoglossum crispum Evelina, a variety 
regularly spotted with red-purple and beautifully undulate, exhibited by 
Baron Sir H. Schroder. 

H. Mason, Esq., Shiplev, Vorks, received an Award of Merit for 
Odontoglossum X Ruckerianum Masoni, a very richly coloured form, with 
a raceme of sixteen flowers, and a similar Award for O. X Humeanum 
excellens with very dark sepals. This plant was remarkably well grown. 


bearing a raceme of seven flowers, in recognition of which a Cultural 
Commendation was also given. 

Odontoglossum X Coradinei Rosefield var., from the collection of 
De Barri Crawshay, Esq., also received an Award of Merit. The raceme 
bore thirteen fine flowers, three inches in diameter across the petals, the 
ground colour being yellow, and the blotches large and few in number, 
one only being found on each petal. 

Maxillaria lepidota, from the collection of Welbore S. Ellis, Esq., which 
received a Botanical Certificate, was a well-grown plant with thirty 
flowers. A Cultural Commendation was also given to a remarkable plant 
of Odontoglossum crispum, bearing a panicle with ten branches, and an 
aggregate of sixty-five flowers. It belongs to the branching type originally 
described by Lindley, with rather small white flowers. 

A fine Cattleya was exhibited from the collection of C. Ingram. Esq., of 
Godalming, derived from C. Lawrenceanum ? and C. Mendelii 3 , and thus 
the reverse cross of C. X William Murray, to which, however, it must be 

Several beautiful Dendrobiums came from the collection of N. C. 
Cookson, Esq., two of which received Awards of Merit, namely, D. X 
Murrayi, described at page 166 of our last volume, and D. X dulce picturatum, 
a remarkable form in which the flowers were marbled or variegated through- 
out with purple on a lighter ground. I). X Astrea and D. nobile 
burfordiense were also noteworthy. 

Cypripedium hirsutissimum Stand Hall var., from the collection of 
T. Statter, Esq., received an Award of Merit. It is a very dark form, 
the dorsal sepal being deep purple brown except the narrow green 

Odontoglossum X excellens, Kosslyn var., is a large and handsome 
form, with broad segments, from the collection of H. T. Pitt. Esq., to which 
a First-class Certificate was given. 

Dendrobium Wardianum grandiflorum, from the collection of John * 
Gabriel, Esq., of Strcatham, is a gigantic flower. 4 j inches in diameter 
across the petals, and the lip i\ inches broad. 

We may also mention Cypripedium X Olenus and C. X Wottoni, from 
the collection of R. I. Measures, Esq. ; Odontoglossum nebulosum from 
H. Grading, Esq., of Stanmore ; O, X Andersonianum from J. W. KHa* 
Esq., Elmet Hall, Leeds; Phaius Wallichii Mannii from Pantia Rail'. 
Esq. ; and a good Dendrobium X Ainsworthii from A. Chambers, Esq- 

The trade collections contained several large and excellent groups, in 
which most of the plants which flower at this season were well represented. 

Mr. W. Bull, of Chelsea, staged a very large and showy group, to W 1C 


a Silver Flora Medal was given. It contained a tine lot of Odontoglossnm-. 
including Edwardii, Uroskinneri. Kossii. a tine (>. x Wihkcanum. good 
forms of O. X Andersonianum, good plants of Trichopilia 
Cypripcdimii exttl, C. Charlesworthii. Oncidium sarcodes. ( attleya 
Schroderae, and a large nnntl>er of otlter showy tilings. 

A Silver Flora Medal also went to Messrs. Janus Veitch 
an excellent group of fine tilings, among which we noted Dendrohinin 
atroviolaceum with four racemes. I). IVarei, a well-flowered I). Devonianum, 
a fine Bifrenaria Harrisonae, Cypripedium Chamberlainianum, several tine 
forms of Cattlcya Triame. Odontoglossnm cirrhosiini, with a raceme in 
which the three expanded flowers had each two sepals and two petals onh : 
also a number of their beautiful hybrids. An Award of Merit was given to 

lattleva Schroderse caloglossa, in which the front lobe of the lip 1 1 an 

unusually large blotch of rich purple. 

• Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Heaton, Bradford! received a Silvei 
Banksian Medal for a fine group, containing Odontoglossums ramosissinuim. 
Lindeni, Rossii, Pescatorei, Hallii. cirrhosum, anil others; Maxillaria 
Sanderiana, Oncidium sarcodes. Masdevallia X falcata. Cypripedium 
villosum aureum, Lycaste Skinned eximia (a fine flower, with rerj deep 
crimson lip), good forms of Cattleya Trianae, &c. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Upper Clapton, also exhibited a line group. 
containing the usual showy things, in which we noted PhaUenopsis 
Sanderiana and P. X intermedia, Cypripedium Victoria-Maria!, Mormodes 
tigrinum, Trichopilia suavis, Oncidium Papilio, and numerous good Den- 
drobiums, Odontoglossums, Cattleyas, &c. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, staged a group of fine things, 
including Anguloa uniflora, Cymbidium Lowianum concolor. the curious 
Dendrobium platycaulon. very fine forms of Odontoglossnm sccptrum and 
O. x Wilckeanum, a very good Oncidium spilopteium, good specimens "1 
Dendrobium aggregatum, Zygopetalum crinitum. and numerous others. 

Mr. H. A. Tracey. Twickenham, exhibited a good Dendrobium Devon- 

ianum. with a pseudobulb a yard long, and crowded with flowers: also 
Eria confusa and Phalxnopsis Stuartiana. 

The Spring Show of the Roval Botanic Society of Manchester was held at 
the Town Hall on March I ;th and 14 th. when Orchids, and especially 
Dendrobiums were exhibited in large numbers and in excellent cond.t.on, 
several well-known exhibitors being represented. We can only afford space 
to note a few of the more remarkable exhibits. 


A fine group from E. Ashworth, Esq., included a superb Dendrobium X 
splrndidissimum grandiflorum, which received a Floral Commendation, one 
pseudobulb bearing thirty-six flowers. D. X Schneiderianum also was 
very fine, as well as Lycaste Skinneri, Cattltya Trianse, and a selection of 

The collection from T. Statter, Esq., included a splendid plant of 
Dendrobium nobile Amesia;, which received a First-class Certificate, also 
various other brilliant Dendrobiums, sonic good Ccelogvne cristata, a 
splendid Cypripedium X southgatense superbum, and the dark C. 
hirsutissimum Stand Hall variety. 

A group staged by H. Weetman, Esq., of Little Haywood, Stafford, 
contained a fine Dendrobium X Dominianum, some fine forms of D. nobile, 
some good Odontoglossums, and a brilliant example of Oncidium 

Mr. Munson exhibited a fine lot of Odontoglossums, including some 
good pans of O. Rossii, O. X elegans, O. crispum, Cochlioda vulcanica, 
and Platyclinis glumacea. 

S. Hinchcliffe, Esq., of Hale, staged a fine group, including some good 
plants of Oncidium sarcodes, Cymbidium Lowianum, Odontoglossura 
Harryanum, and others, and some good Dendrobiums and Cypripediums. 

Mr. J. Robson received a First-class Certificate for a light-coloured 
Dendrobium nobile. He also staged some good dark forms, some fine D. 
crassinode, Cymbidium eburneum, Phalamopsis Stuartiana, and others. 

Mr. James Cypher sent some superb Dendrobiums. Cattleyas Law- 
renceana, Triana; and Lueddemanniana, Cypripedium villosum, Epiden- 
drum X O'Brienianum, E. xanthinum. &c 

Messrs. Heath & Son sent a very fine Dendrobium nobile grandi- 
Horum, Cypripedium Rothschildianum, C. X Swinburnei, C. Argus Moensii, 
a fine Cymbidium X Lowio-eburneum with fifteen flowers, some good 
Cattleya Triana:. Sec. 


'■ I':. Hamburg. Schomburgkia rosea and Odontoglossum X Andersonianum var. 
' Ruckenanum. 

r. A., West Derby.— Cattleya Triana; and C. Schrcederie, the latter very good. 
<■ B. Met!.. Uncastei. A form of Odontoglossum x Andersonianum, with very fe*sp° li 
)■ OW, Bury. Cypripedium nigritum. Dendrobium FindUyamim seems remark- 
in the unusually short and much swollen nodes, but the flowers are fairly typical- 

' Orchids formed by C. Marcheit:. 
„., „.cn purchased by Messrs. (-hail" 
Co., of Heaton, Bradford, and will be distributed by them. The collection 
e acouired at the sales ot 

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The next meeting of tht! Royal Horticultural Society will be held at tin- 
Drill Hall, James Street. Westminster, on May 5th. when the Orchid 
Committee will meet at the usual hoar of 12 o'clock, noon. 

The Great Animal Rower Show of the Society will be held in the Inner 
Temple Gardens, Thames Embankment, on May 19th, 20th, and 21st, 
when the Orchid Committee will meet an hour earlier than usual, namely, 
at 11 o'clock a.m. As usual on this occasion, a number of Silver Cups and 
Medals will be awarded according to merit. 

A tine richly-coloured flower of Cypripedium X Ledouxia: (described at 
page 117 of our first volume) has been sent from the collection of R. le Doux, 
Esq., West Derby, Liverpool, and much resembles a tine form of C. X 
Creon. Mr. Archer thinks that the record of C. callosum being one parent 
is correct, as some of the seedlings show distinct warts on the petals, and 
the foliage is about intermediate between that species and C. X Harrisianum. 

Referring t,> Cypripedioms with twin-flowered scapes (pp. 
Archer also remarks that it is common in the collection just named, especially 
in C. callosum, C. barbatum, C. X Ashburtona:, C. X Louisa:, C. X 
Daviesianum, and sometimes C. X Harrisianum. 

A very curious flower of Cattleya Mendelii has been sent from the 
collection of F. Hardy, Esq., Tyntesfield, Ash ton-on- Mersey, which has 
only two sepals, two alternating petals, and a straight column with two 
anthers, which again alternate with the petals, and thus stand opposite the 
sepals. The colour is light blush. Every bulb on the plant is said to be 
crippled. We suspect that it may be out of the importations alluded to at 
page 236 of our last volume. 


A remarkable flower of Cattleya Triana; comes from the collection of 
W. Thompson, Esq., of Stone, in which the lower edge of each petal is 
completely united to the column, and thus forms a lip-like organ above 
the ordinary lip and partly within it. giving a most curious appearance to 
the flower. 

Two flowers of Dendrobium Wardianuin come from the collection of 
Major-General E. S. Berkeley, of Southampton, in which the petals are 
absent, or in reality metamorphosed into anthers, for there are three anthers 
side by side on the back of the column. Thus they are in the same condi- 
tion as the abnormal flowers of D. nobile mentioned on page 132. 

Several fine forms of Dendrobium nobile from imported plants come 
from the collection of W. P. Burkinshaw, Esq., of Hessle, including two 
nearly equal to the variety giganteum, and one in which the upper halves of 
the sepals and petals, and apex of the lip, are of a peculiar purplish rose, 
with a slight flush of salmon colour. It is very distinct and pretty, and 
may bear the name of D. n. roseum. 

A very pretty form of Cattleya Triana; comes from the same collection, 
in which the flower is rosy-lilac throughout, except the disc, on which the 
yellow is almost entirely confined to the radiating veins. 

Several fine Odontoglossums have been sent from the collection of R- 
Brooman White, Esq., of Arddarroch, including a heavily-blotched form of 
O. crispum, allied to the variety apiatum, O. X Humeanum aspersum, 0. X 
Andersonianum lobatum, and O. X A. egregium, the last-named having 
the sepals and petals somewhat suffused with purple on a yellow ground 
and heavily spotted with dark brown, giving it a very distinct appearance. 
An exceptionally large form of O. X Andersonianum is also enclosed, whic 
at first sight might be taken for something else. The shape of the lip. 
however, and the arrangement of the column wings and crest, are quite 

Two fine forms of the variable Odontoglossum luteopurpureun. come 
from the collection of John S. Moss, Esq., Wintershill, Bishop's Waltnam, 
one of which has the ground colour of the lip quite white, and the sep 
and petals extremely dark, the sepals having only a small yellow area a 
apex and base. 

An exceptionally fine flower of Dendrobium nobile Cooksoni has ^ b 
sent from the collection of Dr. Hodgkinson, The Grange, Wilmslow, w 
is one of 170 borne on a medium-sized plant, forming a magnificen 


The development of the flower shows that the plant is very vigorous and 
well cultivated. A flower of D. Wardianum giganteum, measuring a,\ inches 
across the very broad petals, and the lip i\ inches broad, and a fine Cattleya 
amethystoglossa are also enclosed. 

It is interesting to note that the rare Coryanthcs Wolfii is also flowering 
in the same collection. The history of this plant is given at page 264 of our 

A spray of Oncidium ansiferum has been sent from the collection of J. 
D. Hodgson, Esq.. of Xewcastle-on-Tyne. The plant came from Central 
America, and is marked by its large oval flattened pseudobulbs. which are 
about four inches long. It bears two spikes, each with about forty or fifty 

An inflorescence of the curious little Australian Dendrobium lingUK- 
forme has been sent from the collection of W. E. Ledger, Esq., Wilton 
Road, Wimbledon. It is a very interesting little plant, with flowers closely 
resembling those of D. aimulum, but with a totally different leaf, being in 
fact oblong, very short and fleshy, and borne solitary on a nearly obsolete 

A good form of Cattleya Trianae comes from the same collection, the 
flower being wholly light rosy lilac, except on the disc, and here the yellow 
blotches are replaced by a number of deep yellow nerves. 

With reference to the two-flowered scape of Lycaste Skinneri, mentioned 
at page 66, Dr. A. W. Hoisholt, of Stockton, California, writes that one has 
also appeared in his collection. A photograph of it is also enclosed. 

A photograph and flower of a curious Odontoglossum, supposed to be O. 
Ross.i, is also sent from the same collection. The lip is obtuse, or very 
slightly bilobed, and possibly not yet developed, and we should hke to see .t 
at a future time of flowering. 

With respect to our note on Odontoglossum crispum aureum at 
page 85, Mr. Stevens writes that the reference to a plant of the same 
name receiving an Award of Merit on June »th, 1894, is a mistake made m 
our report of that meeting (supra, II., p. ** 3 ), ">° " ame of ****"* fl"" 
being O. luteopurpureum sceptrum aureum. Readers would do well .0 
make the necessary correction. 

Several fine flowers of the richly-coloured Cvpripedium barbatum 
Warneri come from the collection of O. O. Wrigley, Esq., of Bury. 


Mr. Wrigley remarks that they never flowered better than this spring. 
A fine flower of C. Lawrenceanum atrorubens, noted at page 128 
of our second volume, is also enclosed. It is slightly smaller than 
the type, but much darker throughout, the dorsal sepal especially being 
verv richly coloured. The plant was purchased at the Stand Hall sale, 
and originally came from Messrs. Backhouse & Son, of York. 

An unusually fine form of Cypripedium niveum has been sent from the 
collection of W. H. Lumsden, Esq., of Balmedie, Aberdeen, which measures 
31 inches across the petals. The dorsal sepal is nineteen lines broad, and 
the petals fourteen lines. It is remarkable for its unusual development, 
being typical in other respects, and may bear the name of C. n. majus. 

A peculiar form of Odontoglossum X Coradinei comes from the same 
collection, in which the yellow ground colour of the sepals and petals is 
suffused with a light rosy tint, approaching what is seen in O. X Rucker- 
ianum. In other respects it is quite typical. The rosy tint of O. cnspum 
is generally obliterated in this hybrid, and the present variety may be called 


A large but very curious flower of Dendrobium nobile has flowered in the 
collection of Major-General E. S. Berkeley, of Bitterne, Southampton. A 
the flowers on the plant are alike, having only four segments, namely t e 
lip, the two lateral sepals, and a fourth organ, which occupies the position 
of the dorsal sepal, though it apparently consists of the two petals confluent 
in one, as it grows from inside the lateral sepals, and is also much brighter 
in colour. Thus the dorsal sepal appears to be absent. The column is we 
developed, but bears no anther. Whether the peculiarity is constan 
remains to be seen. , 

One of the flowers on a plant of Dendrobium nobile nobilius, in t « 
collection of Sir F. Wigan, Clare Lawn, East Sheen, is somewhat simiW. 
as the lateral sepals and lip are normal, the dorsal sepal absent, an re- 
placed by the two united petals. The column is very curious, as th ^ n ^ r ' 
stamen (A I of the Darwinian notation) is reduced to a barren 
while the two lateral stamens of the inner whorl (a 1 andai, 
the fertile stamens of Cypripediuni) are developed, and each contain p 


,, 11. 11. 

The stigma is abnormal. This flower is very interesting, and the ana qg 
ment is such as to show clearly the nature of each of the parts. 1 he 
of the flowers are typical in shape. 


The present confusion in the nomenclature of Orchids is almost a 
scandal, and threatens to be qui to intolerable as the number of hybrids and 
so-called varieties continually increases. I had hoped that something 
would be done by the Orchid Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society 
to bring order out of chaos : but it seems to me DOW that they are among 
the worst offenders, and unless they repent and change their methods, it is 
imlikeK that they will be able to control the sins of others. 

As an illustration of the proceedings of what is. after all. the body of 
greatest authority upon the subject in England. I will take their decisions 
in the question of reverse crosses. The other day I sent a new hybrid, 

Masdevallia Harryana X Shuttleworthii, and proposed to name it 
" Chamberlainiana." The Orchid Committee, however, declined to 
, recognise it under a specific name on the ground that the reverse cross of 
Shnttleworthii with Harryana had already been made and named 
" Shuttryana." They accordingly permit me to call my plant " Masdevallia 
Shuttryana, Chamberlain's variety "—if I have patience to use so lengthy a 

On a subsequent occasion Mr. Ingram sent a new Cattleya Lawrenceana 
X Mendelii. As the reverse cross is named already " W. Murray."' the 
Orchid Committee appear to have refused a distinct name. 

Again Messrs. Witch sent a Lalio-Cattleya Trianas X harpophylla. 
The reverse cross has already been named " Doris " ; accordingly the new 
hybrid is to be called " Doris, variety Xantho." 

In these three cases the rule has been that a reverse cross is not entitled 
to a distinctive name. The decision is open to criticism, as there are very 
great and marked differences in the reverse crosses of different Orchids. 
At the same time I should be prepared to submit to it if the Orchid 
Committee themselves were consistent ; but, so far from that, I find that 
at the last Show a new Dendrobium hybrid was named " Clio." which is 
only the reverse of " Lutwycheanum " ; " burfordiense " has been named, 
although it is the reverse of "duke"' ; " chrysodiscus " is the reverse of 
" melanodiscus " ; and " micans " is the reverse of " Euryclea." 

There are, however, worse anomalies than these arising from the way in 
which the results of the same cross— and even of the same seed-pod— have 
been allowed to be exhibited under different names. Thus, " pallens," 
" Aurora," and " Cybele," are all three named hybrids of the same cross as 
" xanthocentron." 

'" Hebe," " Dido," " Rainbow," and " Luna," are all the same cross as 
" melanodiscus." 

" Thalia." just named, appears to be almost identical with " Rubens" — 


the latter being a cross of " Leechianum " with " nobile nobilus," and the 

former of " Ainsworthii " with the same pollen parent. 

Is it likely that amateurs and ordinary dealers will observe any rule or 
reason whatever as long as the Orchid Committee permits such gross 

If possible the latitude allowed to what are called "varieties" is even 
worse than the loose treatment of hybrids. Every nurseryman and every 
amateur is permitted at his own sweet will and pleasure to affix a distinctive 
name to any plant that strikes his fancy, or appears to vary in any degree 
from others in the same batch. As there is no rule and no authority, so 
there is no limit to the abuse of this practice. 

The names thus given are frequently the same as those that have been 
already taken for other varieties. They are altogether illusory and 
unscientific ; and their constantly growing number is destroying the value 
and meaning of all specific names. 

I believe that in the long run everyone would benefit if some authentic 
quality attached to every distinctive name, and if a buyer could be certain 
that in purchasing a " magnifica," or " grandiflora," or " gloriosa," he was 
really getting a plant of definite character. 

As it is, all confidence in these fancy descriptions is being rapidly lost, 
and prudent collectors have ceased to buy varieties unless they can see 
them in flower. 

Under these circumstances, I am tempted to make a suggestion for the 
consideration of the Royal Horticultural Society and in the interest of all 
who take an interest in Orchid cultivation. 

It is that the Orchid Committee should establish a "Hall Mark" for 
valuable Orchids, which would speedily be recognised by all cultivators, and 
which would be insisted on by buyers as a security against fraud or 

All that would be necessary is that the Committee should prepare a 
form of label (bearing some distinctive mark, such as the seal of the Society 
—if it has one— or the letters R.H.S.), which could be filled up as required 
with the name of the plant to which it is attached. 

This label, when filled up, should be granted by the Committee on 
payment of a small fee— say, of half-a-crown— to any plant exhibited at one 
of the Shows, and named by the Committee according to its rules. These 
rules should lay down the general conditions on which specific names would 
be allowed by the Committee : and I hope they would strictly preclude the 
grant of such names to any variety which did not differ most distinctly from 
the type, and to any hybrid from a cross already named. , 

The result of an arrangement of this kind would be that no buyer wou 
pay high prices for a hybrid or variety which had not the Society s 

THE OK CHI I> KF.l/EII 1 35 

" imprimator." and was not authenticated by them as being what it 
professed to be. The growers and amateurs would send plants of special 
novelty and merit to the Shows in order to get the " Hall Mark " of the 
Society, since all plants and varieties which could pass the test would have 
an assured and increased value. On the other hand, names which had no 
official approval would eease to carry the slightest weight, and would soon 
be dropped altogether. 

In this way not only would the interest of tin- Shows increase and the 
finances of the Society he benefited, bol we should gradually gel ii.l of 
hundreds of names which have been affixed without any kind "f authority 
to plants not one wit better than the ordinary type, and we should make 
some approach at any rate to an orderly and scientific nomenclature of new 
varieties under the control and responsibility of an expert tribunal. 


Highbury, Moor Green, 


Several of the botanical Orchids mentioned last month are still flowering 
in the Kew collection, and numerous additional ones have taken the place 
of those which are over. One of the prettiest is that little gem Phalam- 
opsis Parishii. with its white sepals and petals and purple lip. It remains 
in flower a long time, and but for the difficulty of obtaining it. would 
probably be more widely grown. Dendrobium hainanense (Rolfe) is a free- 
flowering species from the island of Hainan, with terete leaves and 
numerous white flowers with a yellow spot on the disc of the lip. 
Microstylis macrochila and M. Scottii are also opening : their foliage is 
always elegant, and the large purple flowers of the former should ensure 
for it a place in every collection where botanical Orchids are grown. 
Among Angrjecums may be mentioned the pretty little A. fastuosum and 
the rare A. Germinyanum. a native of Madagascar. Cottonia macro- 
stachya has flowers remarkably like a beetle with purple-brown elytra. 
Polystachya bracteosa, which is remarkable for its dorsally flattened pseudo- 
bulbs, is producing several racemes of greenish flowers. 

Among Ccelogynes may be mentioned the curious little C. uniflora, and 
C. carinata (Rolfe) from New Guinea: also the allied Pholidota ventri- 
cosa. Several Maxillarias are now in flower, including the curious M. 
aciantha with fleshy segments, M. Meleagris and M. pumila. Leptotes 
bicolor is another little gem. which is exceedingly pretty when well grown. 


Of the Pleurothallis group may be mentioned the pretty little M.tsdevallia 
Carderi, M. demissa, and others, also Pleurothallis cardiocrepis ; and of the 
Epidendrum group Hexadesmia fasciculata, Epidendrum Linkianum, and 
E. varicosum. Sarcochilus Fitzeraldi is a pretty little Australian species 
with some light purple spots in the centre of the whit, flowers, while the 
allied Cleisostoma Wendlandorum has dense spikes of small yellow flowers. 
A few other species now in flower :uv Eria confusa, Cirrhopetalum finibri- 
atum, Xylobium corrugatum, and Cypripediuni virens, the latter being one 
of the least attractive of the group with tessellated leaves. 


You will receive a parcel containing a pseudobulb cut from a plant of 
Dendrobium Phalaenopsis. I believe you will find it infested with a brown 
beetle, and its larva;, and if you carefully examine it before cutting it open 
you will be able to find the borehole by which the insect has entered. I 
shall be much obliged for some information as to the life-history of this 
insect, and also whether it be the same pest which attacks Cattleyas. 
Amongst loo plants purchased last autumn we have had to destroy many 
pseudobulbs, and fresh discoveries arc being made almost daily. 

O. O. Wrigley. 
Bridge Hall, Bury. 

A note on the same subject appears in the February number of the 
Kew Bulletin (p. 62), under the title. " Beetle-larvae attacking Orchids," a 
summary of which it may be interesting to reproduce. Sir Trevor Law- 
rence submitted to Kew pseudobulbs of Dendrobium Imperntrix attacked 
by larvae, which were handed to Mr. W. F. H. Blandford, Lecturer on 
Entomology at the Forestry Branch of the Indian Civil Engineering 
College, for report. Mr. Blandford states that they are beetle lame, and 
pretty certainly those of a Longicorn beetle, though they show some 
divergences from the ordinary type, probably correlated with their habitat 
in a soft stem instead of hard woody tissues. It is impossible to identify 
such larva; positively, except when their mode of life is such as to exclu e 
any doubts ; but it happens that the larva of the only two known species 
the genus Diaxenes live in Orchids. These are D. Taylorl, described from 
an example found in the Royal Exotic Nursery, Chelsea, where it w* 
found gnawing the stem of a Phalaenopsis from Manila, and D. Denbro u. 
known by four specimens taken alive on imported Dendrobium atro- 
purpureum and D. nobile, the latter said to have been ''"P '"' 6 ' 1 ",, 
Moulmein (where, however, D. nobile is not known to grow)- 


examples of Diaxenes Taylori in the British Museum are ticketed " Moul- 
mein." Whether the larva; submitted to Mr. Blandford belong to either 
species of Diaxenes. or even to the genus, must necessarily remain unknown, 
unless the beetle be bred from them : but it is conjectured, from the habitat 
of the host plant, that it will prove distinct. Should Sir Trevor Lawrence 
be so unlucky as to breed out the beetles in his conservatory, Mr. Blandford 
would be glad to examine them: but, for the sake of th ■ Orchids, be 
recommends that they be carefully looked over, and the affected stems 
destroyed. If any plants are so attacked as to be not worth saving, th. \ 
might be removed to a house which contains no other Orchids, and coveted 
with gauze netting, so as to detain any beetles which may breed out, if 
desired to rear them for examination. But it is most important that by 
careful supervision no affected stems shall be left which will distribute the 
insect at large in the Orchid house when they have reached the winged 
state. It might be possible to save pseudobulbs not as yet badly injured. 
by destroying the enclosed larvs with a wire or needle, but whether this 
means is practicable or not must be left to the consideration of those who 
have care of the plants. Mr. Blandford adds that he has described a small 
boring beetle (Xvleborus morigerus) which has been very injurious in some 
conservatories to Dendrobia from New Guinea, having probably been sent 
out extensively with the Orchids by a firm of nurserymen, but they are not 
present in the portions sent. 

On splitting the pseudobulb of Dendrobium PhaUenopsis sent by Mr. 
Wrigley we found two or three larva:, and one beetle was just boring his 
way out. It was not a Longicorn beetle, however, but a small brown 
weevil-like insect, whose very short antenna: are broad and flattened at the 
apex, and we suspect either the Xvleborus mentioned by Mr. Blandford or 
a closely allied species. What we suspect may be the same insect has been 
alluded to on more than one occasion in our columns and elsewhere as 
Xyleborus perforans, and it would be interesting to clear up the history of 
this and some other Orchid pests, which seem to be very imperfectly 
known. These insects come home with imported plants, and as soon as 
their presence is detected measures are taken to stamp them out. Nursery- 
men who find affected plants among their importations, naturally do not 
care to advertise the fact, and so information is not easily obtained : but 
there is a consensus of opinion that several Dendrobiums from New Guinea 
and the adjacent islands are specially subject to their attacks. Those who 
buy plants from this region should be on the alert to stamp them out as 
soon as their presence is detected, and thus prevent the mischief spreading 



The advent of Cattleyas Mendelii and Mossiae, together with Lselia pur- 
purata, indicate the approach of the showiest season of the year. Early 
flowers of each of these are now expanding, and the group will soon forma 
picture of loveliness. The beautiful Cattleyas citrina and intermedia, and 
Lailia cinnabarina, must also be added to the list. Odontoglossums are 
almost at their best, and include numerous forms of O. crispum, spotted 
and unspotted, white and pink ; several forms of O. luteopurpureum, the 
brilliant O. triumphans, O. Pescatorei, and several others, including the 
hybrids O. x Coradinei and O. X Wilckeanum. Hanging from the roof 
is a plant of the charming little O. CErstedii bearing a large number of 
flowers, which are remarkably persistent. Miltonia vexillaria is again 
beginning to flower, and will soon be at its best, while a plant of M. 
Phalcenopsis is also very pretty. 

The brilliant-flowered group of Masdevallia is beginning to make a 
show, and includes M. x Pariatoreana and M. X Chelsoni, as well as 
the commoner ones. The fine old Sobralia macrantha now rivals the 
Cattleyas in the brilliance of its flowers, and will keep up a succession 
much longer. Its chief drawback is that it takes rather a lot of space. 
Maxillaria Sanderiana and M. luteo-alba are also among the additions to 
the list, together with Cypripedium Lawrenceanum, C. Volonteanum, C. 
exul, and C. bellatulum. the latter being planted in hanging pans, and in 
this way seen to better advantage. The best Oncidiums just now are 0. 
Marshallianum, O. ampliatum, and O. cucullatum, the former being superb. 
A plant not always seen at its best is the old Arpophyllum spicatum, 
which, when well grown, is very effective, the dense spikes of rosy purple 
flowers being very distinct from anything else. Phalanopsis tetraspis is a 
chaste and beautiful flower which will remain long in beauty, and ought to 
be more widely grown ; another species now blooming well is P. Luedde- 
manmana. The pretty little Helcia sanguinolenta and Diacrium bicornutum, 
also claim attention. Among the Dendrobiums may be mentioned D. 
Parishii, cariniferum, with its powerful aromatic fragrance, densiflorum, 
thrysiflorum, crystallinum, transparens, and the charming little D- 
Loddigesii as among the more notable additions to the list. Cymbidium 
Lowianum is now superb, and I think unquestionably the best of the 
Cymbidiums. It would be easy to extend the list, though the above 
selection contains all the more striking ones. 

The collection generally is now very attractive, as not only is it gay with 
flowers, but the young growths are coming on well, and it is very interesting 
to watch their progress, and in some measure anticipate the display of the 


One of my correspondents calls attention to the epidemic of provisional 
names, and thinks it quite time I had something to say on the subject. He 
purchased some of the " new Anguloa alba magna, but when it 
proved to be neither new nor white, but simply the old Anguloa uniflora, 
which he had known ever since he can remember. Yet it was again re- 
christened Anguloa Watsoniana," which he cannot understand — and for the 
matter of thai neither can 1 -but he thinks " this wholesale re-naming of 
well-known old plants is nothing sh .it ..f a public scandal." Now, he says, 

we have a wonderful new Cypiip.-dium and a Cteloguie ,'- 

nothing of others, and the question is what will these prove to 

cannot tell him at present, but I fully agree that there ought to be some 

means of ascertaining beforehand wlnthei these so-Called novelties have 

any right to the title. 

He also suggests that dried flowers might to be obtained and submitted 
to some expert, who would recognise old species and thus p 
known plants from receiving useless new names, which are only a source of 
annoyance to everybody. He then goes on to ask : — " What is this 
wonderful new Cypripedium Sanderse ? Description says it is the best 
Cypripedium for cutting purposes ever introduced, and that fnun photo- 
graphs and measurements received with the plants the species is believed to 
be far and away the largest of the genus yet discovered. The lateral petals 
are much broader than in any other Cypripede we know of. The pouch is 
unique in shape, eic. All this sounds very promising, but have these 
photographs and other materials been submitted to an expert ? And if not. 
why not ? And what is this other new and magnificent Cypripedium from 
the Malayan Archipelago ? The collector says it is certainly the grandest 
Cypripedium he has ever seen, and should prove one of the most sensational 
productions of late years. Did he take the trouble to dry a flower • I want 
to buy a plant or two as soon as I ran find oat what they are. but my 
experience of Cattleya floribunda and Anguloa alba magna is sufficient for 
the present." 

These remarks are very much to the point, but I must leave my corre- 
spondent's questions until a future occasion ; meantime I commend them 
to the notice of all those whom they mav concern. " When found, make a 
note of," as Captain Cuttle would have observed. I certainly hope that the 
plants in question will prove new and good, but recent experiences are not 
encouraging, and a little repetition of this sort of thing can only have one 
effect, so far as buyers are concerned. In the case of Cattleya floribunda it 


was announced that a dried inflorescence was to be seen, and, of course, to 
have submitted this to an expert would have led to its identity being 
established at once. And when they are not referred to some independent 
authority, and afterwards prove identical with some well-known plant, 
people naturally draw their own conclusions as to the reason ; and whether 
they are the correct ones or not, the result is much the same in the end. 
It is quite time a decided protest was made against this unnecessary 
multiplication of spurious names — called " provisional " by courtesy — and 
while admitting that there may be cases where a provisional name may be 
necessary, I fully endorse the remarks of my correspondent on the subject 

I was much interested in Mr. Young's note on hybrids of identical 
parentage, at page n 5 , and I hope the Orchid Committee will take the hint 
not to certificate old hybrids under new names. I think the Nomenclature 
Committee and the Orchid Committee might amalgamate with advantage, 
and, perhaps, if the editors of the gardening papers were thrown in, they 
might together prepare an authentic list, and keep it up to date. Mr. 
Young's notes on naming in the vernacular have soon received a practical 
illustration, for I observe in the report of a recent meeting of the Royal 
Horticultural Society that " PhaUenopsis Baron Schroder superba " and 
" Cattleva William Murray fulgens " were exhibited. I don't know why the 
additions were not made in the vernacular. Possibly because they would 
have looked ridiculous, though I fail to see where the subtle distinction 
comes in. Cattleva X Murrayi fulgens or Cattleya X William Murray" 
red variety I could have understood, though the former is infinitely prefer- 
able, in my opinion. However, now that the two systems of nomenclature 
are running side by side, I suppose we shall see some interesting develop- 


Orchid Blooms at a Penny-a-Piece.— " Onlv a penny ! An Orchid 
for yer buttonhole for a penny ! " Such was the ejaculation that grated 
on mv ears in Cheapside on Wednesday, says a writer in the Liccnsi 
I idualkrs' Giuett*. ttinerary vendors frequently play "spoof," and I at 
once concluded that the pretty girl who was selling Orchids at a penny-a- 
piece was at the good old game. But I was mistaken, fori purchased a 
bloom of Odontoglossum vexillarium for the twelfth part of a shilling' 
— Gardeners Chronicle. 



Maw interesting Orchid* were in bl in the collection of Sit Frederick 

Wigan, Clare Lawn, East Sheen, during a recent visit, when the following 
notes were taken, though room was not found for them in out previous 
issue. A foil account of the collection was given al page j8 of our first 

I be mentioned the Phaktnopscs, which always do well lure 
and though the bulk of the P. SchiUeriana, Aphrodite, and Sanderiana 
were cut during February, a few representatives remained. Phahenopsis 
Boxallii was well in bloom. Two plants of P. Lueddemanniana were 
Bowering very strongly, one plant having three spikes, up to 2] feet long. 
One of these was producing a young plant on the spike, while several plants 
of P. Stuartiana had young plants on the roots. A fine plan] of P. 
SchiUeriana vestalis was over, but had produced a splendid infli 
white Bowers. The plain maj always be distinguished when out of flower, 
as the leaves are green below, and have fewer spots. Mr. young attributes 
much of his success to not pulling the plants about, and certainlj his plants 
are a mass of roots quite outside of the conipo-t : yet they seem to obtain 
all they require from the atmosphere. Probably the gravel walks and the 
plants underneath serve to throw off a constant supply of moisture, and 
with proper attention to the ventilation and heating apparatus, the plants 
seem to be almost indifferent to the compost, which consists chiefly of 
crocks and sphagnum. Mr. Young occasionally syringes out the old 
sphagnum, adding a little fresh among the old crocks ; he also uses rather 
small baskets, but the plants are a picture of health, a, they have been for 

years. I'nder the Phalainopsis are grown Cypripediums and other things. 
which also do very well. In flower were Cypripedium X Uthamianum, 
very fine C. x macropterum, X politum.X PoUettianum, X Germmyanum, 
Xdelicatum, and others; also Selenipedium X Perseus superbum and 
Sargentianum. The charming C. bellatuhnn album was .loin- well, grow- 
ing in loose peat and tufa. Pescatorea Klabochorum and P. Dayans were 
also growing very well. 

In another house were three plants of Coelogyne sparsa in Bower, and 
one of them was a picture, bearing eleven spikes, and one with as many as 
eight flowers. Cattleyas Triana: and SchreeJjra; were very tine, a white form 
of the latter being particularly good. Eulophia Elisabeth* was throwing 
. up very stronglv. Dendrobiums were very good, three plants of D. 
crassinode especially, each having six to eight flowering bulbs, and one 
bearing six spikes, all but one being three-flowered. Two plants of D. 
luteolum were also crowded with flowers, and in this state is particularly 
effective. D. X splendidissimum grandiflorum and many D. nobile were 


good. The charming little D. X Wiganiae has already been described at 
page 107. A plant of Platyclinis glumacea bearing over sixty racemes of 
very fragrant flowers was also a picture. Comparettia falcata is a pretty 
species not often met with. There were some good Miltonia Roezlii, and 
one called M. R. splendens had seven racemes with 28 flowers and buds, 
two having five each. The flowers were very large, the base of the petals 
darkest purple, and the disc of the lip very deep yellow. The lip was two 
inches across. Very interesting, too, were Angraecum citratum, Seleniped- 
ium X Phaedra, and the singular Ornithocephalus grandiflorus. Many plants 
of Masdevallia tovarensis had been a sight, one carrying as many as 40 
spikes, each with two or three flowers. Mr. Young does not leave the old 
spikes on as some do, and thinks he gets quite as good results, while the 
plants keep stronger. A plant of M. ignea was also flowering well. The 
Odontoglossum house has been re-constructed on an improved principle, 
and it is hoped that the plants will show an improvement. A plant of 0. 
X Wilckeanum bore a spike of fourteen flowers. A large number of other 
things were in flower, but were not specially noted. 


The fifth volume of the Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta, edited 
by Dr. G. King, F.R.S., contains figures and descriptions of a century of 
Indian Orchids selected from drawings in the Herbarium of the Botanic 
Garden, Calcutta, by Sir Joseph Hooker, F.R.S., most of them having 
been previously described in the Flora of British India. The drawings are 
partly coloured, and represent species chiefly of botanical interest. Eighteen 
species of Dendrobium are figured, including D. aurantiacum, Rchb. f., D. 
Williamsoni, Rchb. !., and one called D. Palpebral, Lindl., whose flowers 
are larger than those of the plant met with in gardens. D. crocatura, 
Hook. {., is a member of the Pedilonurn group with orange flowers, but 
the others are not likely to be grown outside botanical collections. Phaius 
mishmiensis, Rchb. f., is a very pretty species with rose-coloured flowers, 
which has recently appeared in cultivation. Phalsenopsis tetraspis, Rchb. 
f., Sarcochilus Berkeleyi, Rchb. f., and others, are well-known in gardens, 
though the great majority are not in cultivation. The work will be 
invaluable as an aid to the identification of these interesting plants. 

A recent number of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Beng" 
contains a paper by Dr. King and Mr. R. Pantling, entitled, " Some 
New Orchids from Sikkim." It contains thirty-three new species whicn 
have been discovered in Sikkim during the last few years, chiefly by » r - 
Pantling. There are six species of the curious genus Oberonia. and 
most of the species are chieflj of botanical interest. 


This fine old plant is decidedly rare in cultivation, but a plant was 
exhibited by the Hon. Walter Rothschild at a recent meeting of th. Royal 
Horticultural Society, and now another is flowering at Kew, where the 
original plant flowered as long ago as 1849 {fiat. Hag., t. 4437). This 
had been sent home by Purdie. who found it growing on tin- stem "f a 
palm tree in the temperate region of Antioquia, at an elevation of 4.000 to 
5,000 feet, where the temperature ranged from about 05 to 75 . It was 
the only single example he succeeded in finding. It was subsequently 
figured in Pescatorea under the erroneous name of E. biloba, Kind], (t. 20), 
and it is stated that it was met with by M. Linden associated with I'm- 
pedium Lindeni, and the habitat of the latter is given as between the 
Cordillera of Merida and Lake Maracaybo. The habit of the plant is 
somewhat like that of Lycaste, except that the psrudobulbs are wrinkled, 
but the flowers are numerous, ami borne on a long arching raceme. The 
sepals and petals are yellowish with more or Irss hroa,! pin pi.- margins, ami 
the lip reddish purple on the side lobes, and white in front with a number 
of black spots. In the Orchid Allium (VIII, t. 377), basket or pot Culture is 
recommended, and the cool end of the Cattlcya house i- said to suit it 
admirably. It should be potted when the plant begins to grow, plenty of 
drainage being used, and care being taken not to injure the roots, as it is 
rather impatient of such treatment. It is a distinct and striking plant 
deserving of more extended cultivation. 

What a marvellous advance has been made in the growing of Orchids in 
this country since the enormous importations have reduced their value to the 
price of Pelargoniums and Fuchsias! In almost every town or burghal 
district there are a few of the " horny-handed sons of toil " that take to 
their cultivation. This last week the writer has seen two collections grow- 
ing under exceptional circumstances. The one was owned by John 
Hampson. Whitefield, a shoemaker : the other by Edward Wolfeuden, 
Radcliffe, a stone-mason. The only access to the former's glass-house was 
through the workshop— where John was toiling away making clogs, so 
much used by workmen in the manufacturing districts of Lancashire— then 
through the back kitchen, and into a yard, where the small semi-span house 
was completely filled with a variety of Orchids, some doing well. The 
house was heated with hot water, and it was quite pleasing to see some 
ntcelv-L'rown Dieces of Dendrobium Wardianum in flower, and in one or 


two very good varieties. Dendrobes appear to be the favourite flowers 
with both rich and poor, and little wonder there is such a variety among 
them, as the flowers are lasting. Along with these were some Cattleyas, 
and Odontoglossum Rossii at the one end, which has been very cheap of 
late, flowering profusely. They were a nondescript lot, huddled together 
without any semblance of order, the desire being more to get the flowers. 
It was a small house, divided into two compartments, and out of his 
modest earnings he has saved enough to get up a very nice collection. 
He began buying cheap plants, but he has gone on, and is now dis- 
pensing with his common plants and getting some of the better articles. 
As he said, we must " creep before we walk." Every penny he can spare 
in a fair way goes to the purchase of Orchids. I was surprised to see, 
for instance, nice lots of Cypripedium X Leeanum giganteum in fine 
flower, and one of the best, too; and also the Stand Hall variety of 
Dendrobium X splendidissimum grandiflorum, as well as such good things 
as D. x Cooksoni and D. X Ainsworthii. In the cooler division were an 
excellently-grown lot of Odontoglossum crispum, and plants of that order. 
One would like to see the plants more orderly arranged ; however, they 
were clean and free from insects. These men read Orchid literature 
greedily, but they have generally a mind of their own ; and although 
they are in some measure guided by a Calendar of Operations, each has 
his own way with particular favourites.— J. A. in Gardeners' Chronicle. 

A plant of this rare but very pretty Orchid has just flowered in the Kew 
collection, producing a raceme of thirteen flowers, which are pale lilac, 
densely speckled all over with a darker shade of lilac-purple, and the front 
lobe of the lip similarly speckled with a much deeper colour. It is a native 
of Central America, and was originally discovered and introduced to culti- 
vation by Warscewicz. It first flowered in the collection of Herr Nauen, 
of Berlin, and was described under the name of Nauenia spectabilis by 
Klotzsch (Allg. Gartenz., XXI.. p. 193), who overlooked the fact that it 
belonged to Lindley's genus Lacama. It is allied to Acineta, and bears a 
similar pendulous raceme, though tin: Bowers differ in structure. The 
lip is stalked, and the side lobes erect and rounded, with a prominent callus 
between them, while the front lob,.- is broadly trulliform, again stalked, and 
somewhat reflexed. It is figured at t. 6516 of the Botanical Magazine. I he 
only other species is L. bicolor, Lindl., a native of Guatemala, and scarcely 
as ornamental as the present one. It will succeed under the same treat- 
ment as the Acinetas. 

K. A. K. 



Oi-r present illustration represents the remarkably well-grown specimen of 
Odontoglossum crispum from the collection of Welbore S. Ellis, Esq., 
Hazelbourne, Dorking, to which a Cultural Commendation was given by 
the Royal Horticultural Society on March 24th last. As will be seen from 
the photograph, for which we are indebted to Mr. Ellis, the plant bore a 
large panicle with nine side branches beside the terminal one, and an 

a££ re £ate of sixty-rive flowers ; indicating great vigour on the part of the 
plant, and excellent culture on the part of Mr. Masterton. who has 
charge of the collection. The flowers are medium-sized, white, and 

These branching forms of the species are not common, and it is interesting 


to note that it is the one originally described by Dr. Lindley, in 1845, from 
a dried specimen collected by Hartweg about three years previously, " in 
woods between the villages of Ziquapira and Pacho," in the province of 
Bogota (Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 1., XV., p. 256). Hartweg recorded on his 
ticket that the inflorescence was sometimes branched and sometimes not, 
and proposed to name the species after Dr. Lindley, which the latter 
quietly ignored. Lindley described it as "a most beautiful species, occasion- 
ally as much as three feet high. Flowers large, yellow with purple centre." 
This note about the colour was not taken from Hartweg's specimen, but 
from a copy by Matthews of a drawing from the collection of Ruiz and 
Pavon, by their artist Tafala. What this drawing represents is uncertain, 
but probably not O. crispum, as most of Ruiz and Pavon's plants are 
Peruvian, and the colour bears no resemblance to any form of that species. 
It probably represents some imperfectly known Peruvian species, which 
will some day be identified, just as the Odontoglossum bicolor from the 
same collection has been. Hartweg's specimen has a panicle three feet 
high, with five side branches, and about twenty-six flowers (a few of which 
have fallen or been removed), which were certainly white and unspotted. 
The Peruvian one is yellow densely spotted in the centre with purple, and 
except for the broader segments is suggestive of some species with the 
affinity of O. pardinum. Ruiz and Pavon's drawing of Odontoglossum 
bicolor proved to be very accurate, otherwise the correctness of the 
present drawing might be suspected. 

The form afterwards described by Mr. Bateman as O. Alexandra (Gard. 
CAron., 1864, p. 1083) had an unbranched inflorescence, and larger white flowers 
with broader segments. This had been collected by Weir in the " gloomy 
forests of Santa Fe de Bogota " at 9,000 feet elevation, and sent to the 
Horticultural Society. A similar form, except for the addition of a large 
purple spot on each sepal, was described by Reichenbach immediately 
afterwards as O. Bluntii (Bot. Zeit., XXII., p. 415)- This had been 
collected by Blunt for Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., and it was a plant from 
the last-named importation, which had been acquired by Mr. J. Day, 
Tottenham, that produced the first living flowers seen in Europe. 0. 
crispum is the most popular Orchid in cultivation, and its varieties seem 
almost endless, besides which it hybridises freely with all the three 
species with which it grows— O. gloriosum. O. luteopurpureum, and 0. 
Lindleyarram— and it is interesting to have a figure of the original form 
for comparison with the numerous finer varieties which have since appeare • 
We have never seen so fine an inflorescence as the one here illustrated, an 
it certainly deserved the award given. 



Phal. i:\nrsis x ARIADNE. 
A\. >i iii.K very interesting Phahenopsis has been raised by Mr. Seden. in the 
establishment <>t" Messrs. James Witch & Suns, of which we have received 
a five-flowered raceme. The parents an- 1'. Aphrodite ? and P. Stuart- 
iana 3 , and their characters are well combined in the offspring. The 
leaves are said to be slightly mottled. The sepals and petals are white, 
and of the usual shape, and the lip is as nearly intermediate as can be: the 
side lobes being less oblique than in P. Aphrodite, but the markings almost 
as in that species, while the front lobe has subacute basal angles, the 
basal half or rather more being densely spotted with purple, and the rest 
white. The tendrils are half-an-inch long, and broad at the base, but 
slender above, and gradually incurved. The inner halves of the lateral 
sepals also bear numerous minute purple dots, as in P. Stuartiana. It is a 
very interesting addition to the group, and as handsome as it- two parents. 
In shape it is comparable to P. X leucorrhoda. now well known as a 
natural hybrid between P. Aphrodite and P. Schilleriana. It flowered for 
the first time when five years old. 


As I was unfortunate enough to get in an importation of Cat t ley a lahiata 
this terrible pest, I have been an interested reader of the correspondence 
you kindly invited on the subject, and I regret that you have had no replies 
of a character to relieve the minds of sufferers. Mr. Milhngton and his 
gardener seem to have exhausted every known remedy without success, 
and if anyone knows how to eradicate the My, surely they will respond to 
your call for information, and give us the benefit of their experience. The 
first advice I got in the matter was to "burn the lot." Drastic enough 
this ; but one would just about as soon throw them in the fire as have to 
cut off every decent lead that appears, only to find that in the succeeding 
lead the treatment has to be repeated, the leads always getting weaker as 
time goes on. I have cut them off containing pupa in every stage to the 
black shining rascal just ready to get out on his deadly errand. I have 
noticed that in the first, and sometimes the second, lead that has been 
taken off, the swelling at the base is so pronounced as not to escape the 
observation of anyone keeping a look-out, but in later breaks no such swell- 
ing occurs, and the fly is out before it is noticed. I believe this is one of 
the reasons why cutting out is not so successful as it should be. Mr. 
Roberts, the grower at Arddarroch, sprays his Orchids very frequently with 


weak tobacco water, and, judging from the cleanness and vigour of the 
plants so treated I am practising his method, and believe if I had adopted 
it earlier I might have had better success in the destruction of the pests. 
T. W. Russell. 
Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

It is evident from the remarks at pages 44, 87, and log that our know- 
ledge of this troublesome pest is far from complete, and one can hardly 
avoid a suspicion that more than one insect is concerned, especially as it is 
first said to have been found on a Saccolabium. The following is briefly 
its history, so far as we can discover : — In 1869 a note was given by Pro- 
fessor Westwood of some white fleshy larva;, with chestnut-coloured shining 
heads, found by Mr. Bateman feeding in the substance of the leaves of an 
Orchid, said to be a Saccolabium. Professor Westwood extracted a male 
and female pupa, which he referred to the Chalcidida;, and named the 
insect Isosoma Orchidearum, remarking that it was probably a vegetable 
feeder, though other members of the group were insectivorous, or parasitic 
on other insects. He added, however, that little was known of the history 
of the insects which attack exotic Orchids, as collectors only selected 
healthy specimens. (Card. Chron., 1869, pp. 196, 252, 1230, with fig.) 
For a long period very little further seems to have been discovered, though 
there was some discussion as to whether the Isosoma was the cause of the 
mischief, or only a parasite on some other insect, Mr. McLachlan taking 
the view that it was parasitic on some Cecidomyia, which was the real 
cause of the mischief, and stating that he had bred both insects from galls 
on Cattleya roots. It is now known, however, that the larva; of the 
Isosoma, which are white, are true vegetable feeders. Cecidomyia, on the 
other hand, has orange-coloured larva;. In June, 1878, a gall was found 
on the roots of a Dendrobium in the collection of G. E. Cox, Esq., of 
Leyton, and inside this was found the yellow larva; of some Cecidomyia. 
In 1885 a paper appeared, entitled " Galls on the roots of Orchids " (Garl 
Chron., 1885, xxiv., p. 84), when both the galls of Cattleya (fig. 19) and 
Dendrobium (fig. 20) were shown. In 1890 all the figures were re- 
produced (/. c, 1890, viii., p. 505) . short i y afterward s Mr. C. V. KN 
nfirmed Professor Westwood's contention that the larva; of Isosoma were 

phytophagous, as he had seen them feeding, and had bred both sexes of the 
insect (/. c, 1891, i x ., p. 5g7 ). If these are identical with those originally 
found on Saccabium, it is, to say the least, very curious, and suggests the 
question whether the Orchid on which the insect was originally found was 
really a Saccolabium. Next to knowing how to combat the insect when 

important to know with what particular species of Orchid 

imported, so as to be on the alert. It is pretty clear that recent attacks can 


be traced to importations of Cattleva labiata, hut the earlier ones appeared 
before the re-discovery of this species. Then (\ Triana: is sometimes in- 
fected, and probably before the plants conn- home : and cither this or some 
other fly has been sent with Lselia purpurata. It is hardly necessary to 
point out that all Saccolabiums air from the Eastern tropics. In short, it 
would be interesting to know precisely while the fly comes from, how to 
combat the pest when found, and also whether we have more than one 
species to deal with. It would also he useful !o know whether the fly 
comes out at other seasons of the year beside the spring. Information on 

any of these point-, and particularly the methods used In those who have 
succeeded in exterminating it. would he vei \ acceptable. 


Wk have received through Messrs. James \"eileh \ Sons the two-tlowcred 
inflorescence of a beautiful hybrid from the rich collection of Baron Sir H. 
Schroder, The Dell, Eghain. which was described about three years ago by 
Mr. J. O'Brien, under the name of Laelia X vitellina \GavA. (1mm., 1893, 
xiii., p. 365, fig. 53). It was originally remarked that the parentage not 
having been recorded could only be guessed at, though the supposition was 
that L. harpophylla was one of the agents in its production, and Larlia 
Perrinii probably the other, most likely the seed bearer. The author, how- 
ever, added, " I have not yet had the opportunity of examining the pollinia 
of the new hybrid, and therefore cannot say how they stand with relation 
to true Ladia." This point we can now set at rest. On examining the 
pollinia we find them precisely as in Laslio-cattleya, that is. with four large 
pollinia and four much smaller ones at the other end of the caudicles. 
Lselia harpophylla was evidently one parent, as is evident from the very 
characteristic shape of the lip, together with the colour of the flower, but it 
is equally certain that some Cattleva of the labiata group was the other, as 
might originally have been inferred from the shape of the petals. There is 
no perceptible approach to the very characteristic Up of Lselia Perrinii or to 
any of the hybrids from it — the deflexed apex of the lip mentioned by the 
author comes from L. harpophylla, as is evident enough on comparison — 
besides which it may safely be prophesied that any hybrid between L. har- 
pophylla and L. Perrinii will have narrow petals. After consideration of 
all the facts we believe that the second parent was a light form of Cattleya 
Trianar. which would make it a variety of Lfelio-cattleya X Doris {supra, 
II., pp. 79, in), to which it bears a remarkable resemblance, chiefly differ- 
ing in having only a trace of purple on the front lobe of the lip. The 
agreement in the flowering period of the species now suggested as parents 
is also a point not to be overlooked. The flowers of the present variety are 


a beautiful orange yellow, the petals 2\ inches long by an inch broad, and 
the front of the lip has a very faint trace of washed-out purple on the very 
undulate margins of the front lobe, while the base of the column and the 
extreme base of the lip's disc are bright crimson-purple. It is certainly a 
very handsome hybrid, and further experiments will probably prove its 
exact parentage. 

lave received the flower of a handsome hybrid raised in the collection 
\V. Thornton, Esq., Brockhall, Weedon, from Lama cinnabarina S 

purpurata <? . Mr. Thornton states that the cross was made 

April, 1889, and that the seed was ripe and sown seven months later, that 
is in the following November. The plant has now flowered for the first 
time, producing a raceme of five flowers. Lslia X Latona was raised from 
the same cross by Messrs. Veitch, and flowered in 1892, and the present 
one must be considered as a form of the same, though how far it diners as a 
variety we cannot say without being able to compare the flowers side by 
side. According to a figure in the Journal of Horticulture (1892, xxiv., 
P- 353. fig- 61) the original form has a broad pale margin to the lip, while in 
the present one that organ is rich crimson purple from the small yellow 
point quite half-way along the side lobes and right up to the margin, while 
the petals also are flushed with purple. It is a brilliantly coloured and 
handsome form, but whether it can be distinguished by a varietal name 
may be left for the present. 

By H. A. Burberry-, Highbury, Moor Green, Birmingham. 
The Cool House.— The temperature of this department should now be 
kept as low as possible, both night and day. Cool-growing Orchids are 
much injured if grown too warm. The temperature must be kept down in 
the day-time by heavily shading. The blinds should always be raised a 
foot or so from the glass, the power of the sun upon the glass being then 
greatly reduced. Lattice-wood blinds are good for Cool Orchid houses, as 
they are cooler than the ordinary ones. No plant in this department must 
now be allowed to suffer from drought, but it is unnecessary to keep the 
compost in a sodden condition. Let the plants each receive a thorough 
watering when showing signs of becoming drv. A slight syringing over- 
head is advantageous after a warm, dry day, but for this purpose clear 
rain water only should be used. Ventilation in abundance should now be 
continually given. The cold north and east winds of the past month have 


had the effect of causing tin- foliage of Odonto^lossum erispum to become 
very much bronzed. This will do no harm : in fact, it is generally a good sign 
that the plants arc healthy, and likely todo well. The damping down of the 
houses should now be done three times daily, and it should he done well. 
a good supply of water always bring at hand for this purpose. For damp- 
ing, hard water can be used, the soft being stored for watering 

There are several cool-growing species that will he in a good condition 
for repotting this month. Among them are more of the Odontoglossum 

crispuni type that have hi m<i and are starting to grow. Then there are 

many of the cool-growing Oncidiums in a tit condition, such as O. macran- 
thum, O. tigrinuni, O. ornithorrhynchtim, (). cheirophorum, O. vancosum, 
O. Forbesii, O. crispum, and any others that are starting to grow. The 
usual peat and sphagnum moss cannot be beaten for a compost, and the 
potting should be done firmly. 

Then there are some of the small growing kinds of Masdevallia that may 
be repotted. This genus delights to grow in the coolest possible house 
during summer, but during winter the temperature should be a little higher ; 
in fact, the Intermediate house is not too high. Too much damp and cold 
is the cause of the leaves dropping off or becoming spotted with black 
marks. The pretty little white autumn flowering species, M. tovarensis. 
should now be attended to, and repotted if necessary, and also any of the 
others having passed out of bloom. Masdevallias of the more showy type. 
such as M. M. igiuai, and M. Veitchiana, will now be making a 
brilliant show in this department, intermixed with the Odontoglossums, 
Oncidiums, Epidendrum vitellinum, and other cool species that are in 
Mower. No fire should now be wanted. 

The Intermediate House.— Temperature : Day, with sun heat, 75 ; 
without sun, 65° to Jo c : night, 65' : morning, 6o : to 65. Like the pre- 
ceding, this department will now require well shading from the hot sun, in 
order to keep down the temperature, and to be kept very moist by damping 
down frequently. Although air cannot be applied here in such large volume, 
yet a little should always be kept on if possible, and no favourable oppor- 
tunity for increasing this amount should be allowed to pass by. In short, 
try to keep the above temperatures with as much air as possible. No heat 
from the hot water pipes should now be required here, unless it is occa- 
sionally of an evening, when it is cold or a frost is expected, when a little 
warmth would be very beneficial. Several things in this department will 
also require repotting—such, for instance, as the Odontoglossums of the 
grande type, some of the Miltonias and Oncidiums. Cymbidiums and 
Lycastes, Adas and the Chimara section of Masdevallia, which should 
never be grown cooler than this. Trichosma suavis and Maxillarias should 
also be repotted, and other species which may be found to grow best here ; 


always bearing in mind how very important it is to do each plant at the 
proper time, which is, as I have said before, when making new growth from 
the base, and new roots are pushing forth ; otherwise a good deal of 
exhaustion and shrivelling takes place unnecessarily. 

I would also here mention once more how very important it is to experi- 
ment one's self with those plants which fail to grow freely from no apparent 
cause, and not to keep them too long in that house or position most 
generally advised, for different structures vary greatly, and certain peculiar 
conditions in one house may be lacking in another ; therefore it is always 
well to make experiments with refractory species, carrying out such experi- 
ments cautiously, and treating them to different houses, or to different 
positions in the same house, either warmer or colder, preferring to try the 
cooler house or position first. It is always well to know how low a degree 
of temperature the various plants will stand without injury. When this is 
once known their cultivation is simplified very considerably, for it may 
generally be taken for granted that if no injury is received by a low tempera- 
ture the plants are benefited by it. 

The Cattleya and Mexican Houses should be kept at about the 
same temperature as the Intermediate ; of ours.: allowing ;i high '■ d :gr« 
by sun heat, as these departments will not require SO much li ide, especially 
the Mexican house, which, if any shading is applied, should be very thin 
indeed; consequently, a good deal of ventilation is demand id during brigM 
sunny weather, to keep the plants from burning, which should be avoided. 
In this last-named house such things as Mormoiles, Ccelogynes, and some 
of the warm-growing Epidendrums, such as E. Parkinsonianum, E. 
memorale, E. atropurpureum, and E.prismatocarpum should, if not already 
repotted, be done without delay. In this warm, sunny, and airy depart- 
ment I have often set aside a small portion which has been extra shaded 
for the purpose of trying plants which seemed loth to grow in their own 
respective houses, and, strange to say, the result has been in most cases 
very successful ; even some of the more difficult to grow of the Cypnpediums 
have recovered there, as have also Burlingtonia fragrans, Acropera Loddl- 
gesii, and A. armeniaca. 

This month will see another batch of the Cattleya house plants potte 
up, including C. labiata, C. Harrisoniana, C. Loddigcsii, C. Schrceders, 
C. Eldorado, C. Bowringiana, C. Lawrenceana, C. maxima, and any others 
if it is deemed necessary. Vanda suavis and V. insignis have just finish^ 
flowering, and will be done up by replacing the old sphagnum moss wl 
new. These plants should occupy a rather shady part of the house, as a so 
should Aerides Fieldingii and A. crispum. . ( 

East Indian House.— Temperature : Day, with sun, 85 to 90 I wit * 
sun, 75 to 8o°; night, 70" to 75 ; morning, 70°. Let these figure* 


maintained with a free admittance of fresh air. If the outside conditions 
are such as to prevent the ventilators being opened, then it would be better 
to reduce the above figures 5 degrees all round. Make do with as little 
warmth from the hot water pipes as possible. For these warm houses, 
however, a little will still l>e required during the night, and perhaps also by 
day. The Dendrobiums. with the exception of I). Bensona;, I). Parish ii, 
1). crystailimmi. I), uodatum, and a few other la'e Howering kinds, an- now 
all potted up. and are making new growth, and will henceforth delight in a 
good deal of heat and moisture, providing, as before stated, air is not denied 
them. Let them be suspended in pans or baskets well up to the light, but 
guard just at present against keeping the compost too saturated, or the 
new growths are apt to damp off. It is yet rather too early in the season 
to commence syringing, unless it is the I). Wardianums, which could be 
syringed and given a position at the coolest part of the house. Be on the 
alert for red spider in this department, which is sure to come, and 
more especially if the temperature is too hot or dry. The Corvanthrs. 
Spathoglottis, Catasetums, and such like species, should now be basketed 
up, and put in growing order. 

The mention of baskets reminds me of the improved one (West's 
Patent). I have now tried it, and believe it is certainly an improvement 
on the old one, for two most decided reasons— firstly, being so much lighter, 
and secondly, by facilitating the work of watering. 

There are but few Dendrobiums which can be grown in a warm green- 
house temp ratine with other greenhouse plants, but D. Falconeri is one of 
them that will. It is now showing for bloom, and should receive more 
water. D. Falconeri grows best when fixed to a teak wood raft. During 
the summer when making growth it should be given copious supplies of 
water by being syringed several times daily, but during the winter it should 
have long intervals of absolute drought until the spring, when the flower- 
buds show. D. speciosum, an Australian species, is another that will grow 
well in the same temperature, as will also D. Jamesianum, and its near 
ally D. infundibulum. The latter two kinds should be grown in small pans 
and suspended. 

A question that beats me is one asking— " How to grow Oncidium 
Jonesianum," and I am obliged, for all practical purposes, to give it up. I 
remember about ten or eleven years ago the first importation of some 
thousands coming to this country: they all arrived in grand condition, and 
were fine strong healthy plants. It was new and pretty, and consequently 
the sale was brisk. This importation was followed by another, and yet 
another, till O. Jonesianum was one of the most common Orchids in the 
country. It seemed to possess a very robust constitution, and come away 
well, soon making a good big pseudobulb, immediately followed by a fine 


spike of bloom from its base. But each year the new growth became 
considerably less and less, until, and within a wry short period, but few 
plants from those thousands were left alive. Its native habitat was said to 
be Paraguay, where it was found growing on the top of trees, the climate 
being very hot— a vague account at least. Whether the collector could, or 
ever did give a more definite statement, I never knew, but if he did I never 
heard it. I have tried it in all houses and all positions, but have so far 
failed to find the right one. I dare say its treatment is simple enough when 
known. 1 et it is possible, of course, that it requires some peculiar treatment 
which it is impossible for us to reproduce artificially, in which case it would be 
well to leave O. Jonesianum on its native trees at home. Perhaps, however, 
there are some growers who have succeeded in keeping this plant alive, and 
as sound in health as when imported : if so, it would be interesting to many 
to know how it is done. In the meantime I can only say how I have found 
it grow best for the longest period. It should be wired to a block of wood 
—head downwards— that being its natural way of growing. If the block is 
green with the bark on so much the better. The plant should be transferred 
to a new block each year, about April, just as the new roots are appearing. 
It should then be suspended in a light position near the glass in the 
warmest house, and given plenty of water by syringing it. By autumn it 
will have made its growth and flowered, after which it should be kept very 
dry throughout the winter, only moistening the roots occasionally. The 
temperature during the resting season should also be moderately warm. 

Pleiones are now growing freely, suspended in a sunny position in 
intermediate temperature. They are fond of a good supply of water at the 
root, and must never now be allowed to become dry. Syringe them at 
least once a day. Sobralias are now showing for flower, and if at all 
pot-bound with roots, will be helped by an occasional watering with weak 
liquid manure. Stanhopeas should now be put in larger baskets if required. 
The baskets should be shallow ones, having no crocks placed at the 
bottom. They grow best in a warm house. Zvgopetalums requiring 
repotting should be delayed no longer. The strong growing kinds like 
Z. intermedium should have fibrous loam mixed in with the peat and moss. 
Others, such as Z. Gautieri, should be grown in baskets or on the stem of 
a tree fern. They are intermediate Orchids, and delight in a liberal supply 
of water during summer. 

Cymbidiums should be attended to as they pass ."it of bloom. They are 

best grown at the coolest end of the Interne house. \ good compost 

of lumpy peat two parts, and one part of fibrous loam, with a little sand 
and broken charcoal mixed in to keep the »l,<de sweet, is the best. 
Eulophia guineensis should also be potted in the same materials, but this 
species, to grow it well, is better for the warmth of the East Indian house. 


Cyrtopodiums are now starting to grow. They are rather difficult to 
flower, but if the last made pseudobulh is uf a flowering si/e it should be 
made to do so by withholding water until the flower spike appears, which it 
will do from the side of the new growth when that is about two inches long. 
Like Odontoglossum citrosmum, the members of this family rarely flower if 
not compelled in this way. They may be »rown in pots, or baskets, but 
should always occupy a very light position close to the glass and in good 


i miplora. Gard. < hron., April . ( , p. 423, fig. 6a. 
i'm Randii, Kolfe, Bot. Mag., t. 7470. 

Cattleya Tkias.i:. Mrs. Warri n Hook. - Amer. Card., March 21, p. 
177, fig. 49. Apparently a good C. T. delicata. 

Colax jugosus. — Garden, April 18, p. 294, with fig. 

Cypripedr-m X ('AKNi' Mag., April 18, p. 250, with fig. 

Cypripedium X Denisiaxi-m.— Gard. Mag., April 4, p. 216. with fig. 

Cypripedium exul, Major Joicey's var.— Journ. o/Hort., April 9. pp. 
319. 323, fig. 55 ; Gard. Mag.. April 11, p. 237, with fig. 

Cypripedium Fairieanum.— Can*. World, April n, p. 513, with fig. 

Dexdrobr-m x Clio, Tyntesfield var.— Jour*, of Hart., April 23, 
pp. 366. 367> fig- 62. 

Milton 1 a X Bleuana aurea. — Gard. Mag., March 28, pp. 200, 201, 
with fig. 

Odontoglossum crispum Arthurianum. — Journ. of Hort., March 26, 
p. 273, fig. 49. 
Odontoglossum x Pittianum. — Gard. Mag.. April n, p. 237, with 

fig. ; Gard. World, April 18, p. 527. with fig. A form of O. X Wilckeammi. 

THERE was again a very fine display of Orchids at the Royal Horticultural 
Society's meeting at the Drill Hall, James Street, Westminster, on April 
7th. and a considerable number of Certificates and Medals were awarded. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell. Egham (gr. Mr. BaUantine), staged 
a choice group, to which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It included the 
large and richly-coloured Calanthe X Baron Schroder, Cattleya Lawrence- 
ana concolor and C. L. Vinckei, the beautiful Labia X vitellina, Lselio- 
cattleva X Doris var. Xantho. and L.-c. X Yeitchiana. Dendrobium 


superbum Dearei and D. s. Burkei, and some handso 

comprising O. c. flavescens with almost wholly yellow flowers, 0. Hallii 

xanthodon, O. X Wilckeanum, O. X elegans, and a very fine form of 

O. triumphans. 

W. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange, Stone (gr. Mr. Stevens), received 
a Silver Banksian Medal for a small group of fine things, including a fine 
Ada aurantiaca, large examples of Cdontoglossum Cervantesii and 0. Rossii 
majus, fine forms of O. iuteopurpureum, O. X Wilckeanum, and 0. Hallii, 
and a magnificent form of O. triumphans called Mrs. Guest, bearing a 
branched inflorescence of over fifty flowers, to which a Cultural Commenda- 
tion was given. 

W. C. Walker, Esq., Percy Lodge, Winchmore Hill (gr. Mr. Cragg), 
also staged a very effective group, to which a Silver Banksian Medal was 
given. It contained a fine plant of Cyrtopodium punctatum bearing an 
inflorescence of over a hundred and eighty flowers, some excellent Dendro- 
bium superbum giganteum, Cattleya Mendelii, C. Trianse, Lalia Boothiana, 
Cymbidium Lowianum, &c. 

Major Joicey, Sunningdale Park, Berks (gr. Mr. Thorne), showed three 
very fine plants, to each of which an Award was given. These were a 
splendid example of Diacrium bicornutum, which received both a First-class 
Certificate and a Cultural Commendation : a fine plant of Dendrobium 
atroviolaceum with several spikes, a Cultural Commendation ; and a large 
form of Cypripedium exul called Major Joicey's variety, in which the white 
of the sepals was unusually well developed, a First-class Certificate. 

F. Hardy, Esq., Tyntesfield, Ashton-on-Mersey (gr. Mr. Stafford), sent 
several handsome Dendrobiums, including D. Falconeri giganteum, D. X 
Venus with over twenty flowers, and some pretty hybrids raised in the 

ihich a First-class Certificate 

D. X Clio (D. X splendidissum grandiflorum ? X D. Wardianum 1), 
a plant having large and handsome flowers, with the sepals and petals 
magenta purple, the former narrowly and the latter broadly margined with 
white, and the ovate-oblong lip white tipped with magenta, with the disc 
chocolate-coloured on an orange ground. A pretty white form called D- 
X Clio album was also shown. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild, Tring Park (gr. Mr. Hill), showed a well- 
spotted form of Stanhopea Wardii with a six-flowered inflorescence, to 
which an Award of Merit was given: and the rare Eriopsis n.tidobulbon. 
which received a Botanical Certificate. 

C Ingram, Esq., Elstead House, Godalming (gr. Mr. Bond), received 
Awards of Merit for two handsome hybrids called Cattleya X WiIB*« 
Murray var. fulgens (Lawrenceana 5 X Mendelii), and Ladio-cattleya X 
Sir William Ingram <!.. purpurata T x ( . Dowiana ..urea i >■ The latter 


had dark rose sepals and petals, and a rich dark purple fringed lip with 
lighter veining in the centre. 

The Right Hon. J. Chamberlain, M.l'.. Highbury. Birmingham (gr. Mr. 
Burberry), received an Award of Merit for Uelio-cattleya x highburicnsis 
(C. Lawrenceana S X L. cinnabarina ?), a very pretty hybrid with two- 
(lowered inflorescence, the sepals and petals orange-coloured, tinged and 
veined with purplish crimson, and tin- lip dark claret-crimson 111 front. 

R. Brooman White. Esq., Arddanoch, K.B. (gr. Mr. Roberts), received 

an Award of Merit for Cattleya X l.aurc-Mossia- (Lawrenceana 1 X 
Mossite 3 ), a charming thing with soft rose-pink sepals and petals and 
dark crimson lip. 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, South Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis), 
showed a splendid plant of Dendrobium thyrsirlorum with ova thirty 
spikes, to which a Cultural Commendation was given. 

J. T. Gabriel, Esq.. Streatham Hill, received a Botanical Certificate l,u 
the rare and very pretty Chondoihyncha Chestertoni. 

Walter Cobb. Esq., Dulcote, Tunbridge Wells (gr. Mr. Howes . showed 
Odontoglossum naevium and O. luteopurpureum nigrum, a very dark form. 

T. B. Haywood, Esq., Woodhatch, Reigate, showed Dendrobium 
Hildebrandii album. 

R. I. Measures, Esq., Cambridge Lodge, Camberwell (gr. Mr. 
Chapman), sent Dendrobium albosanguineum and Cypripedium X Ouies 
(C. Hookera: 2 X C. Curtisii 3 ). 

G. C. Rafael, Esq., Castle Hill, EngleBeld Green (gr. Mr. Adams), sent 
a fine inflorescence of Eulophiclla Elisabeths. 

A. H. Smee, Esq., The Grange. Carshalton (gr. Mr. Cummins), sent a 
fine raceme of Cymbidium Lowianum concolor. 

T. Statter. Esq., Stand Hall. Whitefield, Manchester (gr. Mr. Johnson), 
sent Dendrobium Hildebrandii album. 

C. Young, Esq., The Thorns. Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Ryder), sent a fine 
form of Cattleya Schrcedera. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, staged a very fine group of 
choice things, to which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It contained 
Dendrobium X micans and D. X Euryalus, the magnificent Ladio-cattleyas 
X callistoglossa and X Pallas, the striking Lalia X Latona, Cymbidium 
X eburneo-Lowianum, Masdevallia X Asmodia, Selenipediums X Phsdra, 
X Brysa. and X macrochilum, Cypripedium X Morgania:, and others, 
Oncidium ampliatum majus, Lycastes Skinneri and Rossiana, Epidendrum 
Wallisii. Cattleya Schrcederae, Odontoglossums, &c. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Clapton, also received a Silver Flora Medal 
for a very pretty group, containing a fine series of pink and white forms of 
Miltonia vexillaria, together with Cattleya Schrcederae, Phalajnopsis X 


intermedia Portei, a magnificent spotted form of Odontoglossum crispum, 
Dendrobium Bo.xallii, &c. 

Mr. P. McArthur, London Nurseries. Maida Vale, exhibited a Rood 
group, to which a Silver Banksian Medal was given. It contained ;i number 
of good Odontoglossums, Dendrobiums, Cattleya Schrcederae, &c, and in 
the centre a fine plant of Platyclinis glumacea with some three hundred 
spikes, to which a Cultural Commendation was given. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, also received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a fine group, containing Cypripedium Rothschildianum, fine 
plants of Oncidium varicosum, Odontoglossum X elegans, Maxillaria San- 
deriana, Angracum modestum, A. fastuosum, Cymbidium Lowianum, C. L, 
concolor, Epiphronitis X Veitchii, &c. 

Mr. R. Gulzow, Melbourne Nurseries, Bexley Heath, staged an effective 
group, to which a Silver Banksian Medal was given. It contained some 
fine forms of Cattleya Triana;, including a splendid C. T. alba, Oncidium 
Marshallianum, Ladia purpurata, Cypripedium Rothschildianum, &c. 

Messrs. Linden, L'Horticulture Internationale, Brussels, also received 
a Silver Banksian Medal for a good group of Odontoglossums, including 
some fine forms of O. X Wilckeanum and O. crispum, a well-spotted form 
of O. x Ruckeriannm, &c. An Award of Merit was given to a plant called 
O. X spectabile, apparently a form of O. X exccllens. 

Mr. J. \V. Moore, Eldon Nursery, Bradford, sent the rare Dendrobium 

Mr. H. A. Tracey, Amyand Park Road, Twickenham, sent a good Cym- 
bidium Lowianum. 

There was again a fine show of Orchids at the Drill Hall on April 21st, 
though the exhibits were not as numerous as at the two or three previous 

The President, Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. 
White), showed a very interesting group of rare things, to which a Silver 
Banksian Medal was given. It included the pretty little Dendrobium 
cymbidioides, D. crepidatum, Masdevallia caudata, M. Arminii, a fine 
clump of Polystachya Ottoniana with over a hundred flowers, Eria aerido- 
stachya, the handsome Cochlioda Noetzliana, Maxillaria prsstans, a dark 
form of Odontoglossum tnumphans, and Cvpripedium X Charles Richman. 
Special awards were given to the following :— Fine plants of Dendrobium 
capilhpes and Cymbidium tigrinum, each a Cultured Commendation: 
Sarcochilus Hartmanni and Epidendrum arachnoglossum, each a Botanical 

Welbore S. Ellis, Esq., Hazelbourne, Dorking (gr. Mr. Mastcrton), 
cewed a Silver Banksian Medal for a good group of Odontoglossums, 
ng varieties of O. crispum, the pretty O. X Andersonianum H^el" 


bourne var. (figured at p. joj of our second volume), a tine O. Pescatorei 
with much branched raceme, a very dirk formof O. triumphal)*, itr. Tin- 
group also contained a verv good form of Dendrobiuni Hildebrandii. 

H. T. Pitt, Hs.).. Rosslyn. Mamford Hill (gr. Mr. Aldoua . 
Silver Banksian Medal for an effective group, including Ladia cinnabarina, 
Miltonia Plvala-nopsis and M. vexillaria. Epidendrum Wallisii. a Series of 
good Odontoglossums, and other show} Orchids. Vanda Parisbii 
Marriottiana received an Award of Merit. 

R. Brooman Whin. Esq., Arddarroch, Garelochead, N.B. (gr. Mr. 
Roberts., also received a Silver Banksian Medal foi a line Series of firms of 
Odontoglossuin crispum and 0. X Anders<jniamun. file three following 
each received an Award of Merit : 0. crispum Arddarroch var., a heavily 
blotched form allied to (). c. apiatum ; (). Audcrsoiuaniiui candidum, a 
form with milk-white ground and spots approaching those ofO. crispum in 
shape: and O. X Andersonianuni Arddarroch var.. a handsome form with 
cream-white ground covered all over with small red-brown spots. 

G. \V. Law-Schofield, Esq., New Hall Hex . Kawt. nstnll. received an 
Award of Merit for Cypripedium X Schotieldianuin ihellatulum 1 X 
hirsutissimum 3 ). a very handsome form most approaching C. bellatulum. 
the ground colour cream-white, the dorsal sepal with a green centre and 
some fine radiating purple-dotted lines, the petals uniformly spotted with 
purple, and the lip rose-purple. 

M. C. Cooke, Esq., staged a good group, including some good Odonto- 
glossums and other showy Orchids, the centre being occupied by a fine 
plant of Cymbidium Lowiannm. The group received a Vote of Thanks. 

F. W. Moore. Esq.. Royal Botanic Garden. Glasnevin, sent Dendro- 
biuni harbatulum and D. cariniferuin. the latter receiving a Botanical 

J. Bradshaw. Esq.. The (.rang,. Southgate (gr. Mr. Whiffenl. showed a 
good form of ("attic \ 

Mrs. Briggs. Bury Bank House. Accrington, sent a good form of 
Dendrobiuni Devonianum. 

F. M. Burton. Esq., Highfield, Gainsborough, sent Cypripedium X 
highfieldeuse, said to be from C. Lawrenceanum S and C. Driiryi ( . 

De B. Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield. Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Cooke) exhibited 
the handsome Odontoglossum X Andersoniauum Rosefield var., and 0. X 

W. E. Ledger. Esq., Wilton Road, Wimbledon, showed the pretty little 
Australian Dendrobium linguaforme. 

C. J. Lucas, Esq., Warnham Court, Horsham (gr. Mr. Duncan), sent a 
fine form of Odontoglossum crispum. a very dark 0. Hallianum, and two 
good forms of O. X excellens. 


Messrs. James Veitch and Sons, t'hclstii. i xhihited a very fine group, to 
which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It contained some fine Cattleya 
Lawrenceana and C. Schrcedera, Ljelia Boothiana, L. purpurata and 
L. X Latona, Lajlio-cattleya X Pallas, the pretty Disa X langleyensis 
Cirrhopetalum picturatum, Cymbidium X eburneo-Lowianum, Dendro- 
bium veratrifolium, Maxillaria Sanderiana, Selenipedium caudatum, Cypri- 
pedium X Druryi-Hookerae and others : Odontoglossums, Oncidiums, &c. 
The following received special awards : — Epidendrum X Endresio-Wallisii 
superbum, First-class Certificate ; Dendrobium X Wiganiae, Award of 
Merit ; Cattleya Schrcedera; eximia, a striking dark rose-coloured form with 
some orange in the centre, Award of Merit : and Angraecum metallicum, a 
Botanical Certificate. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Upper Clapton, staged a good group, con- 
taining Odontoglossum X stellimicans, various forms of O. luteopurpureum 
and other Odontoglossums, some good Cattleya Schilleriana, C. Law- 
renceana and C. Mossia:, Lselia purpurata, Oncidium phymatochilum, 
Dendrobium nobile nobilius and D. Phalaenopsis, Cypripedium X Masoni, 
&c. A Vote of Thanks was given. 

Mr. R. Gulzow, Bexley Heath, exhibited an effective group of Lailia 
purpurata, Oncidium Marshallianum, Cattleya intermedia, and C. Trians, 
and also received a Vote of Thanks. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, also received a Vote of Thanks 
for a fine group, including Brassia Lewisii, Ccelogyne Dayana, Spathoglottis 
Lobbii, Dendrobium O'Brienianum striatum, Epidendrum Wallisii, some 
fine forms of Oncidium varicosum, Odontoglossums crispum and Pescatorel, 
Lycaste Skinneri, Miltonia vexillaria, Cypripedium hirsutissimum, Cattleya 
citrina, some good C. Mossia; and C. Schrcedera;, &c. 

Surrey, sent a fine Phaius X 


W. H. L.. Balmedie. O. triumphans with rather long segments. Others n< 

Photographs received, with thanks, J. S. M. 

We have received the Catalogue of Costa Kican Orchids published l)> Mr 
au, of San Jose, Costa Rica. It contains some interesting information about in 
id the climate of the district. We note a plant ralkd Cattlcja Dowiana He 
teresting supposed natural hybrid between Dowiana and Bowringiana or^ 

C. Dowiana with rosy marked petals. 


5-lnoh B«mket. — ■ —_ 

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Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the Drill 
Hall, James' Street, Westminster, during June, on the gth and 23rd 
respectively, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour of 

A flower of the beautiful Odontoglossum crispum " Princess," to which 
an Award of Merit was given by the Royal Horticultural Society on May 
5th last, has been sent from the collection of \V. Vanner, Esq., Camden 
Wood, Chislehurst. The segments are very broad, a little stained with 
lilac, and the sepals have one large and several small vinous purple blotches 
above the middle, which are absent on the toothed petals. 

Two flowers of a seedling Cypripedium, cut from different plants, have 
been sent from the collection of O. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury. 
There is a little doubt about the parentage, though it is believed to be C. 
barbatum giganteum crossed with the pollen of C. Curtisii, and the flowers 
are just what would be expected from such a cross. Thus they are the 
reverse cross of C. X Kerchoveanum, and should bear the same name. 
The dorsal sepal is broad, and much like barbatum, while the sepals are 
spotted except at base and apex, and the lip rather large, showing the 
influence of the other parent. Mr. Wrigley states that one has the leaves 
much like C. Curtisii, and the other almost identical with barbatum. 

An unspotted form of Odontoglossum X Andersonianum comes from 
the collection of De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks. The 
ground colour is pale straw yellow, deeper on the lip, and the sepals much 
suffused with light purple, as in Ruckerianum, while a trace of the same is 
also seen in the petals. 


An inflorescence of Epidendrum Stamfordianum is sent from the 
collection of W. J. Woodhead, Esq., Elton, Maghull, near Liverpool, from 
a plant collected by Mr. Woodhead during a trip through the forests and 
swamps of South Mexico. It is a very attractive thing, and a plant of 
this species which was exhibited at the Temple Show a year ago will long 
be remembered. 

An esteemed correspondent writes that he is investigating the habits of 
the Cattleya Fly on two plants of Cattleya labiata in a glass case, and 
hopes before long to be able to send us the results, which we anticipate will 
be both instructive and useful. 

Two flowers from the collection of D. B. Rappart, Esq.. Liscard, 
Cheshire, are very near Laelia purpurata Russelliana, and one has the 
petals unusually flat for this species. 

A spike each of Cypripedium Chamberlainianum and C. \ ictoria- 
Maris have been sent from the collection of O. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge 

Hall, Bury, to show the difference between them. The latter i 


robust, and without the brown markings on the dorsal sepal and 
petals, and the spotting on the lip, but the two species are very closely 

Cypripedium exul aureum is an unusually brilliant variety from the 
collection of W. M. Appleton, Esq., of Weston-super-Mare, in which the 
petals and lip are bright deep yellow in colour. The ground colour of the 
dorsal sepal is also more yellow than usual. It is typical in other respects. 

A most beautiful flower of Cattleya Mossise Reineckeana has been sent 
from the collection of J. Wilson Potter, Esq., of Croydon, quite perfect in 
shape and of the purest white, with the disc of the lip elegantly veined wit 
rosy crimson in front and with deep yellow behind. With it is a goo 
typical form of Lailia purpurata. 

A flower of the beautiful Odontoglossum X Humeanum excelled 
and O. x Ruckerianum Masoni, to each of which an Award of Merit wa 
given on March 24th last, have been sent from the collection of H. Mason, 
Esq., of Shipley, Yorks, through Messrs. Charlesworth & Co. They a 
noted at page 125. The latter is both richly coloured and very beautitu 

An exceptionally fine form of Cattleya citrina has been sent from the 
collection of J. T. Bennett-Poe, Esq., Holmwood. Cheshunt. The s 


ments are unusually short and rounded, the petals measuring ij inches 
across, by i\ inches long, and the front lobe of the lip nearly as broad as 
the petals. The flowers are more open than in the type, and there is very- 
little orange on the disc of the lip. A photograph shows the plant bearing 

A very large flower of Dendrobium nobile comes from the collection of 
F. H. Moore, Esq., of Liverpool. It resembles a well-developed I). Mobile 
nobilius in shape, but is a little lighter in colour. The plants of this type 
are known as D. nobile giganteum. 

A very beautiful form of Cattleya Mossia: from the collection of Janus 
Davidson, Esq., Summerville. Dumfries, lias the nnuige-yellow in the 
throat and the markings in front very well developed, and is equally good 

This very interesting little plant has re-appeared in the establishment of 
Messrs. F. Sander & Co., of St. Albans. It was originally described by 
Reichenbach in 1S69 as "a little vegetable gem, with a creeping rhizome, 
erect leaves, like those of a Sophronitis cernua, and beautifully amethyst- 
coloured flowers standing singly. It came from Mexico, and has lately 
flowered in the Saundersian collection " (Card. Chron., 1869, p. 988). 
The resemblance to Sophronitis cernua is remarkable ; indeed, until I 
examined the pollen I took it for a new species of that genus, but the 
flowers are usually borne in racemes, in some cases with as many as five 
each. A poor figure is given in Xenia Orckidacea, 111., p. 13, t. 209, figs. I 
and 2. Two other species of this curious little genus are known, both being 
natives of Central America. Its affinity has been the subject of some dis- 
pute. Reichenbach, who had not then seen the pollen, originally described 
it as a genus of Vandea; with no affinities, and the habit of Sophronitis. 
Bentham afterwards transferred it Pleurothallea?, placing it next to 
Octomeria, and Pfitzer again removed it to Lselise, placing it next to 
Sophronitis on account of its habit — a position, however, which is certainly 
erroneous. Bentham placed it in Pleurothallege with some hesitation, re- 
marking that it agreed in habit, but the pollen was more like Eria. The 
remark, however, would apply just as well to Octomeria, and I believe this 
is the real position of the genus. The eight pollen masses are attached in 
a bundle to a common caudicle, but not to a distinct stipes and gland, of 
rostellar origin, as in the VandeK, so that both habit and structure place the 
plant near Octomeria. The plant was awarded a Botanical Certificate at 
the recent Temple Show. R. A. R. 


From the article in your last number it would appear that though the 
larvae of this insect are only too well known, the perfect insect is "wanted" 
by English naturalists. I therefore enclose one which I caught yesterday 
hiding under the rhizome of Laelia tenebrosa. This plant was growing close 
to a Dendrobium Phalamopsis Schrcederianum, whose stem (enclosed) 
showed the hole from which it had issued, and whose leaves had shewn on 
the previous day that on these it had made its first meal. I enclose a leaf 
showing its peculiar method of feeding. This was done during the first 
night after its escape from the chrysalis. The next night it paid attention 
to the Ladia, eating the leaf in the same way as that of the Dendrobe, and 
also nibbling the points off two buds, quite spoiling them, to say nothing of 
devouring two roots, each about half-an-inch long. I think, therefore, I 
may truly say that this beetle is, though beautiful, beastly, and as much a 
pest in the perfect state as in that of larvadom. L. C. R. Thring. 

[The Beetle sent is a large and very different insect to that sent by Mr. 
Wrigley, but is not yet identified.— Ed.] 

Since I sent you the beetle-infested pseudobulb of Dendrobium Phala- 
nopsis (p. 136), my gardener has found many more plants attacked by this 
insect. Most of the infested pseudobulbs were at once burned, but several were 
handed over to my sister's gardener for observation and experiment, while 
others were placed under a bell-glass by my man, with similar objects in view. 

It has been proved that the perfect beetle issues from its bore-hole 
during the hottest part of the day, and flies about with the greatest rapidity 
and ease, settling on any pseudobulb which it may care to visit. Towards 
evening the insects all disappear, either into their old holes or into new 
ones bored into fresh pseudobulbs, or into fresh portions of an infested one. 
I have proved that these beetles fly about my Dendrobium house, because 
one was found walking up an unattached pseudobulb, and my attention was 
immediately called to it. When I first saw it, boring had just commenced, 
and went on at a very rapid rate, the borings being thrown out by the hind 
legs of the beetle as work went on. I carefully watched the insect for 

ctly half-an-hour, 

I lost to sight, having buried itself i 

pseudobulb. From careful observations I find that the beetle usually bores 
right across the pseudobulb, until the outer skin is reached, which it never 
pierces, but then begins to excavate a chamber in which to produce its 
larvs, and m the end I presume it dies there, when its task is completed. 

From these imperfect observations and experiments it is plain that this 
beetle is a very serious pest when once it has established itself in any 
Orchid house, for it breeds so rapidly, and spreads so much, that in a very 
snort time a collection of Dendrobes may be seriously damaged or destroyed. 


No remedial measures have the slightest effect, for a pseudobulb once bored 
must decay and die in the end. Ky experiments it has been proved that tin- 
beetle does not conhne its attacks to Dendrobium Phalamopsis, for I have 
had to burn three plants of I). Devonianum which were full of it, and have 
also proved that it will bore into D. nobile and thyrsitloruin. and live in 
their pseudobulbs. 

I am doing my level best to stamp out this pest, but am very doubtful 
whether I shall succeed or not. 

O. O. Wkiglev. 

Bridge Hall, Bury. 


The constantly increasing number of hybrid Orchids and the consequent 
multiplication of names tends to make the nomenclature question a most 
important one to cultivators of Orchids. It was therefore with considerable 
interest that I read the very pertinent observations of the Right Hon. 
Joseph Chamberlain on this subject in the May Review (p. 135), and I 
think that the thanks of all Orchid lovers are due to him for his timely 
interposition on behalf of law and order. In the course of some trenchant 
and pointed remarks Mr. Chamberlain lays the responsibility of much of 
the present confusion in nomenclature upon the Orchid Committee of the 
Royal Horticultural Society, and to some extent I fear his indictment is but 
too true. 

Mr. Chamberlain proceeds to suggest the desirability of distinguishing 
the reverse crosses of hybrids by a distinctive name, but I venture to think 
that if that course were followed, instead of bringing " order out of chaos," 
it would but serve to make " confusion worse confounded." Mr. Chamber- 
lain truly says that " there are very great and marked differences in the 
reverse crosses of different Orchids," and appears to assume from this that 
if a reverse cross happens to produce a distinct form, it is because it is a 
reverse cross, and therefore, as such, should have a distinctive name. This 
rather reminds one of the old fallacy, "post hoc ergo propter hoc," for it has 
been demonstrated many times, by the experiments of careful observers, 
that there is no intrinsic difference in reverse crosses. (See Kerncr, Sol. 
Hist. PL, Eng. Ed. II., p. 557.) I submit, therefore, that distinctive specific 
names for reverse crosses would not only be superfluous, but in many cases 
would be positively misleading. If a distinct form appears, whether in a 
reverse cross or not, by all means give it a varietal name to distinguish it, 
but pray let it retain the one specific name of the hybrid. On the whole. I 
think no better system of nomenclature could be adopted than that con- 
sistently followed in the Orchid Review, which is based upon the laws laid 
down by the Paris Botanical Congress of 1867, and upon the recommenda- 


tions of the Nomenclature Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society. 

is a simple system, at once practical and scientific, and would, I U 

sure, meet every case and supply every need. As an illustration, I beg 

fT.! J qUOte herC a " abStraCt ° f ,he four rules laid dow " fOT the ra ™5 
ot hybrids and other crosses. (For full text see Orel,. Rev., I., pp. 340-343.) 

(1) "The sign of hybridity ' X ' should be placed between the generic 
and specific names." 

(2) " Hybrids between species should receive a Latin specific name. 
• ■ ■ • • Hybrids raised from the same two parents, whether of hmrki 

parentage or otherwise, should be considered forms of one, and, if necessary, 
may be distinguished by the addition of a varietal name " 

(3) " Hybrids betwe 

1 genera should receive a generic 

by combining the names of the parent genera." 

(4) " Secondary hybrids, i.e., those in which one or both parents are 
themselves of hybrid origin, should receive suitable vernacular or informal 
names, like florists' flowers." 

If these few simple rules had been followed Mr. Chamberlain would 
ave had no need to complain of such anomalies as Dendrobium X 
burfordiense and D. x Euryclea (reverse crosses of D. X dulce and D. X 
rmcans respectively). Of the others complained of, "Clio," "Hebe," 
Dido, Rainbow," " Luna," " Thalia," and " Rubens," would seem to 
be correctly named, as all of them are cross-breds or " secondary hybrids," 
and so come under Rule 4, each distinct form bearing a popular name, like 
roses, chrysanthemums, and other florists' flowers. 

quite agree with Mr. Chamberlain in protesting against the looseness 
allowed ,n naming varieties of natural species. Specific names are not 
admitted unless they have been properly examined and described, and 
varietal names should not be allowed unless carefully certified as distinct by 
the"* hT a l nd . inde P enden t authority, such as the Orchid Committee of 
m „. ' ' ' Slncere, y hope that the time is now close at hand when this 
much V exed question of nomenclature will be settled on a sound basis once 
andc ' '"I 1 trUS ' tHat »" ° rchid cultivators will faithfully, loyally, 

and cons.stently abide by the decision of the authorities. 

r„ k v, Charles C. Hurst. 

Burbage Nurseries, Nr. Hinckley. 

unaIthoris° d C n h : d me C sT: ittee "* ""^ .'* eXpeCted '° «"— ' ! 

occasions they have recognised them 
"4i us 10 plants 1 
regulations, and thil 

by giving awards to plants not named in accordance with the Society 

■~ ~.„unly ought not to have occurred. We have 
.0 y nMh ° riSednamesfo ™»»"«F*, but it is difficult 

theawED.] entire ' y ' Un ' eSS the C ° m ™"- decline to recognise 



It is one of the misfortunes of botanical writer.-; tint, in consequence of no 
authoritative contradiction, the same errors are repeated by various authors, 
passing on from one publication to another, I was much struck with this 
when taking up Mr. Hansen's book, The Orchid Hybrids, the other day. 
The following plants should certainly be erased as possible hybrids, as they 
are nothing of the kind : — 

Dendrobium Donnesia..— It is well known that D. formostun and 1). 
infundibuluin do not grow together, so that a natural hybrid between them 
is impossible. Certain botanists consider I), infundibuluin to be a mountain 
form of I), formosuin. It is probable that I). Donnesia; is another form. 

Orchids of the same species vary considerably according to the varying 
influences under which they grow. The form and shape of the bulbs differ, 
as do also the flowers. D. formosum is certainly an instance of this. The 
common form found in quantity at Moulmein and along the coast to Tavoy 
has the bulbs much swollen in the middle; the flowers also are distinguished 
by their broad and lax petals. The form of D. formosum found in the 
Andamans and adjoining islands called D. formosum Berkeleyi has much 
thinner stems of even thickness throughout. The flowers are also quite 
different, being more funnel-shaped, and not having lax petals. It is cer- 
tainly near to D. infundibuluin, and it is highly probable that D. Donnesia: 
is a similar island form. We have quite enough difficulties regarding 
hybrids without the repetition of errors made without sufficient information. 

D. Wattii is another very doubtful hybrid. 

The late Professor Reichenbach was of opinion that D. Findlayanum 
was a natural hybrid between D. Aphrodite and D. gratiosissimum, but 
this is absurd, as the plants grow widely apart. D. Aphrodite is essentially 
a hot Orchid. I invariably found this plant growing on the top of 
immensely high trees in the low hot plains of Burmah in company with D. 
dixanthum and D. albosanguineum, so that a natural hybrid might be 
expected between these, but up to this time none has ever turned up. 

D. Findlayanum is found growing in company with D. Jamesianum and 
D. gratiosissimum, principally on rocky precipices under entirely different 
conditions as regards temperature, and is a plant never found in the low 
country. Thus D. Findlayanum being a natural hybrid is impossible. 
Perhaps the botanists may eventually decide on considering it a mountain 
form of D. Aphrodite, in the same way as they consider D. infundibulum 
and D. Jamesianum as mountain forms of D. formosum, but certainly let 
D. Findlayanum be in future excluded as a possible hybrid. 

Among the Phalaenopses some of Mr. Hansen's supposed hybrids are 
still more impossible. Of course, to anyone knowing the localities any 


such hybrids are absurd. Over a thousand miles separate Phaljenopsis 
tetraspis from P. Lueddemanniana, and P. speciosa is separated by 200 
miles from its nearest allied species. Again, how nearly allied to these 
plants are Phalasnopsis sumatrana and P. Marise, but they also are confined 
to the special islands in which they grow. 

The evident disadvantages of the mistakes above commented on being 
copied from book to book must be my excuse for troubling you with these 
notes. It appears to me to be a mistake to repeat erroneous surmises of 
the late Professor Reichenbach which never had any reliable basis. Mr. 
Hansen's book seems to have been compiled with great care, and in making 
these remarks I in no way intend to disparage it. The errors I point out are 
not his, but are errors copied from previous works. 

Emeric S. Berkeley. 
[We think there was no excuse for including Dendrobium Findlayanum 
in the list of hybrids, as the suggestion thrown out by Reichenbach in 1876 
(Xen. Orch., II., p. 210) has not been repeated— at all events in any 
important work— and the author himself omitted all reference to it in the 
following year (Gard. Chron., 1877, vii., p. 334). At the present day the 
suggestion is absurd, and it is certainly not a variety of D. Aphrodite. D. 
Donnesias is only a form of D. infundibulum, and shows no trace of the 
influence of D. formosum, as we should have pointed out before had we 
happened to have seen it. We consider D. formosum to be specifically distinct 
from D. infundibulum, but we cannot say as much for D. Jamesianum. 
There does not appear to be any reason for supposing that D. Wattii is a 
natural hybrid, and the remark about Phalsnopsis speciosa is very well 
described by General Berkeley as absurd. There are a number of other 
plants wrongly included by Mr. Hansen as natural hybrids, even after the 
errors have been pointed out, of which Cattleya velutina may be taken as 
an example, and we fully agree in thinking it a mistake to repeat these 
mistakes. Such plants might have been included in a list headed " doubt- 
ful or erroneous," but are out of place elsewhere.— Ed.] 

I have watched with interest the observations in your journal since 
January regarding this pest, and agree with you and Mr. Millington that it 
is the black fly, and not Mr. Hamilton's (p. 87) " blue and yellow markings." 
Early last year I bought established plants of Cattleya from a nursery- 
man, and they literally swarmed with it in all stages ; but, being a novice, 
it was some time before I discovered it. From these many of my old stock 
got it, including Lffilias. After twelve months' careful watching and cutting 
I got rid of it, leaving me many dilapidated plants. 


This year I bought a few more "fine selected" plants, and within a 
month I found I had replenished my stock of fine " black " and grubs in 
plenty. Needless to say, the knife went to work, and I think I have saved 
my bacon. Wherever there is a hole in an old bulb, off with it, and if you 
split it up, the chances are you'll find the By or eggs, " XL." will kill them 
if they get out, but it won't get at the grubs : it is only when full-grown that 
the fly eats its way out and begins the mischief of laying its eggs elsewhere. 
The curious thing is. one cannot detect how the grub gets into the new 
growth— at least, I have failed to do so. [Eggs laid inside.— En.] 

" Wellington." 


Mr. Cookson's notes on the time of ripening seed at page 1 12 of the April 
number are valuable, especially since his experience differs from mine 
in a number of points. The time required here is doubtless shortened by 
the intense sunlight, this latitude being the same as that of central Egypt, 
and for at least half the year the sun is so powerful that it is impossible 
to handle metal objects lying in full sunlight without gloves, their temper- 
ature rising to about 160 F., even when the shade temperature near by is 
quite comfortable. As to the warning that seeds are not to be counted 
good unless they produce plants, I have rarely found seeds that look really 
plump and well-developed under the microscope to fail to pass through the 
earlier stages of germination, increasing in size five or six-fold and develop- 
ing plenty of chlorophyll, which would certainly show them to be alive. 
The exceptions have almost all been seeds with one parent ranked as " cool." 
These swell up, but fail to take on a lively green colour, and after some 
months usually die without further growth. 

I have raised healthy plants from half-a-dozen Laeha and Cattleya 
crosses which were but seven and eight months in ripening seed, and in 
one case, C. amethystoglossa crossed with L. fiava and L. harpophylla (on 
the same flower), the pod ripened in 4$ months, and within six weeks of 
planting the seed I had one plant with a leaf three-eighths of an inch long, 
besides innumerable smaller plants just ready to push the leaf. On the 
other hand some crosses have lingered as long in the seed-pod as any 
recorded in England. 

The Editor's suggestion that several flowers on the same plant should 
be crossed at the same time with different pollen, and the time recorded, 
has already been carried into effect, with the following results : — In October, 
1894, I had three flowers on the same spike of Cattleya Warscewiczii, and 
crossed one with pollen of C. velutina ; another with L. Perrinii, C. Bow- 


ringiana, C. Dormaniana, and C. superba together; and the third with C. 
Triana and C. Percivaliana. The first pod opened at 10 months, the 
second at eleven, and the third has just opened at 17$ months. The pods 
all contained an abundance of viable seeds, many of which are still alive, 
and those of the second are quite promising in appearance. In November, 
1894, with four flowers on the same plant of C. Trianie vaginalis, I crossed 
one with L. anceps alba, ripe in 9^ months ; one with C. Walkeriana, ripe 
in 11 \ months ; one with C. labiata, ripe in 13^ ; and one with L. crispilabia, 
not yet ripe at 17 months : all of which seems to indicate a decided 
influence on the part of the pollen parent. 

To simplify the matter of records I use circular tags— cut from letter 
paper by a gun-wad punch— each attached to the pedicel of the hybridized 
flower by a loop of thread, and bearing the names, in pencil, of both 
parents and the date. In the note book the completed record would read 
as in the following example : — 
May 15. C. Mossiae x L. grandis (\ — 5 da.) 1. ! 
Ripe March 10, 1896, 10 months. 

The amount of pollen used is given by the fraction in the parentheses 
(the quantity yielded by one flower being taken as unity), the "5 da." 
indicates that the pollen had been kept five days before using, and the " 1 " 
outside the parentheses, that only one flower was thus crossed. Whenever 
the pod dies instead of ripening, the tag is removed, and if any consider- 
able time has elapsed since pollination, the date of death is entered on its 
back, and at any convenient time thereafter this date is entered in the note 
book, a naught (o) takes the place of the exclamation point at the end of 
line, and the tag is destroyed. In a rough way the time that elapses before 
the death of the pod gives a hint as to the amount of affinity between the 
species crossed, though single cases will often be misleading. My note book 
already contains over 1,500 entries of attempted crpsses made during the 

three years, and 

230 apparently good pods have been gathered so far. 

When the pod ripens it is cut off and put in a paper bag about four by 
seven inches, name of cross and dates entered at the top, and dates and 
manner of planting entered below. These bags, when empty, are filed in 
alphabetical order, according to name of female parent, like library catalogue 
cards, and the further progress of the seedlings noted on them as may seem 
desirable, so that the whole history of every pod is on file and may be 
referred to at any moment. 

My rule is to make all the crosses possible with my material, that is, all 
in which there is a reasonable chance of getting good seed, without regard 
to the fact that many crosses would probably be worthless from a 
commercial or even horticultural point of view. I have made also a good 


many of what Charles Darwin used to call " fool's experiments." as to 
different materials on which to prow the seeds, and it may surprise some 
growers to hear how very regardless of precedent some of my Cattleya 
hybrids have been, since I have raised them successfully to the leaf and 
root stage not only on fibrous peat and wood and earthenware, but an 
occasional plant has grown on corduroy and Canton flannel and linen 
towelling, on bibulous paper, and even on woollen fabrics. I grew more 
than a hundred fine little plants of C. intermedia X Harrisoniana to the 
leaf stage on a small piece of woollen bed blanket, happening to get the 
conditions of moisture, ivc. just right for them. On these fabrics growth 
is usually much slower than under more natural conditions, but they escape 
many enemies, both insects and moulds, that find congenial quarters in 
fibrous peat and other composts, and destroy the great majority of seeds 
while still in the thalloid stage. 

In my former notes in the February issue the sentence above the 
tabulations (at page 42) is printed so as to contradict the preceding correct 
statement, that the given average time of ripening seed is that of all my 
crosses on the given species — not the normal time for uncrossed pods, 
which statement should be cancelled. The sign " + " is equivalent to 
" and," indicating that more than one kind of pollen was used on the same 

Theodore L. Mead. 
Oviedo, Florida. U.S.A.. 
May 4th, 1896. 

[The mistake alluded to in the last paragraph arose through a little 
alteration made by us in the arrangement of the tabulated part and the 
preceding explanatory paragraph. The fact is the number of months 
following the parents indicated represents the average time of ripening of 
all crosses on those species, and the table therefore represents the amount 
of variability in the periods of ripening under varying circumstances, and is 
not adduced in support of the remark that the time of ripening of any 
crossed capsule seemed to tend towards a mean between the normal 
ripening time of the two parents, as we supposed. Some experiments with 
uncrossed capsules would be very interesting, and possibly throw light on 
this question. The cases now adduced are remarkable, and we should 
particularly like to know the result of the multiple crosses mentioned when 
they flower. We shall recur to the question. Meantime, we hope others 
will send us their experiences. — Ed.] 



I have frequently called attention to the Nomenclature question, and, 
consequently, I read Mr. Chamberlain's remarks in your last issue (page 133) 
with considerable interest, especially as a little discussion may clear up some 
of the doubtful points involved. Mr. Chamberlain very well points out that the 
present confusion is almost a scandal, and threatens to become intolerable 
as time goes on, for which he partly blames the Orchid Committee of the 
Royal Horticultural Society, who are supposed to have certain rules for their 
guidance, but only put them in practice occasionally. One point which he 
brings prominently forward is the naming of reverse crosses, and he thinks 
that the rule that a reverse cross is not entitled to a distinctive name is 
open to criticism, as these often show great and marked differences. But 
then, this is frequently the case with seedlings out of the same pod, while in 
many cases reverse crosses do not present any appreciable difference, so 
that the rule breaks down completely. Selenipedium X Sedeni, as raised 
from the reversed cross, is absolutely indistinguishable, and numerous other 
cases could be pointed out. I therefore think that the Orchid Committee 
are right in refusing reverse crosses a separate name, and even a varietal 
name I would only allow when there was some distinctive character by 
which such a plant could be distinguished, just as in the case of different 
seedlings out of the same pod. Mr. Chamberlain is undoubtedly right in 
his contention that some authentic quality should be attached to every 
distinctive name, and this would not be the case if every reverse cross were 
to receive a distinct name. The two will not run together, and now that 
the Orchid Committee have recognised the principle I hope they will 
carry it out consistently in future. There is plenty of room for 

Mr. Chamberlain also remarks that the latitude allowed to what are 
called " varieties - is even worse than the loose treatment of hybrids. 
Every nurseryman and every amateur is permitted at his own sweet will to 
affix a distinctive name to any plant that strikes his fancy, and as there is 
no rule and no authority, so there is no limit to the abuse of the practice. 
With this I thoroughly agree. Hardly a meeting of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society passes without a number of new names appearing, many of 
which fail to serve any useful purpose. And what is the result ? Some one 
has a Cattleya Mossias, let us say, that is not quite the same as others he 
has, so it is labelled Mr. Blank's variety, or Blank Lodge variety. Perhaps 
it is good, and receives an Award, but whether or no, it catches the reporter's 
eye and is duly recorded. Some, it is true, are ignored— possibly it is not 


thought good enough to be noticed, or it may be recognised as something 
else, but a good many do get recorded in a useless kind of way, for even 
when they really deserve a varietal name their particular character is not 
recorded, and when afterwards some one wants to find out what Mr. 
Blank's variety is like he cannot ascertain, and perhaps gives it another 
name. And even if its character is recorded the result is much the same 
under the present go-as-you-please policy, for is it a notorious fact that 
many varieties have several different names, and some species of Orchids 
have more named varieties than there are distinct varieties to name. And 
still they come. 

The remedy suggested is that the Orchid Committee should establish a 
" Hall Mark " for valuable Orchids that would be recognised by cultivators. 
But it seems to me that the Certificates already granted by the Society 
fulfil this purpose to a great extent, and would do so entirely if the rules 
supposed to be in force were always carried into effect. And even if the 
new idea were carried out, it would leave things much as they are, unless a 
new rule were made to the effect that new names should only be given by 
competent experts. This would probably be the most effectual check to the 
present growing evil, and would ensure an approach to an orderly and 
scientific nomenclature. 

The Gardeners Chronicle for May 16th (p. 614) alludes to Mr. Chamber- 
lain's article, and I agree with a good deal that is said. " It was hoped," 
it remarks, " that when the Nomenclature Committee issued its code that 
horticulturists also would adopt the rules, and that there would be less 
reason for protests such as Mr. Chamberlain now makes. Unfortunately, 
things go on as before, if not worse. The Orchid Committee is blamed for 
this state of things, and to some extent it is doubtless responsible. It 
must, however, be borne in mind that the ordinary meetings of the Com- 
mittee afford no more fitting opportunities for the discussion of intricate 
points of affinity or nomenclatare than the House of Commons does for the 
consideration of the racial differences between Boers and Kaffirs, Teutons 
and Britons, or the limitations, geographic or otherwise, between Venezuela, 
Guiana, and Brazil. One way out of the difficulty is to appoint a Com- 
mittee of experts to determine the general points at issue, and arrive at 
some conclusion, arbitrary or otherwise, on points of detail as they arise. 
This, as has been stated, has already been done, so far as generalities 

sd ; but who pays 
The rules for nomencla 

Who is to enforce 

bias was allowed to over-ride scientific interests, are very good 


as they stand, and if people would only follow them there would i 

much to complain of." 

As to the kinds of name to be given, the same article observes : " It is, 
as a rule, not desirable to apply to a plant a name descriptive of its 
peculiarities, or indicative of its history. ... A name should be a 
name and nothing else. It should not be description ; still less should it 
be a detached fragment of history. Nothing but confusion arises from the 
attempt to blend nomenclature with description, and specially with the 
history of the plant." Now, I confess this is a strange and startling 
doctrine, if it means what it really says. What about Vanda ccerulea, and 
Broughtonia sanguinea ? Is not Selenipedium caudatum descriptive ? Is 
Coryanthes leucocorys objectionable because it describes the peculiarities 
of the species ? Does not Phalamopsis sumatrana contain a fragment of 
history ? These are only cases selected at random, and might be multiplied 
ad infinitum, but where does the confusion come in ? I have read similar 
remarks before, or I should be inclined to pass them over. As it is I 
should much like a few examples of the names which the writer is tilting at, 
together with some of the ideal names recommended, for I confess that I 
cannot follow him. 

The writer is also strongly of opinion that the Latin system of nomen- 
clature should not be followed in the naming of hybrids, but that the 
practice of the florists should be adopted. With this I d-> not agree, and 
it is not in accord with the recommendations of the Nomenclature Com- 
mittee above alluded to. On former occasions I have gone pretty fully 
into this question of the vernacular, and have not time to follow it further 
at present, so will merely refer the writer to pages 12, 200, and 228 of the 
last volume of this work, which have some bearing on the question. 

My last month's correspondent will doubtless be looking out for some 
remarks about the " blue Cattleya." I have seen it. It was exhibited by 
Mr. Smee at the Royal Horticultural Society's meeting on May 5th last ' 
With admirable foresight Mr. Smee had pasted the catalogue description 
on a piece of cardboard, and exhibited it with the plant. It was a wise 
percaution, for otherwise I should not have recognised it, and I suspect 
others would have been in the same predicament. Will some one send me 
an essay on that " blue Cattleya ? " 




At the Royal Horticultural Society's meeting on June 25, 1895, a Botanical 
Certificate was given to a curious little Dendrobium from the collection of 
J. Bradshaw, Esq., The Grange, Southgate, under the name of D. inversum, 
which was recorded in the report of the meeting [supra. III., p. 253) as 
" about two inches high, and bore a two-flowered inflorescence of the size 
and colour of Lxlia cinnabarina, with a few purple lines on the lip." It 
was again exhibited on May 5th last, when bearing four flowers, bat on 
comparison it proves to be Dendrobium Arachnites, a species described by 
Reichenbach in 1874. The author remarked :— 

"Since the time when Sir Willi. un Hooker described his unique Den- 
drobium amboinense, no such remarkable and extraordinary gorgeous 
Dendrobe has been discovered. Imagine a dwarf stem three inches high, 
with shining internodes a little thicker at their upper ends, and then add a 
flower with linear sepals and petals, nearly two inches long when dried, and 
a long pandurate lip narrowed towards its obtuse tip. All these organs 
appear, when dried, whitish yellow, with a deep lilac blotch at the base of 
the lip. I have only a single flower, not cohering with the stem. To judge, 
however, from the little scars on the stem, it must be a Eudendrobium. I 
believe a single plant of it has been found in Burmah by Mr. Boxall, who 
must have been filled with enthusiasm at the sight, since he dried it ! One 
feels that the Burmese plants incline to the Malayan type, since it is im- 
possible not to think of Renanthera flos-aeris (Arachnanthe moschifera). 
I was favoured with the flower and two stems by Mr. Low. Of course I 
can only describe the things as they are, and am unable to say that the 
stems may not become longer. "'■ — Rchb. f. in Gard. Chroti., 1874, ii., p. 354. 

Except as regards colour, the above description gives a very fair idea of 
the plant, of which nothing further seems to have been discovered for many 
years, for Messrs. Veitch in their Manual (III., p. 18) state that the only plant 
they knew of was in the collection of Mr. Lee, at Downside, through whose 
kindness they were enabled to give a description. A flower preserved at 
Kew came from the collection of Baron Schroder in June, 1887, which may 
possibly have been from Mr. Lee's original plant, as the Downside 
collection was distributed, and only one plant had ever been recorded. 

It is a beautiful little plant, allied to D. nutans, Lindl., but remarkable 
for its very dwarf tufted habit and large brilliantly coloured flowers. It is 
about two to three inches high, with linear-lanceolate acute leaves, i£-2| 
inches long, and deciduous before the flowers appear. The latter are borne 
in fascicles of two or three and are il inches long, deep cinnabar-orange, 
with red purple veins on the lip. The sepals and petals are linear-lanceolate 
and subequal, and the lip pandurate-oblong and acute. Mr. Bradshaw 

red his plant from Burmah, and more of it may some day appear. Of 
se the original name must be restored. R. A. R. 


The female flowers of Catasetum macrocarpum are so rarely seen in 
cultivation that it may be interesting to record that one has just appeared 
at Kew on a raceme with three of the other sex. The males are familiar 
to most orchidists, and the females are depicted at plate 1752 of the 
Botanical Register, but as many people may not be able to refer to that 
figure, it may be added that the lip is larger and more ovoid, the ovary 
very much stouter, and the column very short and stout, and without any 
antenna:. In the present example the petals were almost suffused with 
dusky brown— as were also the males, which are notoriously variable in 
colour in different individuals of this species— and the anther was nearly 
half developed, showing that it was partially in a transition state. A 
peculiarity of the female flowers, which has been recorded before, is that they 
reach maturity sooner than the males, and in the present instance the 
second flower was the female, yet it opened a week in advance of those, 
above and below it. A plate has been prepared for the Botanical Magazine. 
The history of this very interesting genus and its so-called " sporting," and 
how the females of four different species were confused under the name of 
Monachanthus viridis, has already been detailed in the Review (supra, III-, 
pp. 138-143). 

It is also interesting to record that the plant of Catasetum barbatum in 
the collection of John \V. Arkle, Esq., of West Derby, Liverpool, mentioned 
at page 131 of the last volume, has again produced a raceme of female 
flowers, six in number. It is perfectly erect, and the flowers are entirely 
light yellowish green, except for a few minute brown spots on the margins 
of two of the flowers. The latter are only half the size of the females of C. 
macrocarpum, which were formerly confounded with it, the sepals, petals, 
and lips being seven to eight lines long, and the latter six lines broad. The 
column is shorter than broad, without any trace of either antenna, rostel- 
lum, or anther. Their second appearance on this plant is very interesting, 
as they are so seldom seen in many other species. The female of this 
species is the one investigated and figured by Darwin as the female of 
Catasetum tridentatum, which I have previously shown to be erroneous. 
There are still many species of which the females are unknown, but it is 
to be hoped that in course of time they may be discovered. 

R. A. Rolfe. 


The annexed illustration is reproduced from a photograph of the beautiful 
Dendrobium Devonianum. sent by Dr. A. W. Hoisholt, Stockton. 
California, and shows the peculiar character of this charming plant when 
well grown. The pseudobulbs are literally wreathed with flowers, some of 
which had to be omitted. A second photograph sent, shows the entire 
plant, with the two flowering bulbs suspended ;ibout the middle 

of their length. 

page 196 of our second volume, in the collection of Dr. Hodgkinson, of 

Wilmslow, four feet long, and bearing eighty-seven flowers, several of the 

fascicles bearing five each. When thus grown it is a sight to be remembered. 

This most beautiful plant was discovered in the Khasia Hills, in 1835, 


by Gibson, who had been sent to India by the Duke of Devonshire to 
collect Orchids. It was found hanging from trees at about 4.500 fret 
elevation, and being out of flower it was a question whether it was worth 
collecting. Some flowers, however, appeared on the way home, where it 
arrived in 1837, and the following spring it flowered well at Chatsworth, 
being figured in 1840 by Paxton (Mag. of Bot., VII., pp. 169, 170, with 
plate and woodcut), who dedicated it to the Duke of Devonshire. It was 
afterwards figured at plate 4429 of the Botameal Magazine. Lindley called 
it the King of Dendrobiums (Bot. Reg., XXX., Misc., p. 48). Singularly 
enough this author afterwards made it a synonym of D. pulchellum, Roxb. 
(Journ. Linn. Soc., III., p. 12), and even Reichenbach called it D. pulchellum 
var. Devonianum (Walp. Ann., VI., p. 284), though in reality it is very 
distinct. D. pulchellum also includes two very distinct plants, whose 
history is given at page i 73 of our last volume. 

D. Devonianum ranges from Bhotan, the Khasia and Naga Hills, 
Assam, and southwards to Tenasserim. The typical form has white flowers 
with amethyst purple tips, and two large orange-yellow blotches at the base 
of the beautifully fringed lip, but two or three varieties are known, including 
the albino candidulum, and one called rhodoneurum, in which the sepals and 
petals are veined with purple. They are very beautiful, and succeed under 
the treatment usually given to other species of the deciduous group. 


Some curious mistakes have been made in recording the localities of various 
garden Orchids, and it now appears that the beautiful little Saccolabium 
mimatum has not escaped this misfortune. It was described nearly half-a- 
century ago as a native of Java (Lindl. Bot. Reg., 1847, sub t. 26), but no 
one has been able to confirm the record ; and many years later Reichenbach 
added a variety citrinum, a supposed native of the Philippines (Card. Chron., 
1884. xxi., p. 542), which is equally doubtful It is interesting to note that 
one of the plants recently sent to Kew by Dr. Watt, from the Naga Hills 
(east of Khasia), at 6,000 to 9,000 feet elevation, proves on flowering to be 
this species, and as until quite recently very little was known of the Flora 
of this district, there is little doubt that the habitat of the plant has now 
been discovered. The species was originally described as " a Java plant 
imported by Messrs. Veitch and flowered by both Mr. Rucker and Mr. C. 
B. \\ arner." Dr. Lindley, however, added that it was not to be traced 
among Blame's Javan plants, and afterwards Miquel was only able to 
include it ,n the Javan Flora on the authority of Lindley. Messrs. Veitch 
state " Introduced by us from Java in 1846 through Thomas Lobb, but 


now very rarely to be seen in the Orchid collections of this country " 
(Vritch Man. Orch., vii., p. 117). Unfortunately, the localities of some of 
Lobb's plants were confused— a fact well known— and it is highly probable 
that Lobb met with the species during his journey to Khasia. The species 
is not included in the Flora of British India, and no wild specimens are 
known, but considering our limited knowledge of the Flora of the district 
in question this is not surprising. A figure was given !>v Lindley soon 
after the original description appeared (Hot. Rig., 1847, t. 58), but the one 
given in the Botanical Magazine (t. 5326), as S. miniatum is erroneous, 
being the allied S. curvifolium, Lindl., which has different leaves and 
larger flowers. It is probable that Lindley himself fell into the same error, 
for one of the two racemes preserved on the sheet in Lindley's Herbarium 
belongs to S. curvifolium, and this is presumably the one alluded to as from 
Mr. C. B. Warner, but unfortunately its origin is not stated. The other 
one is carefully labelled " Java. Mr. Rucker, 27 Feb., 1847," and is the one 
from which the figure was prepared, and therefore the type specimen. It 
is remarkable how many errors have been incorporated into the history of 
this pretty little plant. 

R. A. R. 

A correspondent writes asking the best way of drying Orchid flowers, so 
as to keep their colour, and suggests that some notes on the subject in 
the Orchid Review would be interesting to other readers. If it is desired to 
preserve the shape as well as the colour, the flowers may be placed in a 
box, on a layer of dry sand, the ovary being first cut off to facilitate drying, 
after which the box may be carefully filled up with sand and placed in a 
warm place for a few days, until the moisture has evaporated. The secret 
is to get the flower dried before the tissues become at all decomposed, and, 
if this is done, many Orchids keep their colours very well for a long period. 
An account of this method was given at page 233 of our first volume. 
Dried in this way, however, they are not so easily stored afterwards as 
when pressed flat, which is the method we should recommend. The flowers 
should be laid between sheets of porous paper of some kind — blotting paper 
answers well— and then placed under a moderate weight, changing the 
papers every day or two, until the flowers are dry. Plenty of paper should 
be used, so as to absorb the moisture. The flowers can then be mounted 
on sheets, or stored between the leaves of scrap-books, care being taken to 
arrange them in such a way that they can be found when wanted. Some 
varnish them after mounting, and say it helps to preserve the colours ; but 
it gives them an unnatural shiny appearance, which we do not admire. A 


certain amount of heat facilitates the process of drying in any case. Some 
flowers, however— such as Lycastes and other fleshy kinds— invariably go 
brown in drying, and we know of no method by which this change can be 
averted. The process is exceedingly simple, and the way in which the 
colours of many flowers— such as Odontoglossums, Oncidiums, and Den- 
drobiums— are preserved for a long period is remarkable. Two or three 
collections have been exhited at meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society 
within the last year or so, as was recorded in our pages at the time. 

Mr. T. L. Mead, of Oviedo, Florida, writes:—" I have just made arrange- 
ments to try a new experiment in Orchid seed culture. Many Orchids are 
rarely if ever found wild at less than 30 or 40 feet from the ground, even 
when other circumstances seem to favour them. So I have built a small 
platform in the top of a live oak, about 45 feet from the ground, and con- 
veniently accessible by ladders, where 1 propose to try— under varied 
conditions as to moisture and exposure— seeds of some thirty or forty 
different Orchid crosses, including pods from Vanda coerulea and Cattleya 
citnna, which are thought difficult to manage under glass. It is said that 
resident Orchid amateurs in the city of Mexico find the adult plants to grow 
much better on the housetops than in the garden, with equal attention as to 
watering, so I have considerable hope of good results from the experiment." 
We shall hope to hear the results. It would be interesting to note the 
daily range of temperature in the two situations, and any other obvious 
differences which might suggest the cause of any variation in the results 

By H. A. Hurbkrrv, Highbury, Moor Green, Birmingham. 

The temperatures given for last month should be maintained in all depart- 
ments, and the shading, airing, and damping down well attended to, which 
is a matter of great importance. 

On the Cattleya and Laelia houses, also the Dendrobium and other warm 
houses, the roller blinds should be removed rather early in the afternoon- 
say from 3 to 5 o'clock, according to the aspect of the house-and at the 
same time the ventilation should be reduced and a thorough damping down 
given. Spraying the plants also overhead is beneficial. In fact, at this 
season when the weather is bright and hot, a good drenching overhead 
with soft warm water when the house is closed is often practised with very 


good results. But when this is done it is necessary to be a little careful 
with some few things whose young growths are in the habit of damping off. 
When plants are healthy, however, and the conditions well ;ittended to, as 
advised, the plants that damp are few and far between, though one or two 
Dendrobiums are likely to do so. particularly L). Bensona; and D. BUperbum. 
The houses so closed and damped down will become beautifully warmed, and 
a lovely growing temperature will be generated that will last throughout the 
night without the assistance of fire heat, although it is frequently advan- 
tageous, and even necessary, to have a slight warmth in the pipes during 
the night in the wannest departments, that is, the Dendrobium and Kast 
Indian houses. When finally closing the houses in this manner for the 
day, I always like to leave the ventilators more or less open at the bottom, 
according to the conditions of the' weather. And it must be remembered 
that the above treatment is good only for Orchids that require much 
warmth during the growing season. For cool Orchids it would be fatal. 

Although I have given the above method of cultivation as being a good 
one for the encouragement of free ami healthy growth, it is not the best for 
Orchids that are in flower, that is supposing the blooms are required to 
last in perfection, for they are soon rendered spotted and useless by the 
damp. Even without the overhead syringing the flowers of any Orchid 
will spot just the same if there is no warmth in the hot-water pipes during 
the night. Failing this the flowers will not remain perfect without an 
abundance of air, such, for instance, as is given to the Cool house. We get 
over this difficulty by keeping a little house expressly for Orchids in flower. 
The temperature is intermediate, and is thus suitable for all except the Cool 
Orchids. A little heat is always in the pipes to keep down the damp, and 
the house is also well ventilated, and not only do the flowers last a long 
while in perfection, but the temperature is the very best in which to grow 
the maidenhair fern (Adiantum cuneatum), and it therefore answers a double 
purpose, a Fern house and an Orchid Show house. An illustration of this 
house was given at page 241 of the last volume. 

In such a house how well the Orchids are set off, and what a pretty 
show they make, especially at this time of year. The gorgeous Cattleyas 
Mossia: and Mendelii, and the not less showy Lselia purpurata, the 
beautiful Miltonia vexillaria, and the truly charming drooping spikes of 
Odontoglossum citrosmum are only a few of those that could be mentioned. 
Take care that the flowers of none are left on the plants too long, so as to 
cause exhaustion. In this respect much depends upon the strength and 
condition of the plants. If strong, the fact of blooming is nothing, but 
weakly shrivelled specimens, if allowed to bloom at all, should have their 
spikes removed as early as possible and placed in water. 

The Cattleyas Mossia: and Mendelii, and others that still remain, will 


this month take their turn at the potting bench, and have done to them 
what may be required. The usual compost and the usual method of 
potting, as before given, should be meted out to the whole of this genus. 
When doing C. Bowringiana let them be potted rather high up, as the 
rhizome strikes a downward course, and if not well raised will soon get 
below the level of the rim. That most beautiful Cattleya Dowiana aurea, 
if not already done up and made comfortable, should be delayed no longer. 
This species does not possess the vigorous constitution of many others of 
the same genus. Our dull winters seem to rob it of a good deal of vitality, 
and much trouble is experienced where the air is laden with smoke, never- 
theless, with careful attention, it does fairly well. We grow ours in rather 
more warmth than is given to the majority, and also C. Eldorado, C. 
Lawrenceana, C. Lueddemanniana, and C. Aclandia; ; in fact, the last- 
named does best suspended in baskets with the Dendrobiunis. C. Skinnen 
is very showy now in bloom, and is easily grown, and requires nothing more 
than what the Cattleya house affords. The C. Warscewiczii (gigas) are 
now growing apace in their position at the lightest part of the house. The 
flower sheaths are showing this time on nearly every plant, large and 
small, as though it was a species most prolific, which is rather unusual. 
What can be the cause ? Perhaps— as seems very feasible— it is the result 
of the particularly bright and hot autumn of last year. 

Get on with the potting generally wherever it is practicable. The 
Miltonia vexillarias may now be done. Unless very successful with this 
species, do not aim at growing them into too large specimens, as it usually 
ends in failure. It is safer to keep them in small pots, and when a plant 
reaches large dimensions it is better to divide it and make smaller ones. 

Drain the 

are the most suitable— about three-parts t 

with clean crocks, intermixed with a little charcoal. The top laye 

should be broken 

fibrous peat and fresh sphagnu 

in equal proportions. Raise the plants rather high, and build the compost 
well up to the base of the last formed pseudobulb, so that the roots may 
speedily enter, and make sure that the plant is well supported where 
necessary with neat sticks until it is self-supporting. Odontoglossum 
citrosmum should also be repotted if necessary. It is an Orchid requiring 
but little root disturbance, and should be placed in pans or baskets in a 
firm compost of two parts peat and one part sphagnum moss, and sus- 

It will not be an easy matter to keep the atmosphere at this time of the 
year too moist, especially for the Cool house Orchids, the great volume of 
ventilation soon drying it up. Thrips, Aphides, and other pests, which 
are the frequent cause of so much mischief, are apt to increase rather 
quickly in this house at this season, and these it is absolutely necessary to 


keep under at all costs. This department is still very gay. Odontoglos 
crispum and 0. Pescatorei are now seen to the best advantage. As ; 
viceable and showy Orchid the first-named can never be beaten, and < 
wonder that it is such a general favourite and grown in such 
quantities. Nothing can possibly look mcr than ;i lions,' full of this species 
in bloom, as they are at the present time, intermixed with a few O. 
polyxanthum, O. Hallii. O. luteopurpureum, O. X elegans, O. X Coradinei, 
and other yellow and chocolate-coloured species in their ever-varying hues 
and degrees of brightness. The culture of the whole of the above is of the 
simplest character. They require repotting about once in every two vears 
—they may go as long as three— but should be top-dressed annually. The 
compost should be of the usual psat and moss, and the potting done some- 
what firmly. They like plenty of water during the summer, but should not 
be continually saturated. If treated in such a way, with free ventilation, 
they cannot fail to grow. But as I have said before, one thing is most 
particular, and must be strictly observed, namely, repotting them when in 
the right condition, which is when the new growths are one or two inches 
long. This may be at any time from now until the autumn months. 

Oncidium Marshallianum, O. concolor, and O. olivaceum (cucullatum) 
are others now in flower. They are best grown in pans or baskets and 
suspended, otherwise the culture required is similar in every respect to 
other cool Orchids. Oncidium candidum, sometimes called Palumbina 
Candida, is now pushing its flower spikes. This species, like O. cheiro- 
phorum, a pretty little thing that flowers in autumn, does best under pan 
or basket culture. They grow well in the Cool house for the summer, but 
are better for intermediate treatment in winter. 

Lycastes are now growing apace, and if they are to be repotted should 
be done at once. They like a rather more substantial compost. The peat, 
therefore, need not be of the best quality, or a little fibrous loam can be 
mixed in. Lycastes are also better in the Intermediate house during 
winter, though they will stand a low degree of temperature if not over- 
watered. They are frequently lost through being kept too wet, especially 
L. Skinneri, which even when in full growth should be watered carefully. 
L. aromatica, L. cruenta, and L. Deppei, having been well rested since 
their last pseudobulbs were completed, are now producing a quantity of 
flower buds from their base. The new growths also appear from there 
simultaneously, and when these are seen they should be repotted, or they 
may be left over until the flowers have faded. If the latter course is 
adopted the new growths and roots will have grown very much in the 
interval, consequently the check will be greater. Bifrenaria Harrisoniae 
(Lycaste Harrisonia) is a very pretty old Orchid, and requires about the 
same treatment and warmth as for the Lycastes in general. It is not a 


particularly shy one to flower, yet it is by no means a floriferous one. I 
have never seen a specimen with a large quantity of flowers opened at the 
same time, as it produces them singly and in pairs at various times during 
the spring and summer months. I have noticed it flowers much better. 
however, if given a long dry rest throughout the winter. 

The house where the Phalainopses are growing must now be kept very 
moist and warm and well shaded. The plants themselves may be sprayed 
with warm water two or three times daily. The deciduous Calanthes will now 
require a little more water at the root. They also delight in a good heat 
now that they are in active growth. Sobralia macrantha is now just 
commencing to flower, and may be assisted by a little weak liquid manure. 
Many of the Dendrobiums, Chysis, Galeandras, and such like Orchids that 
have been potted up, are making good growth, and getting well rooted, 
and may now receive a good supply of water. Ccelogyne Dayana is now 
bearing its interesting spikes of flowers, three or four feet in length. It is 
rather a warm growing species, and does best in the East Indian house. 
Cirrhopetalums and Bulbophyllums are perhaps among the most curious and 
interesting of Orchids. They grow best suspended, and prefer rather a 
warm temperature. Like the Dendrobiums, they must have a good 
winter's rest, or they bloom unsatisfactorily. I find that these peculiar 
little Orchids are none the better for very strong heat, such as is given to 
Phalamopses and some of the hotter-growing Dendrobiums, but prefer to 
be grown with the more temperate Dendrobes, such for instance as D. 
nobile, D. Wardianum, and such like species. Diacrium bicornuturo is 
now in flower. It is a very handsome Orchid when well grown, and should 
be kept in the warmest house. By keeping it to very small pans, and 
giving a complete change of sweet fresh material each year, it will grow 
fairly well, and present a very respectable appearance, though it has rarely 
ever been known to put on such large pseudobulbs as it does in its native 

Many of the named forms of Cattleya Mossia: have been lost sight of, and 
it is rather difficult to recognise them again from description. There is one 
very marked form, however, in several collections to which the above name 
was applied many years ago, when it was described by Mr. T. Moore as 
" the largest of all the forms in respect to the size of its lip ; sepals and petals 
pale blush; lip mottled violet rose, with an irregular blush coloured edge, 
the base stained with buff-orange." {Card. Chron., 1864, p. 554-) A 
gigantic flower has been sent from the collection of Sir Frederick Wigan, 

Clare Lawn, East Sheen, 

which the petals are over 4^ inches long by 


3 inches broad, the other parts being proportionate. The front of the lip is 
less veined with crimson-purple than usual. There is a similar form in the 
collection of Sir Trevor Lawrence, and one in that of W. Davies, Esq., 
Moxhull Hall, Erdington, and it is probably represented elsewhere, and 
will be recognised from this description. 

ANGR.ECIM LEON1S.— Joum. of Hurt., May 14, p. 439, fig. 71. 
COCHLIODA NlETZLIANA, Rolfe.— Beit. Mag., t. 7474. 

Cypripedium x Creon.— Joum. of Hort., May 21, p. 467, fig. 77. 
Cvpripedium X Merops.— Gard. Mag., May 9, p. 302, with fig. 
Cvpripedrm X SCHOFIELDIANUM. — Gard. Mag.. May 2. p. 283, with 


Dendkobu m cv.\fnni[o[nKs. — Gard. Chron., May 9, p. 581, fig. 90. 
Desdrobium X W1GAM2E.— Card. Chron., May 2, p. 553, fig. 84. 
L.A5LIO-CATTLEYA X DlGBYANO-MOSSI.F..— Gard. World., May 16, p. 598, 

ith fig. 



Odontoglossum CRISPIN! Aid STl M.— Gard. Chron., May, p. 646, fig. 
06 : Joimt of Hort., May 28, p. 485, fig. 80. 


The display of Orchids at the Drill Hall, James Street, We 
the 5th May, was more extensive than at most meetings immediately 
preceding the great Temple Show, and included a considerable number of 
interesting things. 

A small group from the collection of Baron Sir H. Scroder, The Dell ( 
Egham (gr. Mr. Ballantine), received a Silver Flora Medal. It contained 
the very beautiful Ladio-cattleya X Digbyano-Mossiae, the two flowers 
being of great size, and in perfect condition ; a large and well-flowered 
plant of Dendrobium thyrsiflorum Lowii, in which the lip is cream-white 
with a few yellow streaks, and approaches the petals in shape ; a fine form 
of Odontoglossum X Wilckeanum, several fine forms of O. crispum, the 
pure white O. Pescatorei leucoxanthum, Masdevallia Veitchiana grandiflora 
with fifteen flowers, Cypripedium Lawxenceanum Hyeanum, C. X Gertrude 
Hollington, and Vanda teres grandiflora. The latter is a very large and 
richly-coloured form, to which a First-class Certificate was given. 

J. Bradshaw, Esq., The Grange, Southgate (gr. Mr.Whiffen), received a 
Silver Banksian Medal for a very good group, including some good 


Cattleyas Mossiae and Mendelii, a finely-flowered Chysis bractescens, 
Oncidium Marshallianum, Odontoglossum crispum, a form of O. X Ander- 
sonianum with very yellow ground, Dendrobium chrysotoxum, and a plant 
of the brilliant little Dendrobium arachnites, exhibited under the name of 
D. inversum, and which received a Botanical Certificate last year. 

W. S. Ellis, Esq., Hazelbourne, Dorking (gr. Mr. Masterton), also 
received a Silver Banksian Medal for a good group, containing Cochlioda 
Ncetzliana, Dendrobium Hildebrandii and its variety oculatum, and a 
number of well-grown plants of Odontoglossum crispum. 

Sir Weetman Pearson, Bart., M.P., Paddockhurst, Crawley (gr. Mr. 
Capp), received a Silver Banksian Medal for a group consisting of three 
large and well-flowered plants of Cattleya Lawrenceana, C. Schrcedene, 
some good Dendrobium nobile, and a fine spike of Catasetum trifidum 
with over thirty flowers, to which a Botanical Certificate was awarded. 

J. T. Bennett-P6e, Esq., Holmwood, Cheshunt, exhibited a group of 
fifteen well-grown plants of Cattleya citrina, grown under cool treatment, 
to which a Silver Banksian Medal was given. 

C. J. Lucas, Esq., Warnham Court, Horsham (gr. Mr. Duncan), 
received an Award of Merit for Odontoglossum Hallii grandiflorum, and a 
Botanical Certificate for Bulbophyllum tremulum, a curious little species 
with a feathery very mobile lip. 

Walter Cobb, Esq., Dulcote, Tunbridge Wells (gr. Mr. Howes), 
received an Award of Merit for a good plant of Miltonia Roezlii alba. 

T. Fielden, Esq., Grimston Park, Tadcaster (gr. Mr. Clayton), received 
an Award of Merit for a fine form of Lajlia purpurata called Grimston 

C Ingram, Esq., Elstead House, Godalming (gr. Mr. Bond), showed 
Cattleya X Preciosa (C. Lueddemanniana ? X C. Lawrenceana t), 
C. X Sedeni (C. Lawrenceana 5 X C. Percivaliana 3), and Laslio- 
cattleya X Eudora (L. purpurata ? X C. Mendelii <? ), the latter receiving 
an Award of Merit. 

W. Vanner, Esq., Camden Wood, Chislehurst (gr. Mr. Robbins), 
received an Award of Merit for Odontoglossum crispum Princess, a fine 
form, which is noted on page r6r. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild, Tring Park (gr. Mr. Hill), showed a fine 
form of Cattleya intermedia, an unnamed Epidendrum of the Encyclium 
group, with greenish white segments veined with light brown, and a white 
hp veined with pink, and a fine-flowered raceme of Catasetum macro- 
carpum, to which a Botanical Certificate was given. 

E. H. Adcock, Esq., Ribblesdale, Dorking (gr. Mr. Green) received a 
Cultural Commendation for a fine plant of Cypripedium bellatulum with 
ten flowers. 


C. Young, Esq., The Thorns. Scvenonks igr. Mr. Ryder), received a 
Cultural Commendation for Odontoglossum polyxantliuin, bearing an 
inflorescence with five side branches and an aggregate of twenty-seven 

J. F. Alcock, Esq.. Northchurch. Berhamsted. sent Lacama spectabilis 
with two good racemes, and Cattleya citrina. 

K. B. White, Esq., Arddarroch, Garelochead igi . Mr. Roberts) sent some 
good spikes of Odontoglossum crispum, O. X Wilckeanum, and O. X 

\Y. A. Bevan, Esq., Coombe Court, Kingston, sent a fine form of 
Odontoglossum Pescatorei with purple blotched sepals Mid petals. 

A. H. Smee, Esq., The Grange. Carshahon igr. Mr. Cunimins) showed 
Oncidium varicosum Rogersii, also a poor light form of Cattleya Mossia: 
purchased as the wonderful blue "Cattleya Guaricoensis." 

T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield, Manchester Igr. Mr. Johnson) 
sent Lajlio-cattleya X higburiensis (L. cinnabarina 2 X C. Lawrenceana S ), 
a very vigorous hybrid, having developed two large pseudobulbs last year. 

Messrs. James Veitch and Sons, Chelsea, staged a particularly fine 
group, to which a Silver-gilt Flora Medal was awarded. It contained a 
series of beautiful forms of Cattleya Schrcedera, varying from blush to pink, 
and with the orange throat varying considerably in intensity: C. inter- 
media alba, C. Schilleriana, C. citrina, a fine C. Walkeriana. C. 
Lawrenceana, La:lia purpurata, the richly coloured L. X Latona, Laelio- 
cattleya X Zephyra (L. xanthina 5 X C. Mendelii 1 Y quite intermediate 
in character. Dendrobium X Stratius (D.japonicum ? X D.pulchellum 3 ), 
Miltonia X Bleuana nobilior, Cypripedium Lawrenceanum Hyeanum, C. 
Chamberlainianum, C. X eurylochus, C. X Drurio-Hookera:, quite inter- 
mediate between its parents, Anguloa uniflora, Lycaste Deppei, Oncidium 
Marshallianum, O. varicosum Rogersii, Ondontoglossum ramosissimum, O. 
crispum, O. Pescatorei, Maxillaria Sanderiana, Masdevallia X Heathii, 
Colax jugosus, and various others. An Award of Merit was given to Chysis 
X langleyensis, a very pretty hybrid derived from C. bractescens ! and 
C. X Sedeni S • 

Messrs. F. Sander and Co., St. Albans, exhibited a group of interesting 
things, including the very rare Meiracyllium gemma; (Rchb. f.), Spatho- 
glottis Lobbii, Dendrobium Bensona, D. superbum anosmum, D. Parishii, 
Miltonia Phala:nopsis, Oncidium varicosum Rogersii, Cattleya luteola, 
Odontoglossum Harryanum, Ccelogyne Dayana, Stenoglottis longifolia, with 
tall spikes of lilac flowers, &c. A Botanical Certificate was given to Eria 

Messrs. W. L. Lewis and Co., Southgate, sent Odontoglossum 
Pescatorei Lewisii and Cattleya citrina. 



Orchids invariably form one of the features of the great Annual 
Exhibition of the Royal Horticultural Society in the Temple Gardens, and 
at the ninth of the series, held on May 19th and two following days, the 
display was about up to the average in point of numbers, though there was 
little in the way of novelty, and the absence of the sterling group contributed 
by Baron Schroder on former occasions was very noticeable. In the 
following report we have endeavoured to give the more important features 
of the different groups, omitting for the most part ordinary forms of the 
showier species, which are invariably represented in quantity at this season. 

The group staged by the President, Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., wasthe 
finest yet contributed by him, both in extent and variety, and the material 
was most effectively arranged by Mr. White, so that even the smallest 
plants were seen to advantage. It occupied a space of about 30ft. frontage, 
and was full of interest from one end to the other, as the common showy 
species were only represented in limited numbers and in well-grown 
examples of their respective kinds. Among the more noteworthy plants 
were a splendid specimen of Epidendrum Stamfordianum, E. Mooreanum, 
E. X elegantulum, the miniature E. organense (Rolfe), a fine specimen of 
E. x O'Brienanum, E. vitellinum, E. atropurpureum Randii, a fine pan of 
Macodes Petola, Cochlioda Ncetzliana, Masdevallia X Mundyana, a well- 
flowered clump of the dwarf M. Wendlandiana, M. X glaphyrantha, M. 
coriacea, M. rosea with twenty flowers, and various others; Cattleya 
Walkeriana with eight flowers, C. X Parthenia, and other showy species, 
the brilliant Lamo-cattleya X Phcebe, Oncidium luteum, O. olivaceum 
Lawrenceanum, O. Kramerianum, some superb O. Marshallianum, Eria 
ornata, Microstylis Scottii and M. macrochila, Maxillaria Sanderiana and 
M. Houtteana, Megaclinum triste and M. Imschootianum, Stenoglottis 
longrfolia, Octomeria diaphana, the remarkable Bulbophyllum barbigerum, 
Pleurothallis ornata, the charming little Saccolabium miniatum, a well- 
flowered Phalamopsis Lueddemanniana, P. Aphrodite, Dendrobiutn 
Bensonae and D. revolutum, Miltonia X Bleuana nobilior, Orchis latifolia, 
Ccelogyne odoratissima, fine examples of Anguloa Ruckeri and Dendrobium 
Bensonae, D. revolutum, D. x polyphlebium, Cypripedium X barbato- 
bellmum, a densely spotted Odontoglossum X Andersonianum, fine forms 
of O. X excellens, and good representatives of most of the showy things 
seen in other groups. Altogether, it was a magnificent group, and richly 
deserved the Gold Medal awarded to it. 

H. S. Leon, Esq., M.P., Bletchley Park (gr. Mr. Hislop), staged a very 
hne group, to which a Silver Cup was given. It contained some excellent 
examples of Cattleya Lawrenceana, C. Skinneri, C. Aclandia:, C. Schiller- 


iana, C. Mossiae, Ladia purpurata, Brassia verrucosa, Oncidium concolor. 
Cypripedium Rothschildianuui with three fine spikes and ten flowers, 
Diacrium bicornutum, Odontoglossum L'roskinneri, O. maculutum. 
Angraecum sesquipedale, Yanda suavis, vSx. A First-class Certificate wa- 
awarded to a large and richly coloured Cattleva Lueddemanniana Ernstii, 
the lip being brilliantly marbled. 

Sir F. Wigan, Clare Lawn, East Sheen (gr. Mr. Young), also received a 
Silver Cup for a very beautiful group, containing Cattleva Schilleriana, C. 
Lawrenceana, some fine C. Mossiae, C. Mendelii, C. Skinneri and C. S. 
alba, Cymbidium Parishii, C. Lowianum and C. L. concolor. I. alia 
purpurata, L. grandis. and L. Digbvana. Cypripedium X Wiganianum. 
Sobralia macrantha Kienastiana, the rare little Eria extinrtoria, Ltptotes 
bicolor. a line Masdevallia ignea Kichardti. Milt. una vexillaria. Odonto. 
glossums, CvT. Awartls of Merit were given to Cattleya Mo--! ■ 
Lffilia purpurata Arthur Wigan, and Oncidium varicosum giganteum. and a 
Hotaiik-al Certilieate to Epidendrum hastatum. 

\V. S. Ellis, Esq., Hazelbourne, Dorkingfgr. Mr. Masterton), also staged 
agood group, to which a Silver Cup was given. It consisted largely of well- 
grown Odontoglossum crispum, with O. X Coradinei, O. cordatum. O. 
polyxanthum, Cochlioda XceUliana, Oncidium Marshallianum. Miltonia 
vexillaria. Cypripedium bellatulum, and a seedling Epidendrum from E. 
xanthinum S and E. radicans 3 —a form of E. X dellense. A fine form of 
Odontoglossum crispum called Miss Victoria Ellis, white with a few spots 
on each segment, received an Award ol Merit. 

J. G. Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, S. Woodford igr. Mr. Davis), received a 
Silver-gilt Flora Medal for an effective group, containing Cypripedium 
bellatulum album with two flowers, C. Lawrenceanum Hyeanum. a light 
and dark form of Denbrobium Phalamopsis, Oncidium monachicum. O. 
olivaceum, O. Lanceanum, Thunia Marshalliana, Denbrobium pulchellum, 
Miltonia Roezlii alba, Epidendrum Wallisii, and other showy species. 

Major Joicey. Sunningdale Park. Berks (gr. Mr. Thome), also received 
a Silver-gilt Flora Medal for a good group, in which were many good 
Miltonia vexillaria, with Dendrobium atroviolaceum, Anguloa Clouv-ii and 
A. Ruckeri. Oncidium ampliatum majus, O. Marshallianum. Cypripedium 
bellatulum. C. Stonei, C. Curtisii, Epidendrum atropurpureum Randii. 
Lselia cinnabarina, Cymbidium Lowianum, Odontoglossum s. &c 

Earl Percy, Syon House. Brentford (gr. Mr. Wyethes), received a 
Silver-gilt Flora Medal for another effective group, containing Yanda 
teres, Dendrobium moschatum, D. thyrsiflorum, D. Bensona:, Oncidium 
sphacelatum, Aerides odoratum, Odontoglossum Hallii, and others, Lxlia 
purpurata, Cattleyas, and other showy things, tastefully arranged with 
maiden-hair ferns. 


J. H. Rolls, Esq., Bournemouth, (gr. Mr. Purseglove), received a 
Silver Flora Medal for a pretty group, containing Ladia majalis, Cattleya 
Schilleriana, C. Mossise, and various other showy species. 

M. S. Cooke, Esq., Kingston Hill, received a Silver Banksian Medal 
for a neat group, containing Cochlioda sanguinea and C. vulcanica, a good 
Cypripedium Rothschildianum, C. Chamberlainianum, Dendrobium 
Devonianum, Brassia verrucosa, Oncidium olivaceum, Odontoglossum 
triumphans, O. X baphicanthum, a good Cattleya Schilleriana, and other 
showy species. 

M. Jules Hye-Leysen, Gand (gr. M. Cocne), staged a few fine things, 
including a fine Odontoglossum X Ruckerianum splendens, O. crispum, 0. 
Pescatorei, and two others, which each received an Award of Merit. These 
were Miltonia vexillaria Coeneana, a fine rose-pink form, and Odonto- 
glossum x Horsmanii with sixteen flowers, exhibited as 0. X 

C. Ingram, Esq., Elstead House, Godalming (gr. Mr. Bond), received 
an Award of Merit for a fine light form of Cattleya Mossia, called Chas. 

G. W. Law-Schofield, Esq., New Hall Hay, Rawtenstall (gr. Mr. Hill), 
sent a pretty hybrid Cypripedium from C. Curtisii ? and C. niveum 3, 
called C. X Cowleyanum Anna Louise, which received an Award of Merit. 

T. W. Swinburne, Esq., Corndean Hall, Winchcombe, received an 
Award of Merit for Cypripedium X Corndeani, whose history is given at 
page zi 5 of our last volume. It is a large and striking form, and now proves 
to be a form of C. x gigas (C. Lawrenceanum 9 X C. X Harrisianum ?)■ 

A Cultural Commendation was given to a well-grown plant of Odonto- 
glossum crispum with six spikes from the Duke of Sutherland's collection 
(gr. Mr. Blair). 

T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield (gr. Mr. Johnson) sent a fine 
Cypripedium X Gertrude Hollington and the pretty Cattleva Mendelii 
leucoglossa with blush sepals and petals and a white lip. 

M. J. Moens, Lede, Belgium, sent Cypripedium X Baptisti. 

Mr. Botelbeerge, Melle, Gand, sent a fine Odontoglossum polyxanthum. 

R. Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch, near Manchester, sent a good 
Dendrobium nobile. 

The trade collections, as usual, contributed largely to the display, and 
were generally good, though in some cases a little less crowding would have 
been an improvement. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, staged a large and magnificent 
group to which a Gold Medal was given. It contained a large specimen 
ot Lcelogyne Dayana, some good Dendrobium superbum giganteum, D- 
thyrsmorum, D. carinatum, D. dixanthum, D. Hildebrand.i, the pretty 


Habenaria rhodochila, Cochlioda Xcetzliana. Stenoglottis longifolia, Eriopsis 
rutidobulbon, Lueddemannia triloba, Oncidium unicorne, 0. varicosum 
Rogersii, 0. pulchellum, 0. cornigerum, Epidendrum ionosmum, the hand- 
some Sobralia X Amesiae, S. macrantha Kienastiana, Cattleya Schilli -nana. 
C. X Philo, C. Skinned, a few fine C. Mossiae, La;lia purpurata, Laelio- 
cattleya X D. S. Brown, E.-c. X Schilleriana, Odontoglossum Pescatorei 
and various other showy Orchids in well-grown specimens of good varieties. 
The rare and interesting little Meiracyllium gemma- received a Botanical 

The group staged by Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Clapton, was ■ very 
rich and effective one, and was awarded a Silver Cup. It contained some 
fine Phalamopses, including P. X leucorrhoda and P. X intermedia, Vanda 
teres, Cymbidium X eburneo-Lowianum, Oncidium Papilio. 0. phyma- 
tochilum, O. monachicum, Odontoglossum Harryanum, O. Pescatorei, and 
others, CypripediumX Gertrude Hollington, C. bellatnlum. C. liirsutissimum, 
C. Lawrenceanum, C. tonsum, C X Drurio-Hookerae, Lselia tcnebrosa, a 
fine pan of Macodes Petola, and various other showy Orchids. A First- 
class Certificate was given to Cattleya Mossiae Arnoldiana, a large light- 
coloured form, with a band of pink down the petals : and an Award of 
Merit to Odontoglossum crispum Lowia;, a prettily-spotted form allied to 
O. c. Capartianum. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Heaton, Bradford, also received a Silver 
Cup for a fine group, in which were some very fine Cattleyas Mossiae and 
Schroedene, Laelia purpurata, Oncidium Marshallianum, 0. superbiens, O. 
concolor, and O. cornigerum, Odontoglossum crispum, and others; the rare 
and pretty Vanda X Charlesworthii, Epidendrum vitellinum, Lfelia 
tenebrosa, Cirrhopetalum picturatum, Selenipedium X nitidissimum, &c. 

Messrs. Backhouse & Son, York, also received a Silver Cup for a group 
of Orchids and other things arranged in rustic fashion. It contained some 
fine Odontoglossum crispum and others, Cypripedium Regime. C. Calceolus, 
and others. 

A fine group exhibited by Mr. James Cypher, Cheltenham, received a 
Silver-gilt Flora Medal. It contained a finely-flowered plant of the 
beautiful Dendrobium Loddigesii, some very good Lselia purpurata, 
Oncidium concolor, O. monachicum, O. olivaceum, Odontoglossum ramo- 
sissimum, Epidendrum radicans, and E. X O'Brienianum, Cattleya 
Aclandia:, C. intermedia, and others, Selenipedium X grande, Miltonia 
vexillaria, &c. 

Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son, Upper Holloway, also staged a fine 
group, and received a Silver-gilt Flora Medal. Among interesting plants 
may be mentioned Pescatorea Roezlii, Promenaea microptera, Ornitho- 
cephalus grandiflorus, Trichopilia coccinea, Leptotes bicolor, Brassavola 


Perrinii, Cochlioda Ncetzliana, Vandas tricolor and sauvis, 
moschatum, Laelia cinnabarina, Cattleya citrina, Odontoglossum X 
Wilckeanum, and other showy things. 

Messrs. W. L. Lewis & Co., Southgate, received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a fine group, containing a nice lot of Cypripedium bellatulum 
and C. niveum, C. X Lawre-venustum, C. X southgatense, and others, 
Oncidium sarcodes, O. hastatum, Odontoglossum citrosmum, some good 
Lajlia purpurata, Cattleya Mossiie, and other showy things. A First-class 
Certificate was given to Lielia purpurata Lewisii, a beautiful nearly white 
form, whose only colour was some faint purple radiating streaks on the lip. 

Messrs. Linden, L'Horticulture Internationale, Brussels, sent a few 
good Orchids, including Odontoglossum Pescatorei, a fine 0. X 
Ruckerianum, Cattleya Mossise Reineckeana, and the curious Gongora 
portentosa. A First-class Certificate was given to Odontoglossum crispum 
augusturn, one of the darkest forms yet seen. The segments were white at 
the margins, but the disc of each was occupied by one irregular purple 
blotch. It was erroneously labelled as a natural hybrid. 

Cut flowers of Orchids were also used to great effect in the stands for 
dinner table decorations, &c. 

On the shelf over the fire-place of the office of a well-known dealer in this 
neighbourhood is a small plant of the above-mentioned species growing 8 
water. This same plant has been there, to my knowledge, for at least nine 
months, and during that time has developed roots in the water, and a 
growth of seven or eight inches in length from below the surface. Of course 
I do not advise that growers should procure a stock of hyacinth glasses, 
suggest to some of us who are not successful with 

but the above 

this species that an insufficient supply of \ 

i the roots i 


C Si Id"' L ' nC01 "' U " ld,ob ™ formosum. 

\v>t,° '' L >' caste ljr'-ii^|,.i ,,n.l odontoglossum tripudians. 
F. Sa„de r I cTin , . h \ Ca,a, °^ "' 0re hid S and New Plants for ,8,6 
recent imro. ;l llumber of fine h > brids and inler 

""ion, several of which are illustrated. 



Price I-i's/, with full parti. u/ars, to ?■< had pvm all Orel/id <;<;>:;: r ., .Xtir urymen. 
The Cheapest ( under ij, per in, h complete) and the Best (see TeJiuteniah ). Saw f let per post , twelve stamps 
Save expense by making your Dwn Bi ikets, foi with n W !iiM conUl jmt their 

together, for then ihey only require threading. 



35?* *W/i/ '&rou)er4' Tftanuat, 


7th Edition, Enlarged and Revised up to the present time, by 

'« •-' ■ ' ! ; ^a^ w ^^°^^^^nrz! 

Ihcr with 700 sjoonyma, ...v.vw 

S»p.,roy»l*oh, 11 ' gH edg-, pnc. 26* i **. I* 

^ J ' parcel Post in the Uniicil kin^nri. /Jb- J.un. 




Orchids I Orchids 1 


stock: of orchids, 


Descriptive and Pried Catalogues al their Slack a/ Established Orchids, as will as of 
I importation as it comes to hand, will be sent Post free on application to the Company. 



o r c h i r> s j 

A Choice Collection. True to Name. 
Fine Healthy Plants. 

Dendroblum nobile nobilius. 


JSurbaac nurseries, 


Records of moo Hybrids classified. 257PP- Sn PI ,t 

ments Annually. Mailed, registered, upon n™ 1 !* 

of IOS., by 

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O R <J H I O S 

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Have a large and fine stock of establishei 
and imported Orchids. 



in, healthy, well-grown plants at reasonable 


Please write for List. 







1ST OFFICE, BOX No. 206, 


Orchids ! 
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Dept. Royal Hon.' Soc, Royal Botanic So* 


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Orel) id Hon** 

Ferneries, I 
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Melon //»"* 
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JUL, !>:<:(; 



an 3llustrateB flDontbly Journal, 



An Amateur's Notes 


Habenaria S 

Anerarum Fournierte 


Homalopetalum jamaicense 

Botanical Orchids at Ken- 


Manchester Show 

Calendar of Operations for July 

. 212 

Newspaper Correspondent 

Cattleya Fly " ... 

■• 199 


Ccelogyne umflora 


Correspondence, &c 

.. 224 

Ccelogyne Lauterbachiana 

Diacrium bicornutum 

■ • 205 

(Incidmm Godscifianum 

Cypripedium Dayanum 


Sobralia Brandtite ... 

n nigritum 

.. 206 

Obituary (Bruce Findlay) 

Cypripedium virens 

.. 206 

Orchid Portraits 

Dies Orchidiana: 

■■ '97 

Odontoglossum crispum augu 

Fraud in the Orchid Trade ... 

Renanthera Storiei 

Habenar:as, a group of... 


Orchids at the Royal Ho 

Habenaria carnea (Fig. tt ) ... z 

39, 210 


Habenaria militaris (Fig. n) 2 

0, 210 



\The right of nproducti 


The OR 

The Edi 
be written on 


:— The i'.i.iimr c 
and Postal Order! 
n transit, should 1 
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se.s for binding eit 

is public 

v, I .awn C 

looks fo 
bound a 


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her volume at t/6 each. 

i & Co. 




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news should be receh 

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a . ... 0*5 


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rs' Whulaale Orders si 

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3, House, F 


« Row . 

Losdok, E.C 



mnis »„rk ..,..- , men, 4* '"' 

Part I.— ODONTOGLOSSUM. Price, 78. fid. : by post, 7s. 9d. 

Part IL- CATTLE Y A and LiELIA. Price, 10s. 6d. ; by post, 10a. 9d. 

Part m.-DENDROBIUM. Price, 10s. 6d ; by post, 10s- 9d. 

Part rv.-CYPEIPEBIUM. Price 10s. 6d. ; by post, 10s. 9d. %h 

Part V.-MASDEVALLIA and allied genera. Price, 7s. 6d. ; by post, '* 4 

Part TT1 _OrCT OP_V»m nn,^„^,... n ~ ■ . , .,_ C* . i 

Part VHL-ONC1D1UM and MILTONIA. Price, 10s. 6d. ; by post, X 

by post, 10s. 9d. 
Part X.-GENERAL REVIEW of the ORCHIDE^. Price, 108 

post, 10s. 9d. 

JAMES VEITCH & SONS, 1Ro\>al Eyotic 1Hursc« 



Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the Drill 
Hall, James' Street, Westminster, during July, on the 14th and 28th 
respectively, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour of 
12 o'clock noon. 

A very pretty form of Cattleya Mossia has flowered in the collection of 
W. Horton-Smith, Esq., of Northwich, out of a number of plants imported 
last year. It is much like the variety Reineckeana, except that the veinings 
in front of the lip are slaty blue in colour, and somewhat suffused. 

Some good forms of Lalia tenebrosa are sent from the collection of 
W. S. M'Millan, Esq., of Maghull, near Liverpool, together with a very 
pretty form of Odontoglossum Pescatorei, much like the variety ornatum, 
in which there is a triangular purple blotch on the front lobe of the lip. 

Several very pretty forms of Odontoglossum crispum have been received 
from the collection of Hugh Steven, Esq., of Kelvinside, near Glasgow. 
They include the pure white O. c. virginale ; a second with several minute 
spots on the lip, and a very few similar ones on the other segments ; a third 
with a few large blotches confined to the sepals and lip ; a fourth with very 
large flower, and broad, very undulate, unspotted segments ; and a fifth 
with unusually long segments, measuring five inches from the tip of the 
dorsal sepal to that of the lateral ones. All of them show evidence of 
excellent culture. 

Others from the same collection are O. Hallii with narrow segments ; a 
form of O. X mulus, and O. X acuminatissimum, Rchb. f., a rare and 
interesting hybrid between O. luteopurpureum and O. Lindleyanum. A 


photograph of this and one of the preceding are also enclosed, together 

with a flower of Cattleya Mossia; grandis. 

Two good forms of Laslio-cattleya X Schilleriana come from the 
collection of E. A. Beveis, Esq., of Oxford, one of which has the lip 
as strongly three-lobed as in L.-c. X elegans, though it is a finely developed 
form of the first-named. A light form of Labia tenebrosa is also enclosed. 

A photograph and flower of a handsome hybrid Masdevallia have been 
received from the collection of Captain Hincks, of Richmond, Yorks. It 
was raised from M. ignea Eichardti S and M. coccinea Harryana 3 , and 
thus is a fine variety of M. X Fraseri. Captain Hincks has been remark- 
ably successful in hybridising this genus, as our pages have testified from 
time to time. 

The June number of Knowledge contains a series of half-a-dozen 
photographs of Orchids from the collection of the Right Hon. J. 
Chamberlain, M.P., with a short descriptive paper by Mr. H. A. Burberry. 
The plants represented are Cattleya Mendelii, C. Mossia; Wageneri, 
Cypripedium bellatulum, Dendrobium formosum giganteum, Miltonia 
vexillaria, and Oncidium Papilio. 

A supplementary list of hybrid Orchids, by Mr. H. J. Chapman, 
appears in the Gardeners' Chronicle for April 4 th (p. 431), in which, 
however, we note the supposed natural hybrids Dendrobium Donnesis, 
D. Statterianum, and Phalffinopsis speciosa, all of which should be 

A recent issue of the Journal of the Linnaan Society contains a paper 
entitled, " An Enumeration of all known Orchids hitherto recorded from 
Borneo," by Mr. H. N. Ridley, M.A., F.L.S. (XXXI., pp. 261-3A 
'• 13— 15). m which a new genus and about 47 new species are described, 
mostly of botanical interest. The former is called Porphyroglottis 
Maxwellis, and is allied to Chrysoglossum. 

The same author announces (Card. Chron., April nth, p. 45*' the 
re-discovery of the long-lost Ccelogyne Rumphii, Lindl., from Amboina, 
in the Moluccas, by one of Messrs. Sander's collectors, so that the 
species may soon be expected in cultivation. It is allied to C. speciosa, 

A fine species of Vanilla from the Cameroon district, West Africa, is 
described and figured by Dr. Kranzlin under the name of Vanilla imperial'* 
(JtfofcW. K. Bot. Cart. Berlin, 1896, p. i s5 , t. 1). It is nearly allied to 
V. grandiflora, Lindl., from Prince's Island, and has yellow flowers of 


about the same size, though they are smaller than in 1! 
V. Rosscheri, Rchb. f., from East Africa, and the petals only half u 

We have received from the collection of D. B. Rappart, Esq., of 
Liscard, a good flower of Cattleya superba, in which the sepals and petals 
are distinctly veined with dark purple, through the nerves bong darkei 
than the ground colour. Mr. Rappart remarks that he growl ■ con- 
siderable number of this Cattleya, but has not seen one so distinctly 
marked before. 

A flower of the large and handsome Oncidium crispum grandiflorum 
has been sent from the collection of J. T. Bennett-Poc. Esq., of Cheshunt, 
being one out of a raceme of seven. In 1894 it was also very fine, but the 
following year it was allowed a rest, in order to counteract, if possible, the 
tendency observed in this species to dwindle away. Two line plants of 11 
are also flowering in the collection ofJ.W. Arkle, Esq., of West Derby, 
Liverpool, one with twenty-eight and the other with thirty-three Bowers. 
A really magnificent plant may be seen in the Kew collection, bearing a 
massive panicle with seven branches and over sixty large flowers. 

Flowers of Epidendrum atropurpureum are also sent from the collection 
of J. W. Arkle, Esq. It is a very handsome species, and is very fragrant in 
the morning. 

A flower of the charming albino Cattleya superba alba comes from the 
collection of E. Ashworth, Esq., Harefield Hall, Wilmslow. It ., pure 
white with the exception of a little yellow on the disc, and agrees with the 
typical form in structure. A note respecting it appears at page 196 of our 
last volume. 

A seven-flowered raceme of a good form of Odontoglossum sceptrum 
has been received from the collection of M. H. Van der Sttaten, of 
Bruges, through Messrs. Sander, in which the apex of the up vs »' h '< e ' ™ d 
the petals much blotched and spotted w,«h brown. The blotches and ^ po 
of the petals are comparatively small, so as to leave much of the yellow 
ground showing. It is very handsome. 

A flower of a rtriking form of Cattleya Mossue has been sen^ from the 
collection of W. M'Millan, Esq., of Maghull, near L.verpoo . £"<£* 
petals, and lip are al, irregularly streaked broa J^fidt 
bands, which give it a very distinct appearance. It , close, a 
C. M. Hardyana. Cattleya Mendelii, with the front of the hp ^er > nchh 
coloured, is also enclosed. 


A dark form of Lselia tenebrosa comes from the collection of F. H. 
Moore, Esq., of Liverpool, in which the colour in the throat is almost 
purple-black, so dark is it. 

The splendid form of Cattleya "Warscewiczii described at page 258 of 
our last volume fetched 14 guineas at the recent Arddarroch sale. The 
plant has now eleven pseudobulbs. Cattleya X Lawre-Mossise, which 
received an Award of Merit on April 7th last, as recorded at page 157, 
fetched ir guineas. A fine form of Odontoglossum excellens realised 25 
guineas ; and the best varieties of Cattleya Mendelii went for 60, 50, 40, 
and 30 guineas. 

Mr. G. Hansen writes that he is engaged in compiling the second 
supplement to his work on Hybrid Orchids, intended to record all 
additions published up to October next, and would be glad of any notes 
either by way of addition or correction of previous records. The sources 
would be gladly acknowledged. 

The hybrid Disas noted at page 203 of our second volume are again 
flowering in great force in the Kew collection, together with D. racemosa 
and D. tripetaloides. It is remarkable how easily grown and floriferous 
they are, and as the flowers are so lasting we anticipate a great future for 


A fine Angrsecum from Madagascar is figured and described in the Rw>> 1 
Horticole for June I, under the above name (p. 256, with plated, which 
flowered in the establishment of Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans. It 
is, however, the plant described a year ago from the same source, as 
Angraxum stylosum, Rolfe (Kew Bulletin, 1895, p. 194), which name has 
therefore the claim of priority. It is a striking species, having the general 
habit of a large A. apiculatum, Hook., with much larger flowers, and a 
remarkable style-like column, in allusion to which the name was given. » 
bears about four largish leaves on a very short stem, and long pendulous 
racemes of white flowers with long curved spurs, which, like the rachis. are 
brownish in colour. The flowers approach A. Ellisii, Rchb. f.. in size, 
though it is easily distinguished by the remarkable column. 

R. A. R- 

It is said that the beautiful Odontoglossum crispum augustum, which w* 
noted at page 192 as having received a First-class Certificate at the recent 
lemple Show, was exhibited by MM. Dallemagne & Cie, of Kambouillet. 
and was purchased by M. Jules Hye, of Ghent, for the sam of joo guineas. 


Various offers were made for the specimen as soon as it was unpacked and 
staged, and Mr. Backhouse, of York, offered the same sum for it as M. 
Hye, who, however, had made the first offer, and consequently became 
the fortunate possessor. It is said to he the highest price ever paid for 
an Odontoglossum. 


Last month I called attention to Mr. Chamberlain's article on the 
Nomenclature of Orchids and some remarks thereon made by the 
Gardeners 1 Chronicle, and I note with satisfaction that the said article 
has also been reprinted in the Gardeners' ifagaxiiu (May 30, p. 357). 
Mr. Hurst also has given us an admirable article on the same question 
(p. 165), and I cannot help thinking that the publicity thus given to 
the question will be the means of effecting a much needed improvement 
—indeed, I think signs of it are already visible. 

The Orchid Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society has been 
blamed for a good deal of the confusion against which so strong a 
protest has been made, chiefly because of its failure to carry out its own 
rules — and to this point I have several times called attention— and I 
therefore note with satisfaction that at a recent meeting the Committee 
did refuse to recognise an unauthorised name, though at the same time 
awarding the plant a Botanical Certificate. I allude to the plant 
exhibited as a new Pogonia on June 9th. This case is fully provided 
for in the Society's rules. "An award should be made to any plant 
that is considered by the Committee worthy of such distinction, even 
though it be unnamed, or not named in accordance with preceding 
regulations, provided that, within a reasonable time, to be determined by 
the Committee, a proper name be given. The certificate of an award 
made under the circumstances detailed in this paragraph should be 
withheld until the plant has been properly named." A similar award was 
made to a supposed new Batemannia on the same date under sim.lar 
conditions, both the plants being referred to Kew, where I believe they 
have since been named, and the conditions thus having been complied 
with, the certificates will, of course, be issued with the proper names. 
This is a very good beginning, and I hope the the Committee will 
invariably carry out the rule in future. Had they done so earlier 
they would have avoided the absurdity of certificating the old Bletia 
catenulata— the original species in the genus— under the new name of 
B. Watsoniana, to which I alluded at p. 298 of our second volume. 

A large number of these Botanical Certificates have been awarded of 


late, and the award is sometimes considered a rather dubious one. The 
Gardeners' Chronicle (p. 614) remarks :— " When a plant comes before the 
Orchid or the Floral Committee, the object is not to illustrate its 
botanical history, but to ascertain whether, in the judgment of that 
Committee, the particular plant is, or is not, worthy of commendation 
for cultural or decorative purposes. If it is not, it may still get a 
Botanical Certificate ! a distiction which the Committee is not competent 
to give, because unable for the most part to assign a reason for the award. 
A Botanical Certificate should take precedence of all, but in practice it 
is the least regarded." I had hardly looked on the question in this light 
before. Fancy Sir Trevor Lawrence's charming little Saccolabium 
miniatum receiving a Botanical Certificate to mark the Committee's 
opinion that it is not worthy of commendation for cultural or decorative 
purposes ! My own impression is that these certificates are intended as a 
sort of consolation prize, to indicate that the particular plant exhibited is 
very pretty or possesses some very interesting feature, but is hardly worthy 
of general culture for decorative purposes. Such plants are often called 
" Botanical Orchids," and the term is pretty well understood. 

I also read the article on "Supposed Hybrid Orchids, by Major- 
General Berkeley, at page 167, and the editorial note thereon, with 
interest, for 1 have never been able to understand why some of our 
compilers take such delight in raking up every worthless record, long 
after they have become exploded fallacies, and incorporating them with 
well ascertained facts, as if of equal value. Several such compilations 
would have been vastly improved by a severe editing before going to the 
printer. As it is errors are copied from work to work with exasperating 
regularity, and like the every-increasing number of " provisional names," 
are only 

We seem to have had a very bad outbreak of the Cattleya Fly, but I 
hope that the attention it has received will lead to its speedy extermination, 
note that one or two correspondents experience a similar difficulty to that 
which George the Third is said to have felt about the dumplings-namely, 
to account for how the apples got inside, for they cannot imagine how the 
grubs get inside. However, they do get inside somehow, and I think the 
easiest way to prevent that is to kill all the flics directly they come out. 

None of my correspondents have sent me the essay on the blue Cattle)* 
so I must conclude that the difficulty of writing an essay on a " «« 
Ca ttleya which is not blue is a task beyond their powers, as it is beyond 



I have sent you another growth of Cattleya labiata, on which you will m 
that after a pseudobulb had been cut two eyes came away from it. one 1 
have pierced with a needle and it has decayed, the other is a well rooted 
eye with the fly inside. In my opinion cutting out is the best way of 
keeping the monster down. Of course, the plants are greatly weakened, 
and some will not show any eye after being cut too often. I 
plants together very dry in pots, but the stage is well damped several times 
during the day, and I also use very little shading. You will see how fine 

I see in the last issue of the Orchii Review that " Wellington 
how the grub gets in the young bulbs. I, for myself, believe thai whan 
grown too soft the marrow of the eye brings the pest, as I cannot see after 
all I have had in hand how it can be any other way. I have had a good 
look out for the pest this season, and since January have not seen a 
developed fly. 

I remember that in 1882 we received Cattleya Dowiana from San Jose, 
Costa Rica, with eyes exactly the same as those you have before you. not 
having done any good. 

Fred. Roeslis. 

[The specimen sent shows two arrested growths about an inch long, 
from the base of an old pseudobulb with seven roots. The base of these 
growths was much swollen. One was decaying (as the result of being 
pierced with a needle), but on splitting the other longitudinally a cavity 
about a quarter-of-an-inch long was found in the centre, close to the base, 
containing three white grubs, all in the pupa stage. The shape of the fly 
was clearly defined, and the eyes, legs, &c„ clearly visible under the lens, 
so that the flies might have changed to black and come out in a very short 
time. We do not yet know how long the insect remains in the pupa stage. 
Some of our correspondents do not understand how the grubs get inside the 
growth, as they cannot find the opening, but, as we have already pointed 
out, the explanation is very simple. The insect is one of the gall-makers, 
and lays its eggs inside the young tissues of the plant, which it pierces with 
its ovipositor for the purpose. The opening is so minute that only a 
microscope would show the opening at the time, and the tissue, no doubt, 
heals completely in a short time. The eggs quickly hatch, and the young 
grubs feed upon the tissues for a certain time, after which they change to 
pupa;, and then to the perfect insect, which cuts its way out, and soon lays 
«s eggs as before. The flies seen by our correspondent in January may 
have laid the eggs of the pups now sent, and as these might have emerged 


in a very short time there may be two broods of insects in the year, and 
this is a point we should like to see cleared up. Our correspondents 
should now be on the alert, as if flies are now coming out they should be 
prevented from laying more eggs if possible. We must point out that it is 
not a question of culture, as the fly would continue to thrive on the best 
grown plants if not exterminated.— Ed.] 

My experiments on the Cattleya fly took, a week ago, a rather unlooked 
for finish, in so far that I killed the insects before I really had finished my 
experiments. Tepid water had, I found, no effect on them, but cold water 
syringed on them prostrated them considerably. They seemed to be 
easily destroyed by introducing a lighted candle (Price's night lights) to the 
place where they are. I had them in a large glass case, and put into it one 
evening one of these candles standing in a basin of water (not an original 
idea of mine) ; the following morning I found them all dead in the water. 
Like most insects they seem to fly towards any light that is near them. I 
think this process would be a cheaper and also safer remedy than repeated 

D. R. Kappart. 

I think that the Dendrobium beetle comes 
immersed in water, but, of course, there m> 
insect than I have seen. 


Liscard, Cheshire. 


We regret to hear of the death of Mr. Bruce Findlay, Curator of the 
Manchester Royal Botanical Gardens, which took place at his residence, at 
Old Trafford, on June 16th, at the age of 61 years. Mr. Findlay was 
appointed Curator in 1858, having previously passed some time in Messrs. 
Rollisson's Nurseries, at the Royal Gardens, Kew, and afterwards as 
foreman at the Botanic Gardens of Hull and Sheffield. In 1875 he " aS 
appointed Secretary of the Manchester Botanical and Horticultural Society, 
and his work in connection with the great Whitsuntide Show at 
Manchester, in which Orchids form so important a feature, is well known. 
In t88i he was presented with a testimonial, consisting of an address 
with a gold watch and chain, with a cheque for £1 000. Mr. Findlay W 
been in failing health for some time from an internal complaint. He was 
interred at Stratford Cemetery on June 19th 


Last month 1 neglected to put my notes together until too late, and now 
there is already an appreciable falling off in the number of showy things in 
flower. Cattleya Mossise and C. Mendelii are being replaced b\ I". 
Gaskelliana and C. Warned, both very beautiful, though the latter appears 
to be comparatively rare. C. Aclandiae is also flowering well, and i> a 
handsome little plant. Lselia purpurata is also being replaced by the 
handsome L. tenebrosa, which is now common. There is a good deal of 
variation in the depth of colour of the flowers, but the beautiful yellow 
forms still remain rare. Dendrobiums are now largely over, but the 
beautiful D. Falconeri forms an exception, and D. Phahenopsis is l oniing 
on in increased numbers; at a time when it is very useful. 1). Ebrmosom, 
of course, is now flowering splendidly, together with I>. chrysotoxuin and 
a few others, among which the pretty little I). Jenkinsii must be included. 
Coelogyne Schilleriana is another handsome little plant just now flowering 
Well, together with C. Massangeana. 

The remarkable Nanodes Medusa;, with its deeply fringed lip and lurid 
purple colour, is now one of the most interesting objects in the house, and 
beside it are several plants of Epidendrum vitellinum bearing many of its 
handsome spikes, and E. atropurpureum. Calanthe X Dominii invariably 
flowers well at this season, and remains in perfection for several weeks. 
A good plant with several strong spikes is a really striking object, and it is 
one of the easiest to grow into a good specimen. It is further interesting 
as the first of artificial hybrids. Broughtonia sanguinea, Anguloa Clowesii, 
and Vanda suavis are also flowering freely. 

Miltonia vexillaria is still making a good show, together with M. 
Phalasnopsis. Odontoglossums, too, are well represented, and include, 
among others, various forms of O. crispum, O. maculatum, O. cordatum, 
and O. X Coradinei. Oncidium crispum is now at its best, and its great 
panicles of rich brown flowers are very effective. 0. Laneeannm i 
flowering well, and two or three of the smaller yellow 
Fieldingii and Rhynchostylis retusa are now bearing their long drooping 
spikes, resembling a fox's brush, which has led to the former called 
the Fox-brush Aerides. The handsome Phaius Humblotii is also flowering 
well in the warm house, together with Stanhopea inodora, S. oculata, and 
S. Wardii, which are very handsome while they last. 

Among Cypripediums may be mentioned C. superb.ens, Stone. 
Curtisii, Parishii, Volonteanum, Lawrenceanum, barbatum, and several 
hybrids, as among those making the best show. The above does not by 
any means exhaust the list of Orchids in flower, but includes the majority 
of those which are most conspicuous at the present time. 





The following article appeared in the Daily Mail for May 6th last, under 
the title— " Most Rare: Flowers that cost lives to secure," and is 
sufficiently amusing for reproduction in our pages. It might have appealed 
under the title—" The Romance of Orchidology." 

When you think of it, it is strange that the Orchid should find so many 
admirers, and be raised by them on a pedestal high above every other 
flower that grows. It is curiously shaped, true, and its petals are richly 
hued, but it gives forth no sweet perfume, for when it is not scentless its 
odour is unpleasant. Still, the fact remains, the Orchid is the rarest and 
most valuable of all flowers. There are some varieties, even, that exist 
only in tradition, and have been seen only by savages in the dense tropical 
forests where they grow. 

Yet so great is the pecuniary reward for these rare and wonderful 
flowers that men are continually risking and losing their lives in the 
attempt to obtain the plants which produce them. For it is in fever- 
haunted jungles that the most prized and rarest Orchids are to be found. 

Another thing that makes these rare bulbs worth many times their 
weight in gold is that after the Orchid hunter has returned triumphant, 
perhaps dying, to the coast, the bulbs must be watched and tended 
unremittingly on the long voyage home, and even then they may die 
before they have produced more than a single flower, or even none at all. 

The rarest of all the varieties of Orchids are the blue ones, and the list 
of these is short indeed, even when those which exist only in the tales of 
Orchid hunters are taken into account. One kind, the blue Calanthe, is 
said to grow in Burmah. The variety has been much sought after, but 
without success, as the country in which it grows literally swarms with 
tigers and robbers. 

A single specimen of the blue and white Cypripedium is known to have 
reached England, but it has not yet flowered. It was found in Western 
Borneo, by a hunter named Ericcson. 

In searching for this flower its discoverer for days followed a path knee- 
deep m mud, through a swamp, and at night slept standing, proPP* 
agamst a tree. When he reached the coast with his treasure it took him 
some months to recuperate, and the last heard of him was that he had 
again plunged into the unknown in search of other rare varieties °> 

In the Solomon Islands is the home of a species of Orchid, which gr°* s 
there in every hue. But there cannibalism is still all but unchecked- 
Orchid hunters who have ventured there aver that the natives when they 
offer human sacrifices to their gods load the victims with garlands of the* 


gorgeous blossoms. Until spear or knife or flame ends the victim's life 
these flowers still hang or twine about him, their colours u'roume. ? i« li.-i 
and deeper hued with Ins spurting blood. 

Another valuable species only reached civilisation less than a year ago. 
It grows somewhere in the Western part of Mexico, exactly where the 
Indians, from whom the specimens were obtained, will not tell, for th.v 
regard the flower as sacred. It took two years and a vast ainouni 
and diplomac) to bribe these Indians to part with seven bulbs of it. 

There are many other rare varieties which a score of rich 
would give any price for. 

There died about a year ago a famous Orchid hunter nani-'d b'osterman. 
But before he died he told of a wonderful Orchid which In said edited in 
Brazil, and which it had been the ambition of his life to secure. 

Landing on the coast of Brazil, a few degrees south of the equator, he 
met a native chief, who told him of a "village of the demon Sowers" to tin- 
westward. Further questioning convinced him that the "demon Bowers" 
were Orchids of the rarest and most wonderful kind, so he decided to find 
this " village " at any cost. The chief warned him, vowing that to approach 
the flowers was certain death, but it only served to make the Orchid hunter 
the more determined. He had travelled through forests about six weeks, 
and was calculating that in a fortnight more he should be in the neighbour- 
hood of the "village of the demon flowers," when, one afternoon, three of 
his forward guards threw up their arms, and with a cry fell senseless to the 
ground. He had noticed a peculiar sickening odour pervading the heavy, 
heated air, and quickly gave the order for the other men to advance with 
caution and drag back the three fallen ones from the spot where they lay. 
They did so, and returning, reported that they had seen through the forest, 
a little further on, the vast " village of the demon flowers." 

Accompanied only by his Portuguese interpreter.the Orchid seeker started 
forward, their mouths and noses muffled as a safeguard aga.nst 'he awful 
odour. They managed to reach the spot where the three men had beer 
stricken down, but could go no further. They could see a hundred yards 
ahead of them a great mass of Orchids. Trees, undergrowth, anc 
thing were loaded down with them. They were ol 
any Fosterman, experienced collector that he was, 
of seeing. But, like a barrier, the wall of awful, sickening, overpowering 
odour rose between. The two retired a little way, knowmg that ,f they 
could reach those flowers their fortunes would be made. 

But it was of no avail. The mass of brilliant orchids might have been a 
mirage painted on the clouds, so far as reaching them was concerned. The 
"village" was perhaps an acre in extent, and the twe-made^a complete 
circuit of it, but everywhere 

brilliant than 

<lrv unci 

awful odour. At last, almost cryi 


with the bitterness of his disappointment, Fosterman gave it up and returned 
with his companion to the rest of his party. 

The odour was simply the perfume of this vast mass of Orchids. It is a 
curious fact that, though many Orchids are almost scentless, the handsomest 
ones have a most unbearable smell. When millions of them arc collected 
in a small space this stench, as can easily be imagined, becomes simply 
intolerable and is literally fatal when long inhaled. 

Returning to London, Fosterman told this wondrous tale to someofthe 
rich Orchid collectors, and an expedition was organised to go in search of it. 
Fosterman was ill and could not go. The expedition found the exact spot, 
but they gave up in despair of ever being able to more than feast their eyes 
upon the flowers through their field glasses. And there, somewhere in the 
depths of the vast tropic forest, they remain to this day. 

A vkkv remarkable new genus of Orchid is figured and described in the 
last number of Hooker's lames Plantarum (t. 2461), under the name of 
Homalopetalum jamaicense, Rolfe. It was found growing sparingly on the 
trunks of trees in the Blue Mountains, Jamaica, at 4,000 to 5,000 feet 
elevation, by Mr. W. Harris. It is a plant of very dwarf habit, and, except 
m having creeping rhizomes, closely resembles the Brazilian Pin* 
hypoleta, Lindl. The flowers, however, are very different in structure, the 
six perianth segments being nearly alike in shape, and the anther and 
pollinia almost as in Tetramicra, next to which it must be placed. The 
great peculiarity of the plant is that the staminodes are not united to the 
median petal, forming the side lobes of the lip, but consist of a pair »• 
falcate-oblong erect auricles or teeth at the base of the column, to which 
they are partially united. Thus the median petal is not modified into » 
lip, as is usually the case in this order, but is like the lateral petals, i» 
allusion to which the generic name is given. 

The Gardeners' Chronicle, in alluding to this plant (p. 70S), remarks that 
" whether the staminodes ever enter into the composition of the lip. as " 
stated, is a matter for further enquiry," which suggests a doubt in the writers 
mind as to whether the side lobes of the lip are petaloid staminodes at all- 
home details on this point are given at pages 364 to 367 of the last volume, 
and examples were given of flowers in wind, the side lobes of the lip h » 
actually reverted to perfect stamens, thus giving three perfect stamens * 
the top of a straight column. In every such case the side lobes of the W 
were absent, and the median petal was like the lateral ones in shape, colour, 
and texture. Had the two additional stamens been present and the UP 


remained normal it would have shown that the additional stair 
reversions of petaloid staminodes of the outer stamina] whorl, bat of the 
inner whorl ; that is of the two staminodes which form the wings or. teeth 
of the column. But a careful examination proved that they belonged to 
the former. In short, these organs had reverted to an ancestral condition, 
and, of course, could not do duty as staminodes at the same tune. It w.i- 
also shown that the normal stamen may occasionally become petaloid as an 
abnormal condition. 

Darwin, in a chapter on the " Homologies of the Flowers »f Orchids " 
in his Fertilisation of Orchitis has shown how in many Orchids he traced the 
vascular bundes of the side lobes of the lip to the cords which supply the 
ateral stamens (not to the one from which the middle lohc .11 
they occupy precisely the position of the lateral stamens . .f the outei whorl 

of a lily or other monocotyledon, proving that they are In ilogous with 

them, but modified into petaloid staminodes. Darwin obsei 
labellum is formed of one petal, with two petaloid stamens of the outer 
whorl, likewise completely confluent. I may remark, as making this fact 
more probable, that in the allied Marantacca. tin stamens, even the fertile 
stamens, are often petaloid, and partially cohere. This view of the nature 
of the labellum explains its large size, its frequently tripartite form, and 
especially the manner of its coherence to the column, unlike that of the 
other petals." The above facts leave little room for doubt as to the origin 
of the organs in question. It may further be pointed out that the wings 
of the column are sometimes as truly petaloid as the side lobes of the 
lip, but no one doubts that they are staminodes, and pefectly homologous 
with the stamens of Cypripedtum. or with the lateral stamens of the inner 
whorl of a lily or other monocotyledon. 


An interesting note respecting this beautiful Orchid is given by Mr. \\ . E. 
Broadway, of Grenada, in the Gardeners- Chronicle for May 2nd 
"On boulders and bare stumps, which would otherwise be bare and 
unsightly objects about the Botanic Garden and the Government House 
Grounds, clumps of this most lovelv Virgin Mary Orchid have been planted, 
and are now in full blossom (March 23th, 1S90I. The pure white flowers 
with dotted and streaked lip and column-base, fill the air with a delightful 
aroma, and these, massed together in profuse numbers, form a very effective 
«ght, glistening in the sun as though covered with frost. We have a 
specimen which differs somewhat from the ordinary white in this respect, 


that its flowers are purple-tinted, and the lip divisions narrower. The 
flower stems are dark-coloured throughout, and, in consequence, show up 
the white bracts distinctly, and thus it resembles D. indivisum. In the 
other the peduncles are green. The sheathing leaf base has purple lines, 
the white form green ones. D. indivisum, growing beside its ally, 
presents a miserable comparison ; its puny white flowers are quickly 
followed by seed-pods. D. bicornutum is a feature of Government House 
Grounds during the early months of the year, when its flowers expand in 
large numbers." 


Some very interesting information has come to light respecting these three 
species. The history of C. nigritum was given at page 79, and shortly 
afterwards it also flowered in the collection of O. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge 
Hall, Bury, out of a batch of imported Bornean Cypripediums purchased 
from Messrs. Hugh Low & Co. And now both C. Dayanum and C. virens 
have flowered out of the same lot, thus affording evidence, as Mr. Wrigley 
very well points out, that the three grow together. The leaves of C. 
mgntum and C. virens resemble each other so closely as to be almost in- 
distinguishable, and out of flower the two might be gathered as a single, but those of C. Dayanum are much more strongly tessellated. 

from North Borneo. 

appeared as a single plant among an importation of Cypripedes 

1858, made by Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., 

whom it was acquired shortly afterwards by the late Mr. John Day, of 
Tottenham. I, is nearly allied to the Javan C. iavanicum, and, indeed, is 
sometimes considered as a variety of it. It is, however, a distinct geo- 
graphical form. 

C. Dayanum was discovered on Mount Kina Ball., in north-east Borneo, 
by Mr. (now Sir Hugh) Low, who sent it with some pitcher plants to the 
nursery- of Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., at Clapton, from whom Mr. Day, °> 
Tottenham, acquired the box containing the entire stock of both. A few of 
the only survived, and one of them flowered in the summer of 
i860 It remained very rare in gardens until 1879, when Messrs. Peter 
Veitch and F. W. Burbidge again obtained it in the same region, when 
collecting for Messrs. James Veitch & Sons. 

The above facts are interesting, especially in connection with the * 
"■ f '"i respecting natural hybrids in the genus which has recently come 
and, considering how little is known of the conditions under which 
these plants grow, it is advisable to place them on record. 

to hand 


One of the most remarkable Orchids now flowering in the K. •« collection 
is the South African Bartholina pectinata, which has the lip broken up into 
seventeen or more radiating linear lobes, lilac-purple in colour. Owing to 
a fancied resemblance of the lip-segments to the logs of a spider, it has been 
called the Spider Orchid. It is about four incites Inch, and bears a single 
cordate leaf close to the soil. Masdevallia muscosa is remarkable on 
account of its mossy peduncles, and the habit of the lip closing up suddenly 
when a little tubercle near the base' is touched, but gradually opening again 
after a short time. The arrangement is evidently connected with the 
fertilisation of the flower, and its effect would be to temporarily imprison 
an insect which crawled over the tubercle. M. hieroglyphic. XI. peristeria. 
M. triaristella, M. demissa, and others are also now flowering. Xiegacliniom 
minutum is a compact tuft, completely covered with its curious flattened 
racemes; Spathoglottis ixioides is a dwarf Himalayan species, with pretty 
bright yellow flowers. Cryptochilus sanguineus is remarkable for having 
the sepals united into a tube, whose colour is indicated by the specific 

Maxillaria sanguinea is a very graceful and pretty little plant with a 
bright crimson lip, and flowers very freely when well grown. XI. aciantha 
has green flowers with remarkably persistent rigid segments. Among 
Polystachyas may be mentioned P. bulbophylloides, exactly like a small 
Bulbophyllum in habit, P. zambesiaca with yellow-green flowers, and P. 
bracteosa. Cirrhopetalum gracillimum is an elegant little thing with nearly 
crimson flowers, the lateral sepals being very long and narrow. Platyclinis 
is represented by P. abbreviata and P. longifolia, and Pleurothallis by P. 
unistriata, P. rotundifolia. and others. Bifrenaria Charlesworthii is a rare 
Brazilian species with hairy lip; Luisia cantharis has flowers exactly 
resembling a beetle ; and Erycina echinata is a curious Oncidium-like plant 
very seldom seen in cultivation. 

Among Oncidiums may be mentioned O. Harrisonianum, O. urophyllum, 
and O. virgulatum ; and among Epidendrums the pretty little E. brae 
teosum, E. equitans, and E. virgatum. Other interesting things are 
Phalamopsis Esmeralda, Promenasa xanthina, Gomeza planifolia, the pretty 
Cola* jugosus, Gongora gratulabunda, Pelexia maculata. Catasetum 
Lemosii, Saccolabium longicalcaratum, and various other Orchids, some of 
which are seldom met with in private collections. 

We are glad to find that more attention is being paid to these so-called 
botanical Orchids. We know of several collections where more attention is 
being paid to them than was formerly the case, and there are so many which 
are quite as interesting as their more showy brethren, and also as easily 


grown and as floriferous, besides taking up less space. They introduce variety 
into the collection, and those who saw the splendid collection exhibited by 
Sir Trevor Lawrence at the Temple Show will be able to realise how 
deserving of cultvation the best of them are. They should be grown 
) good-sized clumps, in order to get the best results, and it is only 


grown one can form an idea what they are really capable of. 


5 the most extensively cultivated, is Odontoglossum crispum. 
every year many thousands of this plant are imported from Colombia for 
the English market. It is no secret that the most famous type is that of 
Pacho, and this is becoming more and more scarce, and consequently more 
expensive to collect in its native habitat. When it is mentioned that tie 
Pacho type is the most prized, it should be stated that inferior types are 
procurable in great abundance other than in the Pacho region. Thus the 
inferior types abound at a distance of two or three days' journey from the 
Pacho centre. In England there are some expert O. crispum growers, who 
can, as a rule, distinguish the Pacho forms from the worthless forms ; but 
even experts are sometimes at a loss to distinguish the legitimate Pacho 
forms when they are exposed in the market for sale as imported--.... pMj 
with bulbs devoid of leaves. When experts are puzzled, the ordinary- 
purchaser at sale-rooms is, of course, easily duped. Forms or types of the 
plants are thus frequently bought that are not worth growing. Not only 
worthless forms are in this way acquired, but thousands of plants come to 
England under the pseudonym of O. crispum that turn out, after being 
cultivated for a lengthened time, with attendant expense, not even inferior 
forms of O. crispum, but O. Lindleyanum, &c, plants that are subsequently 
consigned to the rubbish-heap. 

This year a new departure in the O. crispum trade has sprung up) 
scores of thousands are being exported from Colombia. The vast majority 
ot the plants thus obtained come from regions whence only the worst 
known types of O. crispum come; amongst then, a large intermixture 
of O. Lindleyanum, &c. But this is not all. These despised type- ° f 
• crispum, &c, are conveyed several days' journey on mules' backs to 
ractio, ,„ order to pack them there, and to label each case with the uam- 
° Facho -"-Criterion, in Gcinl. Omm., May joth, p. 674- 


Oir present illustration shows a pretty little group of Habemriat, 
reproduced from a photograph taken in the collection of Sir Trevoi 
Lawrence, Bart., Burford, Dorking, by Mr. G. I'Anson, and indicates how 
effective they are when well grown. The upper central figure shows the 
remarkable H. Susanna, on either side of which stands a plant of the 
brilliant H. militaris, while in front are three plants of the equally 

beautiful H. a 
down behind, 

Call grower, has been stood 
the picture, while the three 

latter are also lowered so that the leaves are omitted. Knowing the colours 
of these charming little plants our readers can picture to themselves what 
the group was like in the living state. 

Habenaria Susann* (Fig. 10) is a well-known Indian species, which 
has been known ever since the time of Linmeus, who called it Orchis 
ultivation on several occasions, and was 

Susanna. It has appeared 

figured at t. 3374 of the Botanical Maga: 



that permanent position in collections to which its beauty entitles it, 
probably on account of the difficulty of bringing it safely through the 
resting season. If this difficulty can be surmounted it ought to be more 
widely cultivated, for its beauty is undoubted, and in August, 1894, it 
received a First-class Certificate fnim the Royal Horticultural Society. 
Major-General Berkeley thus speaks of it in our second volume (p. 331) :— 
'* I have seen whole beds of it in flower in Moulmcin, and I can only 
suppose that difficulty of transport prevented collectors from bringing it 
home. . . . I have met with it both in India and Burmah, and it was 
always a great delight to come across a group of it. It is found in very 
warm, sheltered, moist places. It is too soft and succulent a plant to grow 
under any other conditions, and should do well in a shady corner in the 
stove. The flowers are not always pure white, I have found spikes of it 
with a dash of green, but all the varieties are beautiful." It is rather 
widely diffused, being found in Xorth and South India, South China, and 
in some of the Malay islands. It grows from two to four feet high, and 
sometimes bears as many as five flowers ; from which it will be seen that 
our figure fails to do it full justice. The remarkable fringed side lobes of 
the lip and the long spur are well shown in the illustration. Now that 
the culture of some of these tropical Habenarias is better understood, * 
hope to meet with it more frequently in collections. 

H. militaris (Fig. n) is a brilliantly-coloured species, which was 
originally discovered in the mountains of Phu CJuoq, in Cambodia, by * 
Godefroy Lebeuf. It was described by Reichenbach in 1878, from a dried 
specimen, under the name of Habenaria pusilla (Otia Hot. Hamb., p. J3 l 
Very little appears to have bee.i known about it then, as nothing is said 
about its brilliant colours. M. A. Regnier afterwards obtained it n™ 1 
Cochin China, probably from the mountainous region of Tay-Ninh, and« 
1886 he sent a living plant in flower to Reichenbach, who recognised it « 
H. pusilla, but considering that name altogether inappropriate, he re-named 
the species H. militaris, in allusion to the brilliant scarlet lip, resembling" 
soldier's jacket. The plants here represented are rather dwarf, as it often 
attains a height of over a foot; but it will be observed that only a few d 
the lower flowers are expanded. It is too well known to require fur*' 
description, but we may add that in October, 1893, Sir Trevor Lawren« 
was awarded a Silver Flora Medal for a fine pan of it, over two feet » 
diameter, containing a number of very fine plants. The method of caW 
so successfully practised by Mr. White was given in full in our first voW 
(PP- 83-85), to which we refer our readers for details. 

H. carnea (Fig. i 2 ) i s a native of P(;raki where it grows on Ba*** 
rocks, and was sent home by Mr. C. H. Curtis, of the Forest Depart* 
there. It flowered at Kew and with Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, 

Chelsea, in 1892. Though quite different from the preceding, it is an 
equally charming plant, and in October, 1893. Messrs. Sandri 
First-class Certificate for it. The flowers are large and of a beautiful light 
flesh pink, while the leaves are spotted with white ona ground-colour which 
may be described as grey, suffused with pinkish brown of an almost in- 
describable shade. The eye-like spots seen in the figure are simpl) 
openings between the lobes, which enable the dark back-ground to show 
through. It succeeds very well under the treatment given to H. militaris. 
There is a white-flowered form called variety nivosa. for which Messrs. W. 
L. Lewis & Co., of Southgate, received an Award of Merit in July. 1894. 
The leaves are also green and unspotted, but in other respects it fully agn 1 - 
with the type. 

This splendid Philippine Renanthera has just flowered in the rich collection 

of Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., bearing a large panicle with fool branches 
and forty flowers. It is allied to the brilliant K. coccinea, hul 
flowers of different shape, marbled with two shades of the richest vdvtl 
crimson. It was described by Reichenbach in 1880 

XIV., p. 296) from materials sent by Mr. J. G. Storie to Messrs. Hugh Low- 
pointed out that Mr. H. T. Brown 

.ibsequent 1 
obtained it on a small island. 

excursion from his 

XVI., p. 

Williams & Son, and 

residence at Tayabas, in the Philippines (Gard. Chnm. 

364.) Some time ago it flowered with Messrs. 15. S. \\ 1 

was figured in the Orchid A Umm ( XL. t. 5U). "hich, however, shows the 

ground-colour much more yellow than in the one exhibited by S.r Trevor 

Lawrence at the last meeting of the Royal Horticultural Soc, . 

very handsome species, but unfortunately, like R. coccinea, does not seem 

inclined to flower until the plant gets a good size. 


which flowered in the Berlin Botanic Garden in April last. It .s allied t 
C. carnea, Hook, f., and has small salmon-coloured flowers-N^W. 
K. Bot. Gart. Berlin, 1896, p. rij. ... 

Sobka, ,t BRANDT. E, Ln*l.-A species allied .0 S. macrantha, which 
flowered in the collection of Mrs. Brand,, of Zurich. I. was introduced 
by Messrs. F. Sander & Co., but the habitat .s not recorded. The 
flower, are smaller than in S. macrantha, and rose-purple, with the disc 
of the lip orange-coloured, and bearing five slightly elevated lines.- 
Gard. Chron., May 16, p. 608. 


Oncidium Godseffianum, Kranzl. — A species much like 0. pubes, 
Lindl., in general character, but differing in having smaller flowers with 
the lateral sepals free, and thus should be compared with 0. fimbriatum, 
Lindl., which the author does not mention. It flowered with Messrs. 
Sander in May last. — Gard. Chron., June 20, p. 754. 


With respect to the abolition of the genus Panisea, proposed by Dr. 
Kranzlin (Gard. Chron., April 25, p. 516), after an examination of P.uniflora, 
Lindl., it should be pointed out the plant is not a Panisea at all, but a true 
Ccelogyne, as was long ago pointed out by Bentham. The true Paniseas. 
which Dr. Kranzlin admits not having examined, are at all events sufficiently 
different from Ccelogyne uniflora, which I have seen flowering every season 
for many years. The assertion that " Lindley unfortunately relinquished 
his sagacious method of showing Orchids " is easily disproved by an ex- 
amination of his Folia Orchidacca, which certainly docs contain the result of 
ripened and elaborate studies. One has only to compare his revision of the 
genera Oncidium and Epidendrum with his earlier sketches in the Botankil 
Register to see that, to say nothing of the difficult genera Pleurothallis and 
Stelis. The fact is, his work was progressive in the best sense of the word, 
right up to the last. It is unfortunate that Reichenbach never learnt his 
sagacious methods. 

R. A. R- 

By H. A. BURBERRY, Highbury, Moor Green, Birmingham. 

The temperatures in all departments must still remain as advised in ' he 
Calendar for May. 

The season so far has been a particularly hot, dry, and fast one. 1 
therefore, Orchid growers find themselves behind hand with their pottwS 
operations, small blame to them. Weather such as we have been havu* 
although it may be known only to those directly concerned, causes » 
enormous amount of extra work ; and by the time the watering, daropl °^ 
airing, shading, cleaning, and the hundred-and-one other little jobs <* 
done which are found necessary to continually keep the temperature a ^ 
atmosphere well balanced and suitable for healthy growth, a great mro» 
has been made upon one's time and energies. , in 

During such hot, fast seasons, things seem to me to get topsy-t urv > 
some way. Nothing seems to bide its proper time to flower and gr°«'j j 
pops out upon you before you are ready to attend to it ; consequent!). 


am afraid that it frequently happens that something or another has to be 
left undone or unattended to, and such a state of affairs is, of course, far 
from being satisfactory. But what is to be done ? One does not like to 
pull a plant about when the proper time for so doing has long since passed, 
and we all know that in order to pot a plant well it is necessary to pull the 
roots about a good deal. We must never pot badly or carelessly. W« 
must never insert an old basket, or pot, or pan within another, in order to 
spare the roots from being disturbed. No ; when repotting is done, let it 
be done thoroughly well ; otherwise let it alone. If it should happen that 
time is scarce, or that the season for potting has long past, then, should a 
plant appear to be in a fair condition, and likely to pull through another 
season without serious results following, let it stand over till another year 
rather than half do it or do it at the wrong season. What can't be cured 
must be endured. 

Whatever else has to be left undone, see well to the most important 
points, namely, ventilation, and moisture in the atmosphere by damping 
down the floors and by spraying the plants overhead in all departments 
two or three times during the hottest part of the day. Also keep the 
plants free from insect pests by fumigating occasionally with XL. All 
insecticide as soon as ever signs of thrip or aphis are observed. L'nder 
these conditions the plants will not go far wrong if they otherwise have to 
rough it. There is another matter of some importance, which, if given 
attention, will perhaps help the cultivator to some extent. It is everything 
to an Orchid to be in the position it likes. Do not therefore keep a plant 
in the same position too long if it fails to grow there satisfactorily. Once 
a plant finds a position it likes it will then luxuriate, and give not nearly so 
much trouble and worry. Position, in fact, should not be under-estimated, 
for it is of more real importance to the cultivator than is generally supposed 
for the successful cultivation and flowering of Orchids. It is surprising 
what a large number of different Orchids will thrive perfectly well in one 
small amateur's house if the matter of finding suitable places is studied and 
carried out. I have even grown some of the short-bulbed Mexican L*has 
such as L. ancepsandL. autumnalis, very well in a house where cool 
Odontoglossums and Oncidiums have been growing and doing well, t» 
suspending them in a place where they had plenty of sunshine through a 
division between two Hinds caused by their not meeting: also Ple.ones 
Thunias, and many of the Cattleyas did very well in a like position, and 
some Dendrobiums, too, including D. Wardianum and D. nobile. Bu let 
it not be understood that I recommend the same house for the who e ■* 
*u , *• *\* a fart ust to illustrate 

Aese species ; far from it. I merely mention the fact just to 
"ha* can, or could, be done. And how one could amuse and instruct 
himself having one house for Orchids only, supposing he had the patience 


and time at his disposal, which would be necessary at first to ensure 

Something about manuring Orchids is doubtless looked for, and rightly 
so, in the Calendar of Operations, which is above all things practical, and 
written for the guidance of all who may desire it. I have from time to 
time advised manure in a weak liquid state for certain species, such as 
Calanthes, and Ccelogynes, and some few others, which from practice I 
have found did them no harm, but, on the other hand, seemed to do them 
good for a time. But I have never been very loquacious on this matter of 
manuring Orchids, for I have never fully believed in it, and yet have never 
openly flouted the idea. Like many others, I have sometimes thought that 
manorial aid might possibly be of assistance, if once the proper proportion 
and the proper way of applying it was fully understood. Now I am 
determined to shelve manure in every shape and form, for, so far as I am 
concerned, my conclusion is that manure is not permanently beneficial; 1 
don't believe I shall ever use another drop of manure, not even on those 
species which I have previously enumerated as manure takers. I am certain 
that in the long run manure does more harm than good, and that the 
plants are better without it, and that it is the cause of much mischief 
which is attributed to other causes. 

Having said this much I feel relieved, for I should indeed be sorry for 
any cultivator to think that I recommend manure. On the other hand, I 
now believe that an Orchid which receives it is apt to go wrong at anytime. 
Things have happened that make me think there is no certainty about 
them; that you cannot depend upon them, and that they are liable to 
disease at any moment, which will carry them off like the snuff of a cm* 
Plants that are here to-day and gone to-morrow are, to say the least, most 
undesirable. It is better to go on slowly but surely : to be satisfied W* 
slower and smaller new growths, well ripened, and matured by the admission 
of plenty of fresh air, which I believe is, after all, the best possible manoK. 
and the only natural one for Orchids. Plants so nurtured are bound to 
make their mark in time ; all that is required is patience. 

We must endeavour, if possible, to get the greater part of the re P ot * 
finished in the Cattleya and Intermediate houses this month. I n ever ' 
repotting Cattleyas much later, as it leaves such a short time before t 
dull weather sets in upon us , for them to recover sufficiently to |*» 
through the winter safely. Sobralias should be repotted as 
as the flowering season is past. Good turfy strong loam. "" wd V , 
broken charcoal and sand, suits them admirably. They should be p* 
hrmly. Once strongly established, they are of most easy growth. ano„ 
but httle trouble. They make a large quantity of thick fleshy root* 
must therefore have pots, or pans, of a reasonable size to contain 


When repotting, it is not advisable to disturb the old ball of roots more 
than is really necessary, for if pulled about very much a great check is given. 
Sobralias delight in Intermediate or Cattleya house temperature, and in .1 
moderate supply of water the whole year round, as they have no s[« • 

Odontoglossum Schlieperianum and the rare 0. Williainsii are BOW 
flowering, and will afterwards commence to grow, when they also should be 
repotted. They are very pretty Orchids when strong, but from small 
weakly pseudobulbs the spikes are spindly and the flowers insignificant, 
and therefore should not be allowed to Bower till the plants are strong. 
The Intermediate house is the best place for them. 

The summer flowering Cypripediums, such as C. Stone.. 
renceanum, C. barbatum, and C. Godefroya:, should also receive attention 
when flowering is past. The section to which the 
belong is not of easy management, unless the plants happen to get ■ 
position that suits them. A few weeks ago I saw one growing, and growing 
like mad, in what seemed to me to be a most unlikely place. It «.is 
suspended over a water tank, a good distance from the glass, and in a not 
by any means light position, in fact, a very shady one. It is worth a trial. 
For this section, stiff fibrous loam intermixed with small lumps of chalk is 
the best compost that I know of. 

The inmates of the East Indian house are now growing apace, and 
must not lack moisture. The deciduous Calanthes are getting well rooted, 
and may receive more water at the roots. Phalamopses are pushing up 
good leaves and making plenty of young roots ; this is a good season to 
pick out the old decayed sphagnum moss and replace it with new : tit care 
must be taken that the roots are not disturbed in the slightest. he Den- 
drobiums, too, are growing well. When the new growths are well up. and 
have a good number of new roots, rather than keep the compost too 
soddened with water, it is a good plan to keep it drier, making up for „ b> 
getting the syringe well in among them two or three ^£*"f^ 
days are bright and hot. The plants like it, and it is one of the be s. mean 
to keep down red spider, which must not on any account be allowed Itt 
prosper. ,f the house is as well and freely ventilated during such sp ndid 
summer weather as we are now getting as it ought to be, the ,*~*» rf 
growths damping off will be *«*" ^^^^ 

But with D. Bensoni and D. superbum you have to be very 
syringing not to let the water get down into the ,x,.s, for ^™^ 
given to damping off. I find it is best for this department and ** .to* 
if possible, a slight warmth in the hot water P*^™ «^ "'^ ^ot 
air both top and bottom can be left on all through the night. We cannot 
grow Orchids well without air : it is the life and sou. of them. To shut 


Dendrobiums up in a close house, so as to keep the temperature warm the 
whole night, in order to spare lighting the fire, is a source of danger, and 
many growths invariably damp off. 

Cattleyas Warneri and C. Warscewiczii (gigas) are now commencing 
to flower, afterwhich new roots will commence to push from the baseofthe 
new pseudobulb ; then is the best time to re-pot them. Do not expose than 
too much to the sun for a few weeks afterwards, nor keep them too dry; 
but they must be placed in a department where they receive plenty of air 
and are kept pretty cool, or they will start to make second growths, which 
is always well to avoid, if possible. In spite of one's utmost endeavours a 
small number of them are almost sure to break again, which cannot lie 
helped, and which need cause no alarm ; give such plants exactly similar 
treatment to those quite dormant. When an Orchid, say aCattleyaora 
Dendrobium, or a Thunia, or anything else, has completed its growth, it is 
a great and ofttimes fatal mistake to withhold water too suddenly. The 
plants very quickly shrivel up, causing immature growth and other evils. 
The watering of the roots must go on as usual for some time, but the plants 
should be removed to a place where they may receive more air and light- 
Trust to air both night and day, to assist in preventing second growth and 
to thoroughly ripen the pseudobulbs, but do not withhold water at the same 
time ; the strain is too great. The other Cattleyas and Ladias will no* be 
actively growing, and should be well attended to, spraying them overhead 
occasionally, especially early in the afternoon when the shading is removed 
and the ventilation is reduced. The houses should be damped down at 
least three times daily, and air admitted freely. 

We try to keep the Cool house as cool as we can. The ventilators are 
opened as widely as possible, and remain so. With this air it is impossible 
to damp the surroundings too often. This treatment the plants enjoy- 
Sophronitis grandiflora is now starting to grow again, after having had a 
short rest since flowering. It succeeds best in small pans suspended, bUtP 
not a sun-loving species. Now is a good time to do what is required in j ' 
way of re-panning or top dressing. Lajlia prsestans and L. Dayana are *> 
starting to grow, and should likewise be attended to. These are also «■ 
grown in baskets, or pans, suspended, and should occupy a warm position at t 
warmest end of the house. They delight in a good long rest during 
the winter. Laelia harpophylla is another that does well in this d<=P ar """! 
if given a like position, as also does L. monophylla, which is a quaint W 
Orchid. This latter species prefers to be kept moist the whole year row* 
and should be grown in very small pans or baskets. Oncidium t«" num 
now pushing up new growths, and may be repotted. I prefer to gro"£ 
beautiful Orchid in pots under exactly the same treatment as the Oif 
glossum crispums enjoy. Like many other cool Orchids, it is often .nj^ 


by being kept too wet at the roots. Orchids do not require to be kept so 
wet as is sometimes supposed ; it rots the compost and kills the roots, and 
what follows it is needless to say. When water is applied with moderation 
during the time the plants are growing, and they are kept on the dry side 
when inactive, repotting in many instances is really not necessity more 
than once in two or three years with these cool and intermediate species, 
and they are better if not pulled about for the purpose of repotting too 

Masdevallias that require a shift should be done this month. Peat and 
sphagnum moss in equal parts is the best compost. The peat need not be 
of the best fibrous nature for these, but it should be lumpy, so that tba wmtef 
passes away quickly. They are best managed, and are much more certain to 
produce a large amount of flower spikes, if grown in small pot~ 
convenient size for them. Like all other cool growing Orchids, the •reathet 
is rather too hot just now for this genus, but no harm can be done them if 
kept well shaded, and the ventilators and doors thrown open wide. Cool 
Orchids are injured by heat during summer only when they are kept too 
close. During winter they suffer from the effect of excessive cold also by 
the same means. 

Angr.ecum FOVRSI8M, ANDRE.-Kr.. Hort., June I, p. 256. "ith fig. 
lis is A. stylosum, Rolfe. 

Mossi* var. Beatrice. - Card. Mag., June 20, p. 406, 

with fig. 

Ccelogvne Veitchii, Ro\k.-Wie„ III. Gart.-Zeil., May, pp. 187, 189. 

' Cycnoches CHLOROCHILON.-Tfo Garden, May 30, p. 4<>3, with fig. 
Cvpr,pedium X R.dolfianum, Pucci.-B»«. Soe. Tosc. Ort., March, 

' De'ndrobium Findlayanum.-T^ Garden, June 13, P- 44&. t. 1070. 
Habenaria Elwesii, Hook. L—Bot. Mag., t. 7478- . 
L*lia X elegans var. Turner..-^ Garde,,, May 23, p. 384, 1. 1067. 
L.BLio-CATTLEVA X Pytho.-/™™. Hort., June 26, pp. 579. 588, 


June 11, p. 537, fig. 88; Card. Mag., June 13, P- 386, w,th fig.; Card. 
Chron., Tune 20, p. 7=,=,- e. c 

SACCOLAB,™ AUPULtACEUM.-/..™. M May «, pp. 4&X, 463, 

fig. 76. 



The annual Whitsuntide Show of the Manchester Royal Botanical and 
Horticultural Society was held at the Gardens, Old Trafford, from May 
21st to 27th, when Orchids were exhibited in large numbers, the Show 
House being, as usual, nearly filled with them, making a brilliant display. 

The first prize for a collection of Orchids in bloom, limited to amateurs, 
was secured by E. Ashworth, Esq., Harefield Hall, Wilmslow (gr. Mr. 
Holbrook), with a rich and varied group, containing, among other things, 
many good forms of Lrelia purpurata, L. tenebrosa, Cattleya X calummata, 
the fine C. Lueddemanniana nobilior, some good C. Schrcedera:, Mendelii, 
Mossia? and others, many good Odontoglossum crispum and Miltonia 
vexillaria, Schomburgkia tibicinis, Dendrobium Dearei and others, various 
Cypripediums, &c. 

F. Hardy, Esq., Tyntesfield, Ashton-on-Mersey (gr. Mr. Stafford), was 
second with a fine group, including some good Dendrobium pulchellum 
(Dalhousieanum), D. thyrsiflorum, D. fimbriatum oculatum, Diacriam 
bicornutum, Cypripedium bellatum, a fine dark form of C. villosum, and a 
good selection of the usual showy Cattleyas, Odontoglossums, &c. 

A group exhibited by S. Hinchcliffe, Est,., Hale, Altrincham, included 
Anguloa Clowesii, Cattleya Schilleriana, Oncidium sphacelatum and others, 
with some good Cattleyas, Lrelias, &c. 

In the Nurserymen's class, Mr. James Cypher, Cheltenham, was first 
with a splendid group, including some fine Ladia purpurata, Cattleya 
Skinneri, and other showy forms, Oncidium concolor, O. macrantlnim and 
O. serratum, Vanda suavis, Epidendrum X O'Brienianum, some good 
Cypripediums, &c. The group was very effectively arranged. 

Messrs. Heath & Son, of Cheltenham, were third with a group in «*«* 
were some good Miltonia vexillaria, together with Cattleva Skinneri, Aer* 
crassifolium, Odontoglossum citrosmum, &c. 

Mr. John Kitson, of Bowden, secured the second prize with a good 
group, containing some good Cattleya Warneri, a very fine C. Moss* 
E-ptdendrum vitellinum, Dendrobium X Cassiope, Odontoglossum crispum, 
Selempedium X grande atratum, &c. 

For the best collection of Cattleyas and Lslias the first prize « n "° 
T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield (gr. Mr. Johnson), with a v^>" 
lot, including Cattleya Mendelii leucoglossa, Lrelia grandis, some very »• 
Laiha purpurata, Lrelio-cattleya x Pallas superba, &c. . , , 

The second prize went to F. Hardy, Esq., whose group contain* 
bnl hant Cattleya Schrcederiana, C. Ski,,",,,,, alba. C. d.dosa, C. SchiB** 
C. Mendelii Venus, a beautiful Lslia purpurata Schrcedera, and others. 

For the best collection of Cypripediums in bloom the first pr* «* 


E. Ashworth, Esq., who exhibited a large group, including the beautiful C. 
bellatulum album, and some fine forms of C. Chaniberlainianum. 1 . 
Staffer, Esq., took the second prize, C. philippinense and C X Gertrude 
Hollington being noteworthy. F. Hardy, Esq.. was third, among hi- beat 
plants being C. Lawrenceanum Hyeanum, C. Druryi, and Selempediuii, 
X leucorrhodum. 

For the best collection of Dendrobiums in bloom Mr. J. Cypher was 
first, and E. Ashworth, Esq., a good second. 

For the best collection of Odontoglossums, F. Hardy, Esq., took premier 
honours, his group containing some good O. Harryanum, 0. crispum, and 
O. X Andersonianum. among others. Mr. John Robson was lecond, and 
staged some good O. crispum. Miltonia Koe/lii. \c. 

In the Nurserymen's class of the best Orchid in bloom, Messrs. Hi ath 
were the only exhibitors, and took the first prize with a well-grown plant of 
L;elia purpurata. 

Among the Orchids staged not for competition was a splendid group 
from Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, which received the 
large Gold Medal. It contained a fine specimen of Cattl 
Reineckeana, with other forms of this species. C. Mendel,,, 
forms of Ladia purpurata. Cypripedium Rothschildianum. - 
longifolia with erect spikes of purple flowers, Oncidium varicosnm Rogersu, 
various forms of Odontoglossum crispum, Ep.dendrum atropurpureum 
Randii, Dendrobium Bensona:, some good Miltonia vexdlana. &c. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Heaton, Bradford, exhibited a 
group, containing several good forms of Ladia purpurata and Cattleya 
Mossi*. a good C. Schilleriana, some fine forms of Odontoglossum 
crispum, and other good Orchids. 

Messrs. John Cowan & Co., Garston, near Liverpool, had a hue group, 
containing some good Cattleya Mosaut, including C. M. Remeckeana a 
fine C. x Harrisii, Ccelogyne pandurata, Dendrobium thyrsmorum and D. 
superbum, fine specimens of Brassia verrucosa, Ada aurant.aca, «.c. 

A. Warburtbn, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden, sent an excep.,onall> 
fine form of Cypripedium X Gertrude Hollington. 

C. Dibb, Esq. (gr. Mr. Brindrett), exhibited a Cattleya Mendel., wrth 
three fine spikes one of which earned six Bowers, which had been growr. 
in a greenhouse for the last seven years, and the pot was one mass ot roots, 
showing that it had not been potted for a long period. . 

Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son staged some good Ca tleyas and 
in a miscellaneous collection, also Odontoglossum X W dekeanum, * c 

Mr. H. J. Chapman, of Camberwell, exhib.ted a good colleCon of 
dried Orchids, in which the colours were very well preserved. 

First-class Certificates were awarded to the followmg plants .- 


Odontoglossum crispum Warburtonianum, Odontoglossum Charles- 
worthianum, and Cypripedium X Cowleyanum Annie Louise, exhibited by 
Charlesworth & Co. ; Cattleya Mendelii Countess of Derby, Cattleya 
Mossiae Her Majesty, Lffilia purpurata alboviolacea, Lailia purpurata 
Distinction, Miltonia vexillaria leucoglossa, and Stenoglottis longifolia, 
exhibited by Messrs. Sander & Co. 

The display of Orchids at the Drill Hall, James' Street, Westminster, on 
June 9th last, was a magnificent one, both in the extent and in the quality 
of the exhibits. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham (gr. Mr. Ballantine), sent a 
small group of choice things, to which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It 
contained fine specimens of Lailia grandiflora (majalis), Sobralia 
xantholeuca, the pure white S. macrantha Kienastiana, the remark- 
able Cypripedium Stonei platytamium, two handsome forms of Lalio- 
cattleya X Canhamiana, Miltonia vexillaria gigantea and M. v. radiata in 
well-flowered examples, half-a-dozen splendid forms of Odontoglossum 
crispum, and others. 

H. T. Pitt, Esq., Rosslyn, Stoke Newington (gr. Mr. Aldous), received 
a Silver Flora Medal for a splendid group, containing some excellent forms 
of Cattleya Mossias and Lslia purpurata, together with Phaius X 
Owenianus, Anguloa Clowesii, Oncidium phymatochilum, Vanda Dem- 
soniana, Ccelogyne pandurata, Odontoglossums, Cypripediums, &c. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. White), staged! 
most interesting and pretty group, to which a Silver Banksian Medal was 
given. It contained Thunia Brymeriana and the pure white T. candi- 
dissima, Luisia Amesiana, Dendrobium bracteosum, D. aduncum, L* lia 
tenebrosa, Ladio-cattleya X Arnoldiana, Bulbophyllum Lobbii, Epiden- 
drum Brassavola, E. prismatocarpum, Pleurothallis Grobyi, some good 
Masdevallia Harryana, and others, including M. triaristella, simuU, 
guttulata, Rolfeana, and others. Botanical Certificates were given to 
Saccalobium miniatum and Epidendrum fragrans. 

Welbore S. Ellis, Esq., Hazelbourne, Dorking (gr. Mr. Masterton), 
received a Silver Banksian Medal for a group of good forms of Odonto- 
glossum crispum, one of which, called O. c. Lord Sherborne , receivi 
Award of Merit. It is allied to O. c. guttatum. 

~ Iter Rothschild, Tring Park (gr. Mr. Hill), 

, Award 

jved an 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild, Tring Park (gr. Mr. Hill), showed so" 1 
good examples of Spathoglottis Lobbii and S. Kimballiana, Cataset*»J 
splendens leucanthum, a fine creamy white form, which received a 
of Merit, and a species of Chondrorhyncha from Costa Rica, with greets 


white flowers, to which a Botanical Certificate was given. It has since 
been named C. albicans, Rolfe. 

Sir Frederick Wigan, Clare Lawn, East Sheen (gr. Mr. You:: 
a First-class Certificate for a splendid form of Miltonia vexillaria, called 
" Memoria G. D. Owen," approaching M. v. Leopoldi. He also showed 
two fine forms of Cattleya Mossise, one of which was like var. Reineckeana 
with slate-coloured marbling in front of the lip. 

C. L. N. Ingram, Esq., Elstead House, Godalming (gr. Mr. Bond), sent 
Laslio-Cattleya X Regalis (L. purpurata ? X C. Mendelii 3 ) and L.-c. X 
Regalis nigra, L.-c. X Electra (C. Percivaliana S X L. purpurata 3 ), and 
L.-c. X Pytho (L.-c. X elegans Turned ? X C. Loddigesii if I, the l.u, i 
receiving an Award of Merit. 

Walter Cobb, Esq., Dulcote, Tunbridge Wells (gr. Mr. How. 
a fine Cattleya Mossise Wageneri. 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Cooke), sent 
two very fine forms of Odontoglossum crispum. 

Holbrook Gaskell, Esq., Woolton Wood, Liverpool, sent Cypripedium 

Captain T. A. Julian, Plymouth, sent a fine Cattleya Mossiae. 

F. W. Moore, Esq., Royal Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, sent the rare 
Masdevalla fragrans. 

Sir Charles Strickland, Bart., Hildenley, Malton (gr. Mr. Smith), sent 
flowers of a pretty hybrid between Cypripedium bellatulum 1 and C. 
concolor 3 , showing some little variation in the markings. 

T. W. Swinburne, Esq., Corndean Hall, Winchcombe, sent some good 
forms of Cypripedium bellatulum, and other Orchids. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden, sent a beautiful form of 
L*lia tenebrosa, very near the one known as Walton Grange variety. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, staged a splendid group to 
which a Silver Flora Medal was awarded. It contained a fine specimen of 

ndrobium thyrsiflorum Walkenanum, 

D. Dearei, various forms of Uelia 
and others ; 

tenebrosa, L. purpurata and Cattleya Moss.*, C. c.tnna, - , 

fine pans of dL X kewensis and D. X langleyensis, Epidend urn 
vitellinum, E. aromaticum, Lslio-cattleya X Hippolyta, L.-c. X /eph 

t- u ii »„i„.rt C Ciirtisn. belenipeaium 
L.-c. X Canhamiana, bellatulum, C Curtis.., 
X Clonius, Odontoglossums, and other showy Orchids. 

Medal for another fine group, 

also received a Silver Flora 

Mossi,, and among them *« £-*£«; —a **-£ 

and various other good things. 


Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, staged a large and handsome 
group, to which a Silver Flora Medal was also given. It contained Phaius 
X Owenianns, Sobralia X Amesi*, S. X Veitchii, Aerides Houlletianam, 
Physosiphon Loddigesii, Cirrhopetalurn picturatum, Disa X Premier. 
Maxillaria nervosa, Dendrobium crystallinum, Odontoglossum Harryanum, 
and others, Lselio-cattleya X Arnoldiana and L.-c. X Mardelii (C. 
Lueddemanniana ? X L.-c. X elcgans 3 ), a very pretty hybrid, which 
had previously been raised by Messrs. Veitch, and now received an Award 
of Merit. Botanical Certificates were also awarded to Pleurothallis 
tribuloides, and Peristeria aspersa. 

Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son, Upper Holloway, received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a good group, in which were Cattleya Warnen. 
Oncidium Marshallianum, Aerides odoratum, Vanda tricolor and V. 
concolor, Denbrobium X polyphlebium, and some good Odontoglossnms, 
Cypripediums, Cattleyas, Dendrobiums, &c. 

Messrs. W. L. Lewis & Co., Southgate, also contributed an effective 
group, to which a Bronze Banksian Medal was given. It contained some 
good forms of Cattleya Mossia: and C. Mendelii, C. citrina, the handsome 
Cypripedium X Gertrude Hollington, C. X Hobsoni, some good Odonto- 
glossums, Oncidiums, &c. A Botanical Certificate was given to a very 
pretty little plant exhibited as a Pogonia, which has since been named 
Hemipilia amethystina, Rolfe. It bore a single cordate leaf, prettily 
marbled with green and brown, lying flat on the soil, and an erect raceme 
of about a score white and amethyst-purple flowers. 

Mr. J. Keeling, Mount View Gardens, Glossop Road, Sheffield, sent a 
pretty hybrid Cypripedium derived from C. bellatulum and C. concolor, 
similar to those exhibited by Sir C. Strickland. 

At the meeting held on June 23rd the show of Orchids was considerably 
less than usual, though about up to the average for the season, as there is 
invariably a falling off of the exhibits about Midsummer. Several remark- 
able ones, however, were staged, particularly the beautiful dark crimson 
Renanthera Storiei with darker marbled flowers, which was exhibited brt 
by Sir Trevor Lawrence and by W. J. Thompson, Esq., of Ghyllbank, 

xhibited a 

Trevor Lawrence, Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. \Vhitc) ; 
aup, to which a Silver Mora Medal was given. It contained 

specimen of Rhyncostylis retusa (Saccolabiom gutti* 

with '»* e 

spikes ; a very handsome light form of Miltonia vexillaria with six '^\ 
a hne example of Catasetum Bungerothii ; the rich mauve-crimson CO 
Lpidendrun, Frederici-Guilielmi ; and the singular looking Kp'd en0 
vanegatum ; Aerides multiflorum Lobbii ; Dendrobium crystalline ff 
teum; the handsome Renanthera Storiei above mentioned, &c. • 


plant of Cypripcdium superbiens witli nine flower- 

Certificate, and a profusely-flowered plant of the pretty yellow 

Cirrhopetalum nutans a Botanical Certificate. 

The Duke of Sutherland, Trentham (gr. Mr. Bl 
Silver Banksian Medal for Odontoglossum crispum " Duke ..j Sutherland." 
one of the finest ever exhibited, both for tin- excelleiu . 

formed white flowers, and also for the noble size of the plant. It was one 
of the earliest importations, made something like twenty-five yew 
its splendid culture reflects great credit on Mr. Blair, who ha- bad il and) i 
his care for a very long time. 

W. S. Ellis, Esq., Hazelbourne. Dorking (gr. Mr. Marterton), thawed a 
small group, containing a good specimen of Cattley.i V. 
flowered Lycaste Deppei ; and several fine plants of Odoatogkenni 
crispum. O. crispum virginale was a pure white form with chrome yelkm 
and orange disc to the lip; and O. c guttatum. a tery prettily (potted 
variety. The group received a Vote of Thanks. 

Walter C. Walker, Esq., Percy Lodge. Winctunore Hill igr. Mi. 
Cragg), showed Stanhopea YYardii. Cattleya Warscewicrii var. ( laud... 
very richly coloured; and another very large light-coloured variety | with 
cut spikes of Dendrobium suavissimum, Cattleya intermedia. C. granulosa, 
and the yellow-petalled C. g. Dubuyssonii. A Vote of Thanks was 
accorded to the group. 

W. G. Soper, Esq., Harestone, Caterham Valley, showed a plant of 
Gongora maculata, to which a Botanical Certificate was awarded. 

Mr. N. Blandford, Bitterne, Southampton, showed a good Cattleya 
Warscewiczii. . 

H. Grinling, Esq., Harrow Weald House. Stanmore Igr. Mr. Rapleyl, 
sent Cattleva Warscewiczii imperialis and Dendrobium Parish,.. 

W. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange, Stone, Staffordshire igr. Mr. W. 
Stevens), sent Uelia tenebrosa gigantea, with unusually large ,1 
rich in colour: and Odontoglossum X Coradinei expansum. also very fine. 

. J. Thompson, Esq., Ghyl 

St. Helens, sent a fine inflorescence 

of Renanthera Storiei, with several branches, from a plant he 
received from the Philippines. 

j. B. Walmsley, Esq., of Liverpool, sen. a cut spike of Aendes 
radicosum album, a very pretty white form of the species. 

Sir Frederick Wigan, Clare Lawn, East Sheen (gr. Mr. \onng). 
showed Miltonia vexillaria Chelsoniensis, a pretty variety wth purple rays 
resembling M. v. radiatum. r . , = rm .j ve d 

Messrs. James Veitch and Son, Royal Exotic Nursery, Chelsea receded 
a Silver Flora Medal for a magnificent group of rare Orchids, which were 
very effectively arranged. It included Lxlio-Cattleya X Canham.ana alba, 


a noble flower with clear white sepals and petals, and large violet-purple 
lip ; L.-c. X Eudora (L. X purpurata J X C. Mendelii 3 ), which must 
be considered a variety of L.-c. X Aphrodite, from the collection of 
W. R. Lee, Esq., which secured the first prize for the best hybrid Orchid 
at Manchester last year. (See p. 219 of our last volume.) If the records 
are correct the present one arose from the reverse cross. L.-c. X Eudora 
received an Award of Merit on May 5th last, when exhibited byC. Ingram, 
Esq., and on June gth another seedling with the same parentage was 
exhibited as L.-c. X Regalis, but both must be referred to L.-c. X 
Aphrodite. The group also contained the handsome L.-c. X eximia, L.-c. 
X Hippolyta, of rich Indian yellow colour, with ruby lip, the rare and 
pretty rosy lilac Cattleya Schrcederiana Rchb. f. ; fine panfuls of Disa X 
langleyensis and D. X kewensis, Selenipedium X Brysa, Cypripedium 
Curtisii, C. ciliolare, C. niveum, C. Volonteanum, Cattleya citrina, Odonto- 
glossum Harryanum and other Odontoglossums, Phalamopsis amabilis, and 
other good things. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, had an interesting group, the 
most remarkable plant in which was Cypripedium X Neptune (C. X Io 
grande s x C. Rothschildianum 3 ), a very bold-looking hybrid of the C. 
X Massaianum group, with large pale green flower, the petals of which 
were extended like those of C. Rothschildianum, and finely blotched with 
purple. It secured an Award of Merit. Other good things in the group 
were Selenipedium x Uranus (S. Lindleyanum 1 X S. X grande i I, 
somewhat resembling S. Sargentianum ; Angracum Chailluanum, Cirrho- picturatum, Phaius Humblotii, P. X Owenianus, Sobralia X 
Veitchn, S. x Amesiaj, and S. xantholeuca, some very good Cattleyas, 
Lalia tenebrosa, Odontoglossum Harryanum and other Odontoglossums. 
Oncdium triquetrum, Thunia X Veitchii inversa, &c. A Vote of Thanks 
was accorded to the group. 

Messrs Hugh Low and Co. staged several fine varieties of Cattleya 
Mossue, of which c. M> beHa was a yery d . st . nct form> w . th a , mo5t wholly 
nch cnmson-purple lip; also Dendrobium chlopterum, a New Guinea, with greenish flowers with a few purple lines. The plant belongs 
to the group containing D. macrophyllum and D. atroviolaceum, though 
not equal to them in beauty. 


™,lo. A good form of Cattleya Warsaw,™, but fairly typical. This species «*« 
'ess than many others. 

G -W. Orcidium crispum. 

J; C- O nddium cheirophorum should be suspended Mar (he gUss in the cool he* 

W_ - -'X 


The Output (**Ur lifer i»,h ln ,pM,) ant Ik, B„l (m T„H,m.i.U). .S.-W-. fi* /"'• '-'*' "•"/' 
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Orchids I Orchids I 




The Company are constantly receiving Importations of Orchids from various parts 
the world, all of which they Offer for Sale by Private Treaty as they come to hand, 
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Descriptive and Priced Catalogues of their Stock of Established Orchids, as well as of 
■h importation as it comes to hand, will be sent Post pice on application to the Company. 



O R C H i r> 

A Choice Collection. true to Nai 


IBiirbaqe Wuteetlea, 


ieconls of 2000 Hybrids cla,ifie,I. 257PP- S °H* 

nents Annually. Mailed, registered, upon ie«I» 

of IM., by 

GEO. HANSEN, Jackson, California^ 

O K C H I O S J 

l/S.^Rare'Uarjt, b v ll,e lt ' 
plant sent on approbation. Catalogue, |»«t 




rpHOUSANDSotrelial.Ieh,atLli^^ l ! ^ 1 ^" iM ' t,et 

"""'"p. Mc ARTHUR, 







Season's Orchids Baskets try. 
The Best and Cheapest ymi un buy 
Try them once, you'll bay again, 
Don't forget Seasell's the 






Charlesworth & Co, 

Ifeaton, BPFOP, 

Have a la*ge and fine stock of established 
and imported Orchids, 



Orchids ! 
Orchids ! 
Orchids f 

Established and Imported. 




Upper Clapton, 



Please write for List. 




T H !LsgSJP- - SSfL £J2r!5 


Post office, box no. 2< 
port of spain, 

thin7dad, b.w.] 

J. WEEKS & CO., 

horticultural Builoers 

Telegbapm. "HORTULANUS." London. 

Patentees of the Duplex Upright Tabular Boilers. 

JOP DAVIDSON, Tl\e Limes, Sonttigate, ». 




O re It i ff Ho uses. 

Cucumber and 

Melon Houses, 
Vineries, etc. 


4 c H i s P I N'S, 


AUGUST, 1896. 


an 3lliifltrate6 Monthly Journal, 


An Amateur's Notes 


Hies- Orchidia™ 

Botanical Orchids at Kew 

Calendar of Operations for August 

■ 249 

fertilisation of Cattleya 

Catasetum. fertilisation of 

Cattleya, fertilisation of 

... 246 

Cypripedium X Harrisander 

Ctmlcya -ranulusa lianneri 

... 244 

Masdevalli.i X Ajax 

Cattleva x Hardyana and its varit 
(Fig- >3) 

Odontoglossum X excellens luteoll 

Cattleva, the largest 

Orchid at home... 

Correspondence, &c 


Orchid Portraits 

Cycnoches maculatura 

Orchids at the Royal Horticul 

Cypripediura bellatulum 



■ Petri and var Burlm 

Iirei 24; 

Renanthera Ir.ischootiana 

Cypripedium philippinense abnornia 

'.. 22; 

■ longifolia 

Cypripedium sport in the Law Court 

s ... 239 

re they permanent? 


\_The right of reprodu. 




The Editor im 
All Subscriptior 


s lor binding either volume it 1,6 each. 



mBgwork contain! da notions ,.r" ; ,ll ,i,, ,„„.., ],„,„,„„„ „ |lt( . i( ., ,„,, v , lric ,io in cultivation, iheir Ori? 

j£?t tV~ °r? i °n^ 0GLObSUM - »<». Vs. fid. i by post, 78. 9d. 

Part m S EU aDd L ^IA. Price, 10s 6d. ; by post, 10s. 94 

Part ^^S? T ROBIUM ' Price . M**- 6d ; by post, 10s. 9d. 

pSt vlZJ^iZ EmUW - PrlM 10a - 6d - i by Post, 10s. 9d. 9i 

Pa t vi"^r ^J ALIjIA aI,d allled *<"">'»■ Pr ' ce . 78 ' 6d ' ; by P ° , W» 

Pa"rt m °™LOGYNE, EPIDENUEUM, &c. Price, 10s. fid. ; by post,!* 

Part Vn—PHALiBNOPSIS, AERIDES. VANDA, &c. Price, lOn- <»• 

Part ^r^™™^ MILTONIA. Price, 10s. 6d. ; by post, 1»^ ; 
Part EX.. OYMBmiUM ZTGOPETALUM, LYCASTB, *o. Prlce ' ** 
Part X -QENEEAL a fflTOw of the ORCHIDE2E. Price, Ws O 4 " " 

* Iht^.^^/^JI ^'""'" """ Y '*"""' ".' ' '"'"/-^ '-. 
«8n»y «**,«,, ,W»taJ by special",, 

JAMES VE1TCH & SONS, IRe^l Erotic "Hut** 



Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Societj will be held a) the Drill 

Hall, James Street, Westminster, during August, on the mil and 25th 
respectively, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour of 

twelve o'clock, noon. 

Cattleya Warscewiczii seems to be flowering very well this season, 

probably because of the fine bright weather, which seems to suit it. as wel 
as others which flower on the completion of the young growth. Three 
very fine forms have been sent from the collection of H. H. Bolton, Esq., 
N'ewchurch, Manchester, one of which has the petals irregularly mottled 
and streaked with rose-purple on a light ground, corresponding to the 
variety variegata described at page 278 of our last volume. A second has 
the two eyes confluent into a single one in the throat, which becomes 
nearly white in front, the usual lines down the centre being absent, and 
these peculiarities give the flower a very distinct appearance. The other is 

Two other fine forms Come from tile collection of W. S. MMillan. 
Esq., of Maghull, near Liverpool, one being a very large light form with the 
front lobe mottled and irregularly margined with lilac, and the other typical, 
except that the eyes are nearly white. 

A fine form of C. X Hardyana also comes from the same collection, in 
which the lip is deep velvety crimson, though with only a trace of the 
golden veining of C. Dowiana aurea, and the eyes as in C. Warscewiczii. 
The sepals and petals are bright rose. 

Good flowers of Cattleya Rex also come from the same collection, and 
from that of H. H. Bolton, Esq. Both are fairly typical. It is certainly 
a very handsome Cattleya, though one of the smallest of the lab.ata 


Two different forms of C\ piipediuni (KHlefroy;e leucoclulum have been 
sent from the collection of 0. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury, one 
having the sepals and petals very heavily marked. 

A very fine inflorescence of Odontoglossum citrosmnm roseum has been 
sent from the collection of H. H. Bolton, Esq., Newchurch, Manchester. 
It differs from the type in having the flowers suffused throughout with light 
rose-pink, and is very handsome. 

A handsome form of Oncidium macranthum comes from the collection 
of E. H. Woodall, Esq., of Scarborough, in which the sepals are much 
deeper in colour than usual, being, in fact, quite deep brown, and affording 
a strong contrast with the yellow petals. 

The plant of Cypripedium X Cowleyanum " Annie Louise," which 
received a First-class Certificate at the Manchester Show, was exhibited 
by G. W. Law-Schofield, Esq., Rawtenstall, Manchester, not by Messrs. 
Charlesworth & Co., as stated in our report at p. 220. 

A plant ol Cattleya Warscewiczii has flowered in the collection of 
Reginald Young, Esq., Sefton Park, Liverpool, in which the sheath was 
developed as an ordinary leaf, and thus had the appearance of a diphyllous 
Cattleya with the sheath absent. An example of both C. labiata and 
C. Gaskelliana with a diphyllous pseudobulb has also occurred in the same 

It is interesting to record that Mr. H. T. Clinkaberry has succeeded in 
raising some seedling Vandas in the collection of the Hon. C. G. Roebling, 
of Trenton, New Jersey. This cross is between V. tricolor and V. 
Sanderiana, the former being the seed parent. Their flowering will ° e 
awaited with interest. 

A series of three photographs of Phalajnopsis Schilleriana has been 
sent from the collection of Mrs. Martin. Auchendennan, Alexandra. 
Dumbartonshire, by Mr. W. McHutcheon, the gardener. The eronp 
contains twelve plants, and when at their best had 472 blooms expand 
at once, the best bearing 72. The six largest plants wet. si nt » 
Mrs. Martin from Manilla, by a friend, in 1873, and thus have been ■» 
cultivation for a long period. They are grown in ordinary 10-inch pots, 
and have from five to eight leaves, the largest being M inches long W 
5 inches broad. One of the spikes is bearing a vigorous young plant «* 
three good leaves below the flowers, and altogether the photographs afford 
evidence of excellent culture. 

A curious example of Oncidiiini Lanceanuni with tun Howell fated 
together has been sent from the collection of R. N. Hooper, Esq., 
Stanshawes Court, Chipping Sodbury. The peculiarity is 
seen in various Orchids. 

An inflorescence of Odontoglossum X Coradinei expaiisum has been 
sent from tile collection of \Y. Thompson. Ksi].. Walton Grange. Stone, 
ll is a very line form, in winch all the segments are unnsualrj 
large mill handsome form of 0. X Wilckcanuin with white ground, and 
much toothed petals with a large rod-hrou n blotch neai the apex, is also 

A photograph of a vcrv curious liongor.i ha- i m . 11 -cut by Ml. 
T. I. Patter, Fort of Spain. Trinidad, showing one pseudobulb 
growing from the top of another, and the upper one Wearing a terminal 
raceme instead of the usual lateral one. The species i- -oil to be 
G. maculata, and to have flowered in the collection of a gentleman m the 
sugar industry. 

A spike of four curiously abnormal flowers of Cypripedium philippinense 
has appeared in the collection of James Davidson, Esq., of Dumfries. In 
three flowers the lip is entirely wanting, and in the fourth only one side 
of the same organ is present, attached at one side of the column, and 
evidently consists of the petaloid staminode A i. A second flower has one 
petal entirely adnate to the dorsal sepal, while the other is normal, but a 
third has both petals similarly adnate, forming curious undulate margins to 
the said sepal, because the union presents them elongating, as they do when 
free. In the other flower the lip only is missing, and in every case the 
column is normal. The plant his a second raceme in a similar abnormal 
state. It is a curious example, and it will be interesting to note if the 
flowers maintain their abnormal characters on a future occasion. The 

flower in which the petaloid stamen A 2 is present is very ms 
is curved much in the same way as the side lobe of the lip, which it really 
represents. An example was recorded at page 362 of the last volume, 
where a flower of C. insigne had' the lip reduced to the two united side 
lobes, the front lobe or median petal being absent. Cypripediums seem 
unusually subject to deformities in the flowers. 



Cypripedium x Harrisander. 
A very pretty Cypripedium was exhibited at the Royal Horticultural 
Society's meeting on July 28th, from the collection of W. C. Clarke, Esq., 
Sefton Park, Liverpool, under the above name, which is said to have been 
raised by Mr. Ashton, of the firm of W. L. Lewis & Co., from C. 
Harrisianum superbum ? and C. Sanderianum 3 , and well combines the 
characters of the two parents. The leaves are marbled much as in the 
seed parent, and the scape bears three flowers, most like C. Sanderianum 
in shape, but the curved petals broader and about five inches long, and the 
colour much modified by the influence of the other parent. The dorsal 
sepal is lined with purple-brown on a greenish ground: the petals 
spotted with similar colours; the lip bright vinous purple; and the 
staminode concave, bilobed, and hairy at the sides. 
Masdevallm X A|AX. 
This is a very pretty hybrid, raised in the establishment of Messrs. 
James Veitch & Sons, from Masdevallia X Chelsoni ? and M. peristeria S , 
to which an Award of Merit was given at the Royal Horticultural Society's 
meeting on July 28th. The plant most resembles M. peristeria in shape, 
but the scapes are longer, and the flower is fairly intermediate in character. 
The perianth is very densely spotted with reddish brown on a bright 
yellowish ground, and the numerous short hairs present show some of that 
violet iridescence seen in M. X Chelsoni, and which were derived from 
M. Veitchiana in the first place. The tails are very dark, and the lateral 
ones cross each other. Thus the general effect is that of M. X Chelsoni, 
modified in shape and darker in colour, on account of the innumerable 
little dots derived from M. peristeria. It is a very interesting addition to 
the group. 


It is interesting to record that this fine species has again appeared in 
cultivation, having been imported by Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., this season, 
as a unique specimen from Venezuela, and flowered in their establishment. 
It has now passed into the collection of the Hon. Walter Rothschild, at 
Tnng Park. The species was originally described bv Dr. Lindley in 1840 
Cfi<* Reg., xxvi., Misc., p. ro) from a planf which flowered in the collection 
ot Mr. Barker, of Birmingham, in November, 1839. Its habitat was not 
then recorded. Immediately afterwards a figure was published ... M'"""'' s 
dotanist (I\„ ,. I56)| from a plan( wh . ch flowered m , he co Hection of 
John Wilmore, Esq., of Oldford, Staffordshire, a month later. This plant 


is said to have been sent from La Guayra, with Cattleya Mossia- ami 
numerous other species, in tin- April previous, by Mr. Charles McKenzie. a 
collector for Messrs. Low, of Clapton Nursery. It is rather curious that 
the same firm should now re-introduce it after an interval of fifty-seven 
years. In February. 1840, a tine figure appeared in /.fi.-.f 
Orckidaceum it. 3j), where it is said to be a Mexican plant, though a note 
records that it has also been found in La Guayra by one of ti 
employed by Messrs. Low cv Co.. of Clapton. I'hc Mexican habitat, 
however, is evidently erroneous, and it is highly probable both plants 
came from the same source. The plant bears a pendulous raceme about 
l£ feet long, with from two to three dozen large flowers, the sepals and 
petals being pale green with many light brown spots. I.indhy n 
" Surely it is one of the most curious productions of nature in her wildest 
mood. Did any one ever see such a flower before? Which is the top. 
which is the bottom J What are we to call that long club foot r which is 
cloven too : and what the crooked fingers daggled with blood, which spread 
from the middle of one of the leaves, as if about to clutch at something? 
And what, moreover, cm they all be for ? " But this was nearly sixty years 
ago, and these points have all been cleared up since. It is well known 
that this sportive genus was a standing puzzle to Lindley and others. 
Wagener also collected it near Caracas at 4,500 feet elevation (Boiftamiia, 
II., p. 19), and one of the plants flowered at Berlin. Messrs. Backhouse, 
of York, also flowered a single plant in 1888. The female flowers are still 
unknown. There yet remains the handsome C. aureum, a native of 
Chiriqui, and probably the handsomest species in the genus, to be 
re-introduced, though now the culture of these plants is better understood 
it would be worth while for someone to make an effort to secure .t. 
Plenty of light and heat when growing, and then a good rest in a 
comparatively dry state seems to ensure their success. 


to record tha 

Sander & Co. have obtained 

some plants of °the above handsome Orchid, whose history was given at 
p. 20 S of the last volume of this work. These imported plants confirm 
what was previously recorded-namely. that it flowers as a dwarf plan,, like 
a Vanda, but they also show that the inflorescence is sometimes branched. 
A plant recently described as R. Papilio (King and Pram in Jour,, Asm,. 
Soc. Bengal, Ixiv., 1896, p. 3^) « synonymous. It is a uahveof Assam, 
and some years ago dried flowers and a living plant were sent by Lieut. E. 


J. Lugard to the Calcutta Botanic Garden, hut in the uncongenial climate 
the latter soon died. Lieut. J. B. Chatterton afterwards sent some plants, 
which were immediately transferred to the more congenial climate of the 
Sikkim Cinchona Plantations, where the)' flowered. These facts should be 
borne in mind by those who secure plants. Two plants only were pre- 
viously known, the original one in the collection of M. A. Van Imschoot, 
and another in that of E. H. Woodall, Esq., which received an Award of 
Merit last year. The flowers have been compared to a brilliantly-coloured 
butterfly with expanded wings. It appears to be very floriferous, and 
owing to its dwarf habit and brilliant crimson-scarlet flowers, ought to be- 
come popular. The great drawback to the extended culture of the species 
of this handsome genus has been their tall climbing habit, and the fact that 
they seldom flower before reaching a considerable size, but these peculiar- 
ities are not found in the present species. A Renanthera with the habit of 
Vanda ccerulea should be an acquisition. 

R. A. R. 

A handsome Orchid, which grows on Mount Pena Blanca, in Nicaragua. 
is described in the following note from Belt's Naturalist in Sicaragm 
(p. 142), though what it is we cannot imagine, and it would be very 
interesting to find out its name. We do not know anything like it in 

" The rock, on the southern and most perpendicular side, weathers to a 
whitish colour, and is called Pena Blanca, meaning the white peak. It 1S 
visible from some points on the savannahs. During the summer months it 
is, on the northern side, covered with a caulescent Orchid (Ornitho- 
rhynchos) that has not been found anywhere else in the neighbourhood; 
and the natives, who are very fond of flowers, inheriting the taste from 
their Indian ancestors, at this time, often, on Sundays, go up to it and bring 
down large quantities of the blossom. Its colour, when it first opens, is 
scarlet and yellow. Among it grows a crimson Macleania. Once when I 
made an ascent, in March, these flowers were in perfection, and in great 
abundance, and the northern face of the rock was completely covered «ith 
them. When I emerged from the gloomv forest, the sun was shininS 
brightly on it, and the combination ,,f scarlet, crimson, and yell"*' 
made a perfect blaze of colour, approaching mot,, nearly to the 
appearance of flames and fire than anything else 1 have seen in the floral 


A question which has been raised on more than one occasion lias again 
been asked by a correspondent, namely, whether varieties of Orchids, and 
particularly albinos, are permanent — coming true 3 

whether they revert back again to ordinary forms. In the great majority of 
eases we believe that varieties eau he relied upon to keep true under all cir- 
cumstances, us many tine ones keep perfectly constant from yeai to year, 
and we should be almost as much surprised to tied that the contrary were 
tin ease as we should to hud thai our species changed into another. Who 
ever heard of the brilliant Odontoglossum Posoator, 1 Vcitchiannm reverting 
to an ordinary form ? And the same remark applies to typnpediuni Law- 
renccanitm llycanum. ('. callosum Sandora-. (*. bellatulum allium, anil 
hundreds of others. Their peculiarities are fixed, and no variations of 
treatment have any effect on them. They may lie reduced in Hie by 
starving them, lint not changed into something else, ami good culture 
always again restores them to their normal size. It is true that on one 
occasion a flower of Cvpripedium Stonei platytsenium produced a single 
petal of ordinary t'. Stonei. but there is good reason for believing this 
remarkable form to be a sport, or an abnormal condition of the species 
whose peculiarity has become fixed. Hut whatever subtle influence it was 
which caused the reversion of one petal to the normal condition, it had no 
effect on the remaining ones, and the peculiarity was not repeated at the 
next time of flowering. True albinos of Cattleyas are perfectly constant 
from year to year, though we believe that some very pale forms vary a little 
under certain conditions, sometimes being nearly white, and at others 
decidedlv tinted. And there are some which open nearly white, but become 
tinted as they get older. But even these are practically constant in their 
character, though of course they are not albinos. 

In many eases albinism, or the absence of some particular colouring 
matter, extends throughout the plant, though it may not beata ] 
to the eye. In the case of Cvpripedium bell.tulum album, C. venustum 
Measuresianum. Phahenopsis Schilleriana vestalis. and various others, the 
absence of the dark or purplish colouring matter from the leaves affords a 
sure index to what the flowers will be when they expand, though in other 
cases the leaves may not show this peculiarity. 

In certain Odontoglossums it has been observed that the size, number, 
and arrangement of the spots vary somewhat from year to year, which is 
probably due to variations in the health and vigour of the plant, and perhaps 
also to variations in the amount of heat and light. But similar variations 
may sometimes be seen between different flowers on the same inflorescence, 
and in anv case the variations are only fluctuations from a certain mean. 


There is probably no authentic case of a dark, heavily spotted variety 
reverting to the normal form one year, to a pale or unspotted one the next, 
and then back again. Such erratic variations are practically, if not alto- 
gether, unknown. 

There is one class of so-called " varieties " which cannot be described 
as constant, namely, those due to culture alone, and probably these, more 
than anything else, have given rise to the idea that varieties are not always 
constant. But the fact is, these are not varieties at all in the true sense of 
the word, but only exceptional developments of some ordinary form, owing 
to some exceptional circumstances. A plant may have become exception- 
ally strong through good culture, or possibly through being in some par- 
ticular position in the house, or not having flowered the previous year, 
hence the flowers may be of exceptional size, or the colour more highly 
developed than in others perhaps grown in the same house. Such a plant may 
be labelled as a distinct variety, but the following year the peculiar conditions 
may not be repeated, or may be even reversed, and in such cases it is quite 
possible to jump at the conclusion that varieties are not permanent, instead Plants that are only potted about 
once in three years sometimes experience a check the first year, but do 
extremely well the second, after which there may be a little falling away 
the third year owing to the compost becoming exhausted. Of course there 
are many varieties of exceptional size or colour, which are not in any way due 
to culture, and these are varieties in the true sense of the word, and subject 
to fluctuations under good or bad treatment, but yet retaining their own 
essential character. 

An accidental change of labels may also give rise to an idea that 
varieties are not always permanent, but such cases, of course, cannot be 
taken into consideration. 

We could enumerate many cases of varieties which are absolutely con- 
stant in all their essential characters from year to year, and a few where 
small changes have occurred in the size and number of the spots, or even a 
little in depth of colouring, and we should be glad if others would send us 
their experience on the subject, as it is a question of some importance to 
purchasers of Orchids. Of course, the occasional occurrence of abnormal 
flowers, or of change of sex in the genera Catasetum and Cycnoches, some- 
times mis-called " sporting," cannot be held to affect the question in any 
way. True sporting, or the sudden production of a distinct varietj * 
some well-known plant, of course, is not excluded, though examples among 
Orchids are exceedingly rare, and we can only call to mind the remarkable 
case of Cypnpediun, X Dauthieri, winch has already been recorded i» 
our pages. Another very ,,„, . ,, v . iris en which is 

recorded on another page 


I was much amused with the article on Orchids by a newspaper corre- 
spondent, reproduced in the last number of the Review (p. 
remarkable story of tin* " village of the demon (lowers " is sun 1\ 
the one about the Eulophiella, and it would be rather interesting to know 
how it originated. I picture to myself poor Forsterman and In 
making the circuit of that acre of forest win-rein trees, undergrowth, ami 
everything were loaded down with Orchids, "f hues mon brillianl than 
anything ever seen or dreamed of before : bow ihr\ fasted their eyes upon 
the flowers through their field glasses, at the respectful di-lan. e ol a bundled 
yards, their noses muffled up the while, being totalb unable to reach the 
plants, which would have made their fortunes, on of tin sickening 
odour. How bitter must have been their disappointment no wonder thej 
almost cried— as they slowly retraced their steps. This was worse than 
the dreadful " Protocryptoferox Madagaseariensis " and the truculent 
brother-in-law, for even their combined efforts could not protect the 
Eulophiella, and they certainly tried very bard, as everyom who lead the 
story must have been convinced. 

But I am a little concerned about that second expedition, for it appears 
that " on returning to London. Forsterman told this wondrous tale to some 
of the rich Orchid collectors, and an expedition was organised to go in 
search of it '-that is, the Orchid, not the tale. - The expedition found 
the exact spot, but they gave up in despair of ever being able to more- than 
feast their eves upon the flowers through their field glasses. And there, 
somewhere in the depths of the vast tropic forest, they remain to tin- day. 
I suppose " they"— the members of the expedition, please note -are waiting 
until that Orchid goes out of flower, in winch case I fear its ,1- - 
But then, that sagacious plant may have heard of Orchid collectors b, for, . 
and, knowing its weak point, may go on flowering all the year round. I 
rather hope this will prove to be the case, for such a plant would add a new 
terror to the Orchid house. Fancy such a plant, and always in Bower. 
wonder our collectors should have taken any trouble about ,t. But then, 
Orchid collectors are not ordinarv mortals, according to our newspaper 
correspondent. A waggish friend suggests that it must be the blue 
Cattleya," but if so. the writer forgot to mention the fact, for he states that 
"the r'arest of all the varieties of Orchids are the blue on, 
the list is short indeed, even when those which ems 
Orchid hunters are taken into account." I am no 
what connection there is between the two. 

the tales of 


Two or three communications have now reached me respecting tli, 
" blue Cattleya," one of which points out that the plant was sold entirely 
on the strength of the collector's statement, which was circumstantial, and 
apparently convincing. This. I third;, is quite likely, though it affords little 
satisfaction to those who purchased the plant and found it did net answer 
to the description. Vendors of Orchids must see to it that they are not 
themselves taken in by improbable stories. It would be interesting if tli«- 
entire history of the transaction were recorded. It may be worth while tu 
reproduce the following extracts from an article which appeared in the 
Pall Mall GautU for February Nth last, the .lay after the sale : - 

"A BLUE CATTLEYA \l Protheroe's. Sensations are not rare at 
67, Cheapside, though tin- public does not commonly hear of them. When 
a dozen of the richest men alive contend for an object, everybody likes to 
know the result : but tie- announcement of a new flower with an incredible 
name does not perceptibly agitate the City. Almost every one knows 
enough of Orchids to understand that a blue Cattleya comes as near the 
miraculous as can be expected in these days, like the new photography, 
and that was the sensation promised yesterday afternoon. Blue Orchids 
are very scarce. . . . but there is a small proportion among ground 
species. . . . Therefore the report of a blue epiphytal species hitherto 
unknown rouses more interest in the small class which troubles about such 
things than any other incident of its sort. It is, indeed, about the rarest of 
events, and in the only instance which we recall without book, the sale was 
stopped abruptly amid laughter and jeers. A foreign personage who should 
have known our market better offered a "blue Orchid " a few years ago 
which English gardeners recognised as a species familiar from their 
childhood, never before described as "blue." Hut a blue Cattleya 1«* 
been rumoured for some years past in the innermost circle of adepts. The 
Ollyauthoritj I ■ it, is far as we have heard, is certain Scotch miners who 
were sent oot top, -, * in one of the wildest districts of South America. 
Their report is unanimous and categorical. Cattleyas of divers sorts 
became as familiar to them, during several years' wandering, as roses 
home, and if they tell a falsehood it must be a wilful one. But it does not 
follow by any means that the plant offered by Messrs. McArthur is that the 
Scotch miners describe. In fact, two thousand miles separate the local"! 
which they indicate from the Guarico mountains of Venezuela whence this 
Cattleya has been brought. 

" The little crowd at Protheroe's should be described, perhaps, as eager 
"d inquisitive rather than enthusiastic. Every one wanted to know what 
scovery announced. The g»*< 
wrence, Lord Rothschild- > lr - 

Chamberlain, Mr. Measures, and Messrs. Sander, Hull, Low. &c, wen all 
represented. But we noticed only the Hun. Waltci Rothschild, Major 
Mason, and the great Belgian amateur. M. Madoux, of the former class, in 

personal attendance. Mr. Protheroe made no speech in opeiiiue, the sale, 
as was expected. He handed a dried specimen of the- flower from lus 
rostrum; it was in appearance a hue example of the onlin 
Mossiie without a trace of blue, but this needs no explanation. It «.o 
stated in the catalogue that the flower keeps its 'celestial blue ' only five 
days, 'afterwards changing to a light rose colour (that ol . 
rose I and lasting three weeks in perfection.' Mr. I'rotheroc went 
an assurance of I, mm fi<l<s from the collector : ' I guarantee conscientiously. 
on my word of honour, that these plants have nevei been seen by any 
European Orchid collector.' And then, without more words, this 
quintessence of tloral beautv was put up— that is. a hundred handles of dr\ 
sticks, some with leaves still attached, which, as the sanguine do not doubt, 
will bear a bloom of heavenly hue and giant size before the year is over. 
Hut the sanguine did not predominate, or they had not enough money. 
Ten guineas was the highest price paid— two guineas or 50 th 
prodigious sums, as the inexperienced might think, for a bundle of dry 
sticks and a leaf or two, but far indeed below the value which one would 
have assigned to the merest fragment of a blue Cattleya." 

Now I think that after this anyone who expected to get a blue Cattleya 
must have been very credulous. A dried flower like ordinary Cattleya 
Mossiie, without a trace of blue, was handed round, the collector reported 
that after five days it changed to light rose, and he goarantei 
tiouslyon his word of honour that these plants had "never 1 
any European Orchid collector." I should think that both nurserymen 
and amateurs will tight shy of " blue Cattleyas " in future, until they see 
them in flower, even if backed up by the unanimous and categorical repott- 
Of prospecting Scotch miners. The name sounds too much hke that ol 
the " scarlet Phalienopsis," and the Cymbidium of that ilk. 

KAVUtG a plant of a terrestrial species of Catasetum recently «>*>*"■ "' 
»hich the inflorescence consisted of three large lipped flowers, held aloft on 
1 Wrong scape eighteen inches long, I was interested in watching the cour-e 
* Procedure followed by the two or three speciesof bees which constantly day 
,ft « day visited it, one or more of them being almost permanently present 


in the flowers all day long. These bees, Mr. Ouelch kindly informs me. 
belong to the genus Euglossa. a genus allied to Bombus, which comprises 
only the common humble bees, and the members of the two genera are 
about the same size— that is, from three-quarters to one and a quarter inches 
long. The members of Euglossa an- distinguished by the long proboscis 
they possess, which exceeds the length of the body, when stretched its Ml 
length. When not employed it is kept folded near the mouth. The smaller 
species of the two I captured had two bars of yellow or gold on the base of 
the body, and the larger three. In most of the Catasetums the female 
flowers are inverted, the lip, which is in the shape of a hood, being ata 
the other parts, with the column, to which it is attached, underneath n 
Each of these two species of Euglossa which visited the flowers adopted a 
different course in entering the cavity of the lip in their search for nectar. 
The smaller species alighted invariably on the column, and walked down its 
face into the lip, anil took up the nectar, retreating, when finished, by 
walking backward on the face of the column again. While inside the flower, 
however, it kept on. without cessation, brushing by repeated contraction 
the top of the column with the end of its body. By this process, if a «* 
flower were approached and treated in lb.' same way these female flown 
were treated, the pollinia would be detached and would adhere to the bees 
body, and when the female flower in turn was visited it would be fen** 
by the stigma, which is near the end of the column, bring brushed by * 
column, by the contractions of body I have d 

The larger species, however, invariably adopted a different course, 
alighted on the summit of the lip, and walked in back downwards, «s» 
house-fly walks on a ceiling, and in doing so its back invariably touched \» 
top of the column. Entering a flower in this way the pollinia won 
liberated by the pressure, and would stick to the back of the inse< * 
when a female flower was entered it would rub against the stigm iti » 
thus effecting fertilisation of the flower. These deductions I derived 
watching the bees at the flowers, and subsequently the accuracy ° ^ 
second one was confirmed by mv seeing a bee at work extracting the n« 
from the flowers, with the pollinia from a male flower firmly attache Vj; 
the sticky disc to its back between the shoulders. Where it got thepo i^ 
from I do not know, as when I first saw it the pair were attached to | 
very conspicuous. I captured it with the pollinia on, and it is """'"' .■ 

British Guiana Museum. I have since seen i the. of the same sped 

bee flying about with a pair of pollinia attached between its *' 
exactly in the same manner. (,. S. Jenman in Demerara " Argosf. > 


Cattle-: ya Warscewiczii, now flowering well in numerous collections, is 
probablv the largest-flowered species known, and we do not know that the 
following dimensions, recorded in the Gimicmrs Chnmicle (1NS5. xxiii.. 
p. 758) have been exceeded. A flower was shown at the Whit-week 
exhibition at Old Trafford, in 1885, which \ 
Orchid growers, every one expressing astouishnioiit 
It was just worth observing the look of surprise thai came over minj a 
countenance as the rule was placed on every part, eclipsing everything that 
had hitherto been seen or even anticipated. The diameter of the bloom 
was 11 inches, each petal covering 5! inches, these in theii widest pari 
being just 3 inches across. The sepals were, perhaps, rather narrow, but 
in length were equal to the petals. The broad flattened lip extended 
well below the throat to 2J inches, while across tins part of the l.tbelhini ; 
inches were measured. The colours of the blooms were of the best and 
richest hue, and every division of the bloom was perfect. It flowered in 
the collection of the late G. Hardy. Esq., of Timperley, Cheshire. 

I send you a photograph, taken by my daughter Constance, which gives a 
very good idea of the luxuriant health of seven plants of Cypripedinm 
bellatulum that have been growing in my collection for upwards of three 
years. I purchased all of them as imported pieces, and have thoroughly 
established and flowered them, as the photograph will show. These plants 
as are all the Cypripedes of this section in my collect.on, are growing with 
little else but limestone pieces in their pots, with the smallest quantity of 
fibrous loam to keep the stones firmly wedged at the surface of the pots My 
experience of a good few years has proved that the roots of < 
this section delight in running along, and clinging to, limestone, which 
represents as nearly as possible the native rocks on which they are found 
growing. The more loam that is used, the worse the plants grow, and the 
more subject they are to lose their roots, and ultimately damp off. The 
greatest care has been taken in watering, in order to prevent water lodging 
in the axils of the leaves, or in the centres of the young growth. In potting 
these Cypripedes great care should be taken to keep the rhizomes below the 
rim of the pot, for those plants which are elevated never grow as we 1 as 
those planted below the rim. I have close on 140 plants in my couecuo . 
and they are all, more or less, in a satisfactory condition. ^^ ^ 

Bridge Hall, Bury. 


With the advent of the hottest season of the year a great falling off in the 
number of showy Orchids in bloom may be observed, though there is always 
something of interest to record. The handsome Cattleya Warscevviczii is 
now flowering splendidly, and is doing unusually well this season, for some 
cause. When at its best it puts every ..111 :r C ittleya into the shade, and 
a truss of six such massive flowers would seem almost too much for the 
pseodobulb to carry. Cattleya Rex is also flowering well, and is a charm- 
ing thing, as its brilliantly-coloured lip affords a striking contrast with the 
cream-coloured or light buff sepals and petals. The flowers, however, arc 
a little small, and a cross with C. Dowiana, if it could be effected, would 
probably yield something interesting, owing to the good constitution of the 
former, in which C. Dowiana is somewhat defective. C. Gaskelliana and 
C. Eldorado are also making a good show. Ladio-cattleya X Schilleriana. 
too, is just now flowering well, and is a little in advance of L.-c. X elegans, 
which wall soon be out. Epidendrum nemorale, E. Brassavoke, and H. 
cinnabarinum are also among the additions of the present month, as well 
as Brassavola Perrinii. 

In the warmest house, Phabenopsis Lueddemanniana, P. violacea, and 
P. denticulata are among the most interesting objects, while Phaius 
Huu.blotii, ,,, .ation -d last ,„ ,nth, is at its best. Another striking addition 
i» the old Agridei odoracum, which is very effective, and the flowers 
powerfully fragrant with an aromatic perfume. Ccelogyne Swaniana is 
another addition, while Vanda tricolor and some of those mentioned in 

ssums show a great falling off. W 
some O Harrvanum. (). nebuloswn. 
t to keep up the display, while that 

nentioned the handsome O. crispum- 
< Gardner! and O. dasytyle, with a 
Jso flowering well, 
accession throughout the year, and 
ow in flower, together with some o! 
luded to in previous notes. But if flowed are some*' 
there is a great interest in looking round the collect"" 1 ' 
an o serving the progress made with growths for another season, wk>« 

haTbeVra H e ffi ne , Weather ' "* "* ""° mMn «' th ° U ^ in tht ' C °°' ^ 
• aimcult matter to keep the temperature down. 


In the Cool house the 
0. Walhsii. 0. Lindlevanu 


and O. X cristatellum mak 

little gem Cochlioda Ncetz] 


best. Among the Oncidiui 

us n, 

which makes a line display 
few of the smaller-flowered 


Cypripediums keep up i 
» number of well-known h> 


HClircXM' tli:i 


recorded in the July number of the Rcvut it VHortitidtm. 

appears that Messrs. F. Sander & Co. saw a very fine variety of this plan) 

in blonm in the establishment of M. Vincke, and purchased it for the sum ..f 
a thousand francs, hut in the following year it produced fl 
inferior character, hence they sought to have the money refunded. The 
action was tried before the Tribunal of Commerce of Bruges on April Hub 
last. Messrs. Sander alleged that they bought the plant foi the -11111 named 

only on account of the peculiarities of col ing which the flower displayed, 

and said that the vendor of an article ought to guarantee thi 

the special characteristics which caused the sale to be effected, and that the 

year after the sale, if the plant no longer bore a similar bloom, restitution 

should be made, as is the custom of the trade in dealing with Orchid-. 

1 lie vendor replied that there could be no special guarantee, that the plant 

had been bought in flower as it stood, and he denied the allee, 

the trade. 

The Tribunal gave a verdict for the vendor, with costs, on the ground 
that the plant was purchased in the state in which it was offered, without 
any stipulation or guarantee, especially as to the production of similar 
bloom at the next flowering season : and if it be shown that the plant did 
not again produce a similar (lower to that which it bore on the d 
that fact would not nullify or cancel the sale; that, in fact, the vendor 
parted with the plant without guarantee as to the fixity of the colour or 
tint of the blossom ; that there was therefore no positive mistake to annul 
the contract, nor concealment which justifies cancelling, but simply a 
circumstance, often happening in Orchid culture, that is. the o. 
variation in the colouring. The purchasers, being Orchid importers, must 
he acquainted with these possible variations, ami tins being the case, if they 
had desired to protect themselves in case of such an event, should have 
stipulated in special terms, or effected a conditional purchase. As to the 
»Hcged custom of the trade, which the vendor considered Ice: 
only to the sale of Orchids not in bloom, the Tribunal passed the matter as 
not being proved, and as not affecting arrangements made between the 

What was the nature of the variation in question, whethei 
not, does not appear in the report, and it would be rather interesting to 
know. Cypripedium x Harrisianum was the first hybrid in the genus, and 
d "ring the twenty-seven years that have elapsed since it flowered for the 
n «t time a number of varieties have appeared, some of which have 
developed a sportive tendency. This is particularly the case with the one 


known as C. X Dauthieri, and the history of two or three very remarkable 
sports was given at pages 20 and 147 of our second volume. Then there 
is the remarkable yellowish-green C. X Harrisianum virescens, described 
at page 235 of the same volume, which may have originated as a sport, 
though we believe it is constant in character." There is also a variety which 
is irregularly flamed and striped, both on the dorsal sepal and lip, which we 
believe maintains its character. The only form we know of which exhibits 
varying characters from year to year is that called C. X Dauthieri, The 
Albino, whose singular history has already been given in our pages. 
Various secondary hybrids have also been raised— between C. X Harris- 
ianum and other species and hybrids -and from these various forms 
additional sports may be looked for in future. How far vendors are to be 
held responsible for these vagaries is a rather nice question. 

Additions to the list of really handsome greenhouse Orchids will be 
welcomed, and after seeing this plant on several different occasions, we can 
recommend it as a sterling acquisition, of easy culture, very free-flowering, 
and remaining in perfection for several weeks— indeed, between two and 
three months elapse between the appearance of the first and last flowers. 
It is a native of Natal, and was sent to Kew by Mr. |. Medley Wood, 
Curator of the Durban Botanic Garden, and flowered for the first time in 
1889. It is figured at t. 7186 of the Botanical Magazine. It is near S. 
fimbnata, figured at t. 5872 of the same work, but differs in several par- 
ticulars, and is altogether a much more robust plant. S. fimbriata bears a 
small rosette of leaves which are banded or spotted with dark brown, and a 
scape about six or eight inches high, with a small raceme of pretty pmT* 
-toothed lip. S. longifolia has much longer, 

flowers hav 

erect, undulate green leaves, with a tinge"of purple near the base, 
scapes a foot or more high, with very numerous purple flowers having a 
five-toothed lip. A small chimp will bear five or six of these spikes, 
reminding one somewhat of an Orchis, and forming quite a charming little 
specimen. It is rather nearly allied to Habenaria. and flowers in the 
autumn, the first flowers expanding about this time of year. It can '« 
■ncreased by off-sets, something like Disas, and is very easily grown in a 
moist and partially shaded situation, like many other terrestrial Orchids- 
is to be found in several collections, and ought to become common as its 
merits become better known. 


The subject of our present illustration is the beautiful Cattleya x 
Hardyana, the most handsome natural hybrid known, which will soon be 
in flower in various collections. It originally appeared in 1885, in the 
collection of the late G. Hardy, Esq., of Timperley, and quite unexpectedly, 
having flowered out of an importation of C. Dowiana tores and ('. 
Warscewiczii ; and its hybrid origin was at once apparent. Tin- How, 1 
distinctly combines the characters of the two parents, though it is most 
like C. Warscewiczii in colour, but with the addition of mmm golden 
vi 'iinn- 1:1 ihr derived from C. Dowiium. 

The history of the plant was given in 1885 by Mr. W. Swan, of 
Fallowfield (Card. Chron., 1885, xxiv., p. 206), and may be briefly sum- 
marised as follows :— The plant was imported about five years previously, 
and was purchased for Mr. Hardy by another grower, when buying a lot 
for himself, as C. Sanderiana. However, in a couple of years .t opened its 
first blooms when it was plain to the owner that a fresh form had appeared. 

1883, and in the two succeeding ye 

1 bloomed, on the 


last occasion hearing four dowers on a spike, ir was described as having 
the best points of C . gigas and Sanderiana, with a dash of C. aurea thrown 
in. the Bowers being strongly scented. It was shortly afterwards figured 

.lor August 16th, 1884 (p. 211). before the plant had 
been named, as follows :— 

"NEW Ca 111 r.YA.- An extraordinary variety, evidently a natural hybrid 
between ('. aurea and a variety off. gigas— probably Sanderiana— is now 
in bloom in the collection of George Hardy. Esq., Pickering Lodge. Tim- 
perley, Cheshire. In form and size it is a magnificent thing, and in the 
richness of the labcllum it is just what might be expected from the blending 
of the bright orange veining in the throat of ('.aurea with the expanded 
rich crimson lower half of the other parent. It is wonderfully beautiful 

In course of time va 

rious other individuals appeared among impor- 

tationsnfthesame twos] 

'ei i. -. s,„,,e -.f them being very different from the 

original form in the way 

tta characters of the two parents are combined, 

though obviouslv form-. 

r'tla -, one hybrid. One of the earliest of these 

was the variety Massai 01 

a. which appeared in the collection of M. le Due 

de Masse at I.usarclles. 

Belgium, in 1S88, and was figured in the Orchid 

Album (VIII., t. 262) as 

('. X Massaiana. The flower has the general 

shape of C. Dowiana. bu 

t the sepals and petals are mottled with light 

rose ami white, and the 

lip rich magenta-crimson, with two large areas 

of bright orange-yellow a 

t the sides, and the throat striped with brownish 

The next appearance 1 

>f the hybrid which we have found recorded is in 

ie,8S, and may be quoted, 

as it again illustrates the totally unexpected way 

in which these natural hy 

brids appear:— "A specimen of this rare natural 

hybrid between C. aurea t 

mil C. gigas, with over one hundred bulbs and 

ten leads, now be ars 51 n 

..I -pilo s of gorgeous fragrant flowers, apparently 

exactly tile s 


> PP. 493, 560.) 

C. Dowiana chrysotoxa imported b. M .... .-..<,. ,i Ui t, if not quite 

all, the plants known have appeared out of importations of the two parent 
species, and considering how- much these two resemble each other when 


out of flower, it is obviously difficult to recognise the hybrid in the same 
state. Indeed, the late Mr. B. S. Williams recorded that on several 
occasions he hail purchased C. iiie^as and flow ered examples oft'. Dowiana 
aurea out of the lot. while, on tie contrary, some which he imported for 
the latter proved on flowering t ■ !■■ C. gigas. The possibility of obtaining 
forms of th \\':.o -;\. ■ oowd value to importations from 

the districts on the wi stern c irdill. ra ,>f Nov Granada, where the parent 
species are known to grow tog) tber. 

Yak. i.avi-:usini:\sis [Lin.h-nia. t. 1,051 is a marbled form with yellow- 
blotches on the sides of the lip, very closely resembling ear. Massaiana. 
which appeared in the Rothschild. Chateau de 
Laversine, France, in August, 1891. 

Var. Oweniana (C. X Oweniana, Card. Chrtm., 1892, xii.. p. 312) 
appeared with Messrs. F. Sander & Co., in 1892, and has creain-white 
sepals and petals, with a faint purple tinge at the tips, and the lip 
regularly veined except on the apical half of the front lobe, which is deep 

velvety crimson. Figures ate given in Journ. of Hort., 1892, Kiev., 

11'- 21 


shape and C. Warsccwiczii in c.ilour, there being little of the golden 

173) is a very remarkable form which 
Statter, Esq.,. Stand Hall, Whitcneld. 
Is and petals, and a nankeen yellow, 
f of the apical lobe crimson with a white 
le margin of the side lobes. It has the 
,,-i „n Jaunt, of Hart.. 1892, xxv., pp. 
.., Sfoteriana, Onh. Mkcn. X.. t. 4> s - 

as the preceding. 




collection of C. J. 

2oi is another very 


handsome form, which appeared in the collection of His Majesty the King 
of the Belgians, at Laeken, in 1894. It is near var. Statteriana, but the 
yellow areas at the sides of the lip are much smaller, the crimson being 
more developed on the front, sides, and disc. C. X Leopold II. (J.indaud, 
t. 479) is synonymous. 

VAR. LuclANl (Lindmin, t. 449) approaches C. Warscewiczii in shape 
and colour, but has a little yellow veining in the throat, the yellow in the 
middle extending across the lip. and the front lobe a little marbled with 
white. It appeared at ^Horticulture Internationale. Brussels. 

Vak. I.inpkni [I.indcniiL t. 47M has the same origin as the preceding. 
It has a dark crimson-purple lip. which colour extends round the margin of 
the side lobes, and the usual veining on the disc. The sepals and petals 
are more like t . Dowiana in shape. 

VAR. [Orch. Key., III., p. 322) is a very handsome form, which 
appeared in the collection of \V. S. M'Millan. Esq., of Maghull, Liverpool, 
last year. It has white sepals ami petals, with a lip very similar to that of 
typical C. x Hardyana. 

It is probable that numbers of artificially-raised plants will in time be 
forthcoming, as the two species have been crossed in various collections 
with this object, as has already been advised in these pages. One of such 
crosses was recorded at page 2O2 of our second volume, and we have since 
heard of others. 

Our illustration represents a plant in the collection of W. M. Appleton, 
Esq., Tyn-y-coed, Weston-super-mare.and is reproduced from a photograph 
taken by Mr. G. I'Anson, of Upper Clapton. 


A vicky striking form of Cattleya granulosa was exhibited at the Royal 
Horticultural Society's meeting on July 2<Sth, by S. Banner, Esq., 
Sherwood, Sefton Park, Liverpool, in which the sepals and petals were 
almost wholly suffused with bright lurid purple, instead of being light green 
and more or less spotted. The flower was very large, measuring 5I inches 
from tip to tip of the petals, and all the segments proportionately broad, 
while the lip was quite typical in shape and colour. The petals and dorsal 
sepal were a little paler at the base, as also the inner halves of the lateral 
sepals, which showed a few traces of spots, but the remainder was of a 
remarkable purple shade. It is remarkably different from the typical form. 
A single cut flower was sent. 

K. A. K. 



There seems to be a constant succession of Botanical Orchids at Kew 
throughout the year, in addition to the showy species which are found in 
every collection, and even those who draw the line at showy things will 
generally find something of interest among the things which are not 
generally cultivated. Stenoglottis longifolia must be included in the latter 
category, though it only requires to be better known in order to be 
appreciated. It is a native of Natal, and grows with the utmost freedom in 
the Cool house, producing numerous elegant Orchis-like spikes of light- 
purple flowers at this particular season, and these last long in perfection. 
Ladia Lucasiana is another very pretty little plant, which some might 
object to see enumerated among Botanical Orchids, and which may in 
future be more widely cultivated. It has bright purple sepals and petals 
and a yellow much-crisped lip. 

Among Epidendrums may b; enumerated the pretty little Brazilian E. 
bracteatum, a plant of small stature, very floriferous, and with a rose- 
purple lip, which contrasts effectively with the light green spotted sepals 
and petals. E. radiatum is a Mexican species allied to E. fragrans, but 
with finer flowers. Polvstathva is represented by P. Kirkii, P. leonensis, 
and P. zeylanica, the two former being Tropical African. Eulophia 
Mackenii is a curious little Natal species, with variegated leaves, curiously 
allied to the Brazilian E. maculata. I.uisia cantharis has the lip curiously 
like a beetle. Geodorum is represented by G. purpureum and (.. 
candidum : Ccelogvne by C. flavida and C. Swaniana, the latter a recent 
introduction from the Philippines. Other interesting plants are the 
Brazilan Paradisanthus Moseni, allied to Aganisia : Trichocentrum Hartii, 
Doritis Wightii, like a small Phalamopsis, to which genus it has been 
referred : and Saccolabium gemmatum, with terete leaves and racemes of 
very small flowers. 

Dendrobium crumenatum, known as the Pigeon Orchid at Singapore, 
has also flowered, but the blooms have the peculiarity that they 

white flowers with some yellow on the lip, somewhat approaching the pre- 
ceding, though not so fugitive. Among species of Liparis in flower may be 
mentioned L. decursiva and the small L. Prainii, together with the alhed 
Microstylis congesta ; while Oncidium is represented by O. Geertianum 
O. caesium), O. auriferum, and Odontoglossum by O. myanthum, with 
numerous small brown and pale yellowish flowers. Other plants noted 
"ere Masdevallia Carderi, M. peristeria, Pleurothallis maculata, Lycaste 
kucantha, Sarcanthus Williamson!, Satyrium militate, Selempedium 
c "icn„,m, and various others, including Stanhopea Haselowiana and 


Sobralia Lowii, which, though handsome, are not very widely grown. Many 
species of the last-named two genera are very handsome when in bloom, 
though their fugitive flowers prevent them from becoming as popular as 
thev otherwise would. 


A floweb of Cattleya Warscewicai has been sent by Mr. C. C. Hurst, of 
the Burbage Nurseries, near Hinckley, in which a small humble bee has 
been caught by tb . i~ ; ■'. -■..-.. i ■ which it is firmly glued by its back. 
The insect bad enter, A the flower in search of food, but got too firmly glued 
to the stigma to free itself, and died there. Humble bees are known some- 
times to remove the pollinia. and Darwin records one caught by Sir \V. ('. 
Trevelyan in a house where a Cattleya was in flower, with its whole back 
between the wings smeared with dry viscid matter, and with the four 
pollinia attached to it by their caudicles, ready to be caught by the stigma 
of any other flower which the bee might have entered. It is probable that 
Cattleyas in a wild state are largely fertilised by native bees, though very 
little seems to have been recorded on tie subject. Mr. Kit bard Pfau stated 
at page 295 of our second volume that in ('■■--, K,, , i t : i ■ ■ \ ■ 1 Dowiana 
produces a seed pod nut of nearly every flower in its native habitat, but that 
at San Jose, only fifty miles away, where be cultivates them, be had not a 
single pod out of nearly four hundred plants in flower, though be keeps large 
quantities of hive bees ; but these probably do not visit Cattleyas. Fine 
capsules are sometimes found on imported Cattleyas, which have no doubt 
been fertilised by native bees. It would be interesting if th,e-c who have 
the opportunity of seeing these plants in flower in their n.,ti\ i. ■ - ■■ '.Id 

observe what in 

sects visit 


spur or ne 


wall be f< 

Hind a, 

the insect 

s search. To 

what dept 


and as tl 

a strong it 

tsect 1 

ike a bee- 


its body ii 

i. but 

having dl 

me this 

inevitably carry away the pollinia 
on its shoulders, and oit visiting another flower these would become 
attached to the viscid stigma, and fertilisation would thus be effected. It 
will easily be seen that a small bee might not be able to extricate itself, as 
in the instance now recorded. It is probable that where Cattleyas grow- 
wild there are certain insects (probably bees) which regularly visit the 
flowers, just as in the case of Coryanthes and others which have been duly- 






•igin of 

considered as synony 
differences. Before 
RL-tcli.tli Kich's origin;. 

to Mr. Ha 


tre so characteristic 
shorter. Sepals white with 
shorter than in the species ] 
pendent. Petals light brow 
cuneate, acuminate, covered 
Cypripedium Dayanum. I. 
the front part of the disc, 
appear, with green angles, 
purple. Staminode light green with s 
not several other m arks of distinctioi 
colour of the flowers), it would be 
length of the sepals and petals. This 
and I'. W. liurbidge, made in the Ma 
name of one of these gentlemen." 

3ach, some fifteen or sixteen years age. under 
d C. Burbidgei, but which have since been 
.it li ('. Dayanum. in sj)ite of their undoubted 

further it will be advisable to reproduce 

us described in 1880 {Gari. Chron., 1880, xiii., 
1 Mr. I) -.'- ; ' ■,;•:-, linn, yet fresh materials 
jt impression, which 1 ote in February last 
must be lvgard. d .,- distinct. It> leaves have a 
just those far darker, squre green paintings 
in the affinity. The whole- ilower i, smaller, 
green veins, very distinct in outline, and much 

first dedicated te> my most assiduous corres- 
nish, green at base, ligulate. acute, straight or 
on the whole border with long hairs, just as in 
ip greenish-brown, with dark sepia-brown on 
or totally of that colour, yet always, it would 
Warts on the border of involved base nearly 

94' P- -"J- 
C Burbic 

k, 1,1 

obscure teeth. The lip is more conical than i 
quoted, resembling that of ('. Petri and ('. Da; 
with a row of most obscure dark warts on eaef 
line, and some mauve on the lip's margins, 
triangular, as in ('. purpuratum, with nine gre 
is very small and short. Leave., nearly those 
*e*Jaintance with this was undoubtedly r 
Mr. S. Low, who pointed out the affinity with 

*»i With C. Virens, though the petals are too 

is. If there were 
le totally different 
le by the relative 
■ssrs. Peter Veitch 
It only bears the 
;«. III. Gart. Zeit., 

wing year (Card. 

ily distinguishable 
three exceedingly 
lies of the affinity 
etals light green, 

,ne on the middle 

inicum. My first 
tun, when I urged 


flower apparently of a fresh importation, weak. I asked for a second 
flower, but till now it has not flowered again, and may have been sold long 
ago. Lately I obtained it. with a tine, strong, well-rooted plant from 
Messrs. Veitch. It grew together with C. Petri, and it is more gay in its 
colours. Mr. Harry Veitch was pleased by my suggestion to name it in 
compliment to Mr. Burbidge, since I like to have two Cypripediums as near 
companions, just as these two travellers were good companions." 

It is quite evident from these remarks that the plants in question are 
not identical with C. Dayanum, however much they may resemble it in 
certain respects. Besides the differences in shape and colour, I have long 
been struck with the shorter ciliae as compared with C. Dayanum, and the 
combined differences suggested an affinity with C. javanicum and C. virens. 
But the new facts above alluded to put the whole question in a new light, 
and on comparing all the forms together I find such an unmistakeable com- 
bination of the characters of C. Dayanum and C. virens in the doubtful 
forms C. Petri and C. Burbidgei as to leave no doubt in my mind that the 
two latter are both natural hybrids, with the paivnta^u indicated, and forms 
of one, which may be distinguished as C. X Petri and var. Burbidgei. The 
discovery is interesting, and as Cypripediums arc so easily hybridised, some 
one might make the experiment of crossing the two species together. 
Indeed, C. Dayanum might also be crossed with C. Lawrenceanum and C. mum. with a view to proving the parentage of C. X Littleanutn 
and C. X Kimballianum, two other Bornean Cypripediums believed to be 
of hybrid origin. 

R. A. R. 

A very striking form of Odontoglossum X excellens has appeared in the 
collection of Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham, in which the brown 
blotches so characteristic of this handsome hybrid are almost entirely absent, 
leaving the flowers light sulphur yellow with a slight suffusion of light pur- 
ple on the back of the sepals, and the disc of the petals nearly white. There 
are a few small spots and streaks at the base of the lip, which are derived 
from the O. Pescatorei parentage, and on some of the flowers one or two 
minute spots on the front of the same organ, while one of the lateral sepals 
of a single flower has one small spot. With these trifling exceptions the 
flowers may be described as unspotted, and thus it forms a striking con- 
trast with the typical form, with which it agrees in shape and size, and in 
the details of the column wings and crest of the lip. It is a very handsome 
form, and the almost total loss of the brown markings so characteristic of 
the O. triumphans parent is curious. 

R. A. R- 



By H. A. Burbkrkv, Highbury, Moor tlrcen, Birmingham. 

Some of the earliest of the Dendrobiums will, during this month, complete 
their new pseudobulbs, and should be given a position in a cooler hoir-e. 
where a good amount of light and air is obtainable, so that tin- now .in.l ;is 
yet unripened growths may duly become properly matured. Do not, how- 
ever, let them become dried, scorched, and shrivelled up. by altering their 
growing conditions too suddenly ; but bear in mind what I said last 
month, and avoid withholding water at the root too soon. Dendrobium 
Wardianum frequently bleaks again quickly from the base, but this fact 
must not interefere in the least with the proper course of treatment. When 
these new breaks appear, some growers will encourage them by leaving 
their plants too long in a growing temperature, which only causes them to 
become weak and spindly, and therefore worthless. The above remarks 
apply equally to all other spring flowering species of Dendrobium. As soon 
as the main pseudobulb has finished its growth, by producing its last leaf, 
they should be given cooler treatment, quite independently of any secondary- 
growth that may have started from the same pseudobulb. With those 
which flower in autumn it is different, they must not be removed from their 
growing quarters at least until after they have bloomed : by which time, in 
all probability, the temperatures will have cooled down considerably, so that 
to remove them is unnecessary. 

Many of the Cattleyas and Ladias will likewise be drawing their growing 
season to a close, and should, if possible, be ventilated rather more freely 
than those still to finish. Among them principally will be found Cattlcya 
Warscewiczii (gigas), which, by the way, should now be repotted where 
necessary, as soon as roots are seen pushing from the base of the pseudo- 
bulb. C. Gaskelliana is another that has finished, and probably flowered, 
and should now be given plenty of air, when the roots will continue to grow, 
forming quite a network on the compost— a pleasant and re-assuring sight 
to the grower, as Orchids must have healthy roots, and the more of them 
the better. Generally speaking, it is a good plan to encourage now the late 
growing kinds, such for instance as C. Mossia and Mendeln, if it is possible 
to do so, by giving them a slightly warmer and moister treatment than 
those which have already made up. The time of year is getting on, and it 
is well to have the growths as far advanced as possible, before the bad 
weather sets in. C. Lawrenceana is a very late-growing species, and for 
that reason it is best grown in the Dendrobium house, where C. superba. 
and C. Lueddemanniana (speciosissima), should also be grown. \\ hen t. 
Rex was first introduced, I was misled as to its requirements, and under- 
stood that more warmth than that of the usual Cattleya house was essential 


lor its well being : but I am now able to say that it is not so. the last named 
house suiting it admirably. 

In the East Indian house it is best to be watchful just now, as yellow 
thrips are rather troublesome, and will do much damage to the young and 
tender foliage of Aerides. Cvpripediums. Phalsenopses, and Vandas, by 
permanently marking it. It is difficult at times to dislodge this pest from 
the axils of the leaves by fumigation, and when so the aid of tobacco 
powder must be resorted to. Ants, again, are often a great nuisance, and 
these are indeed difficult to get rid of. The poison that has from 
time to time been advertised in this journal, is more effectual than 
anything I have yet tried. Ants not only carry scale, &c, from one 
plant to another, but there are some plants from which they extract 
and live upon the sweet juices, ami this, it is needless to say, 
quickly prostrates the plants attacked. I have had Phatenopscs quite 
killed by nothing more than a: ts bl i ding lii -m to death. The leaves in 
time turn yellow wherever raw ... : isroed, and this spreads until the whole 
leaf is the same colour, and ultimately falls off. Nor is this the only evil 
that may be laid against them. They are busy creatures, for ever on the 
move, and m those pots which they select to principally locate themselves, 
will soon riddle the compost into small particles, causing early decompo- 
sition of the same. The ant is also very destructive to Orchid seeds just 
germinating, livery encouragement must still be given these East Indian 
Orchids, by keeping up sufficient warmth and moisture in the atmosphere, 
avoiding at the same time the possibility of letting the mass of sphagnum 
moss at their base get and keep in a continually soddened state, for if so 
the roots confined beneath will pensh. 

The present month is a good one in which to thoroughly overhaul the 
Cool house, and to do as much of the repotting as is possible. Epidendraa 
vitellinum is now almost over, and supposing the flowers are not required for 
some future purpose, it is better now to cut them off, so that the new 
pseudobulbs may have a fair chance of becoming strong. If the leading 
growths are over the sides of the pots, they should have larger ones, other- 
wise a top-dressing is all that is required, for this species is best if disturbed 
but little. Until the autumn arrives they may have a good supply of water 
at the roots. 1). Falconer,, which grows best in a cool and shady depart- 
ment, must now be sprayed frequently during tile day. I), speeiosuin is 
also a cool growing species, but, unlike the first named, must be given a 
position where it can receive a good deal of light, and would be generally 
better suited in the Cattleyaor Mexican house, as do also other species hailing 
from the east coast of Australia, such as D. Kingianum, D. tetragonum, D. 
hngmforme, and D. teretifolium. These species of Dendrobiunis are not 
easy to re-establish after once having their roots disturbed, ami should 


therefore not be pulled about ruthlessly, nor be given too much watei Bl 
the root, to cause the compost to become unduly sour; in fact. thcyreqmo 
but little water. 

Disa grandillora, and other species of Disa. will now lie making a good 
show. I), grandillora is the best and showiest, and tin in..-! useful of them 
all. It is not always successfully cultivated : in fact, it is seen frequently 
in a by no means flourishing condition. It does not, however, hang in the 
balance long, but must either lie grown well or will soon disappear. There- 
fore, should the plants be doing badly, some other method must lie 
employed at once. Generally speaking, they share the same fate as many 
another Orchid, and are killed by too much kindness, or. in other words, 
by not being grown sufficiently hardy. They have been know n to succeed 
extremely well side by side with Ericas and Epacris, which fact will prove 
that but little or no artificial warmth is required during summer, whilst the 
winter temperature should also be cool, and the atmosphere comparatively 
dry. The average greenhouse should, therefore, prove to be a splendid 
place for them, and beyond all doubt it is so ; all the plants require, is to 
be kept a little more shady and moist than the majority of the other inmates 
during the summer months. Or they may also lie grown during summer in 
a cold frame or pit. The only danger in the latter method lie- in the 
possibility of having insufficient air to circulate round them. When the 
right culture is found they grow and propagate so freely and healthily that 
insect pests will prove but little trouble, though yellow thrips are a great 
nuisance, and can be dislodged only by using tobacco powder. Sandy peat 
seems to be the most correct compost, whilst pots arc the best receptacles. 
Drain the pots with crocks about one fourth their depth only, and pot up 
rather firmly. Place in each one or more tubers, according to the size of the 
pot employed, a 4 8-sized pot being large enough for one fully-grown tuber. 
Directly flowering is past is the best time to repot. The offshoots, which 
are always plentiful, may be removed from the parent tuber and propagated 
in small pots. Unless the pots are overcrowded, Disas do not reqmre to be 
repotted every year. 

Nanodes Medusa, the flowers of which are very interesting, if no! 
strictly prettv, should be grown in the Cool house during summer and the 
Intermediate one in winter The unusual colour of the flower, and the large 
Wnged lips are the most conspicuous qualities of the bloom. Hut the plant 
itself is rather attractive when well grown, the stems being droopmg 
and thicklv sheathed with short distichous light green leaves. It 
does best in baskets or pans suspended, and but little if any peat should be 
used, as it seems to me that the sphagnum moss alone suits it best, i ow 
^ a good time to re-pan or top-dress, and it is fond of a good supply of 
water during the summer months. 


Oncidium hastatuin is now in flower, and is always greatly admired. 
I prefer to grow this species in pots. After the flowers are past, and when 
the new growth is pushing from the base, it may be repotted, if required. 
It is an Orchid worth the best of attention, and growing well, but it often 
gets into a bad condition owing principally to the flower spike remaining on 

growing. It should then have the warmth of the Cattleya house, as should 
any other Oncidium that has not finished its growth by October. 

When repotting Oncidiums use pots of a reasonable si/e only, as over- 
potting Orchids is always a very great mistake. The pots should be three 
parts drained with crocks and charcoal, as the crocks keep much sweeter 
when intermixed with charcoal. It may seem to many a simple matter to 
crock a pot, but there is a right and a wrong way even in that, and the plant 
that is planted in a pot correctly crocked, will last longer in a good and 
sound condition than when incorrectly done. First place one or two large 
inverted pieces over the hole at the bottom, then over these a layer broken 
smaller, while the top and final layer should be about two inches in depth, 
and broken very small — from half-an-inch to an inch in si/e— so that they 
lay quite level. I am not as a rule an advocate for mixing crocks and 
charcoal in with the compost when the latter is of first class quality, but if 
the peat is poor, having no fibre, then I think it is a good plan to do so, as 
it greatly facilitates drainage, by keeping the whole open and porous. 

Odontoglossmn Loiidesburoughianuin is not <mc of the easiest to culti- 
vate. It grows pretty freely when newly imported, but in the course of a 
few years dwindles, and often, without so much as producing one single 
flower spike to compensate for trouble taken, will grow less by degrees 
until it finally disappears. I have had the best results from the following 
treatment :— In the first place it may be roughly described as being a cool 
Orchid, but a sun-loving one, and, therefore, it should have an abundance 
of air, but never be shaded. The plants may be fixed to blocks of wood 
and so grown suspended, but I do not recommend block treatment gen- 
erally, greatly preferring baskets or pans, with the usual peat and sphagnum 
moss as a compost. The moss when first imported may probably be ill- 
shaped for fixing in a basket. But although its habit of growth is strag- 
gling, a way can generally be found out of the difficulty, and the plant 
finally secured in the ba'sket, which, when done, is much more easily and 
better managed than a block. During summer, when growth is active, it 
may be syringed frequently, but during winter a long and very dry rest 
must be given. The treatment I have previously advised for Barkerias is 
the best possible one to give to this species. O. madrense is another of the 
Mexican Odontoglots, and is a very pretty little species. It should be 
grown in small pans, and, as in the case of O. Rossii, O. Cervantesii. and 


most of the other Mexican kinds, should be watered very sparingly. 

As it is very necessary to give the plants as much light and ran ... 
possible without causing injury, it will be better now to think about slightly 
reducing the summer shading. For instance, there are usually many 
situations where, through various reasons, some kind of permanent shading, 
such as "summer cloud,- is used, just to break the ravs of the sun for a 
short period during the hottest time. This must not be allowed to remain 
on when it is no longer necessary to serv= its purpose. The roller blinds 
may also be let down later in the morning, and removed earlier in the after- 

I am extremely sorry to hear that the Cattleya fly has got such a foot- 
hold in some collections. Compared to this arch fiend, other troublesome 
insects are insignificant. I am also sorry that I am unable to give more precise 
instructions for its speedy destruction other than already given in previous 
Calendars, which consists chiefly in watching closely for the infected 
growths, and by exercising great caution when purchasing new plants ; the 
latter being the preventative policy, is, of course, the best. If any signs 
Whatever of their presence exists on newly imported plants, they should 
olated until they have been thoroughly cleansed, ami 

>ipes in many departments has not been required 
have probably not been turned, oiled, and kept in 
ien such is the case they invariably become rusty, 
a leak when again touched. These, and other 
le heating apparatus, should be seen to in tune. 
secure, rather than left until absolutely required. 

Bollea ccelestis, Rchb. I— Garden, June 27, p. 487, with fig. 
Bollea Schrcederiana, Hort.— Garden, June 27. p. 4S6, t. 1072. 
Cattleya Mossle Arnoldiana.— Gard. World, July 2, p. 12. with 

Cattleya Schr<ederiana, Rchb. f.— Gard. Chrm., July 18, p. 73, fig. 

Ccelocyxk Veitchii, RoHe.— Gard. Mag., June 27, p. 425. " ith fi S- 
Cypkii-edium x Hakkisianum— Rev. Hort. Beige, July. p. 148, ng. 


several ti 

As war 

itli from 
ne, the \ 


good work 

ng order 


and will so 


matters co 

ill. t 

and put alt 



"'-'• March, p. 49, with pla 


Dendkobium arachnites, Rchb. f. -Card. Citron., July 4, p. 7, fig. 2. 

DendrobU'm X PAl.l.EXS.— Journ. of Hort., May 7, pp. 422. 42.5. 
fig. 69. 

Dendkobium thyrsiflorum.— Garden, July 11, p. 28, with fig. 

Epidendrum bicornutum.— Journ. of Hort.. July 9, p. 28. fig. 0. 

HABENARIA MILITARIS, Rchb. (.—Journ. of Hort., July 16, p. 53, fig. 9. 

H.emaria Dawsoniana, Rolfe.— Bot. Mag., t. 7486. 

L.Iil.l.v PURPURATA v.\n. ASHWORTHIANA. -Cord. (lino,., [ulv II. p. .;;, 
fig. 10. 

Sobraua LEUCOXANTHA, Rchb. f.-- Journ. of Hort.. July 23, p. 7;. 

At the meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society, held at the Drill Hall, 
James Street, Westminster, on July 18th last, Orchids were not as 
numerous as usual, and a large proportion of the exhibits consisted of cut 
Mowers. A number of interesting things, however, were staged. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. White), sent a 
very interesting group, including a well-flowered plant of Dendrobium 
Maccarthia;, Laslia Lucasiana, Cattleya Eldorado marginata, approaching 
C. E. splendens, but the side lobes of the lip margined with rose-purple; 
a well-flowered plant of the pretty C. Eldorado Wallisii, Polystachya 
odorata, Epidendrum volutum. Zygopetalum Burtii Wallisii. Sx. An 
Award of Merit was given to the remarkable Zygopetalum grandiflorum, 
and a Botanical Certificate each to Catasetum Russellianum, Oncidium 
virgulatum, and Masdevullia corniculata. 

The Right Hon. Lord Rothschild. Trtng Park (gr. Mr. Hill), sent a 
very fine six-flowered inflorescence of Cattleva Warscewic/ii Shuttleworthii, 
to which a Cultural Commendation « so C. Gaskelliana alb«s 

and Masdevallia Carderi, the latter reo iving a Botanical Certificate. 

The Right Hon. J. Chamberlain, M.P., Highbury. Birmingham, 
(gr. Mi. Burberry), sent a fine series of dissimilar varieties of Cattleya 
Warscewiczii, and received a Vote of Thanks. 

T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield, Manchester (gr. Mr. Johnson), 
showed a good plant of Cypripedium Godefroya; leucochilum, and cut 
flowers of Cattleya Rex. C. Warscewiczii delicata, C. Schrcederiana, C. 
Gaskelliana, La;Iia tenebrosa and L. purpurata, Laelio-cattleya X elegans, 
and L.-c. X Schilleriana, Cypripedium superbiens, C. Curtisii, C. X Harrisi- 
anum superbum, and C. X selligerum majus. A Vote of Thanks was 

W. Thompson. Esq.. Walton Grange, Stone (gr. Mr. Stevens), sent a 


profusely flowered group of the handsome little Coohlioda \,i l/li.m.i. 
together with Odontoglossum nehulosum candidulnm .in. I lb hitcnpnr- 
pureum sceptrum. 

C. J. Lucas, Esq., Warnham Court. Horsham (gr. Mr. Duncan), 
showed a fine series of varieties of Cattleva Warscewic/ii. and 
Vote of Thanks. 

Edgar Cohen, Esq., Hall Road. St. John's Wood (gr. Mr. Vass), sent 
a very pretty light form of Cattleva Mendelii. 

Norman C. Cookson. Esq.. Oakwood. Wvl.un-on-Tvnc egr. Mr. Mmr.tvi, 
sent three good plants of Phaius Hinnblotii, one of them bring the fine 
rose-coloured variety Henryi : also a line Bower "f Cypripedium X 

J. Wilson Totter. Esq., Parkhill Road, Croydon, exhibited a line plant 
of Aerantlies grandillorus. 

Reginald Young. Esq.. Sefton bark. Liverpool igr. Mr. Poynt/), sen 1 
flowers of Cvpnp> dime Stoma cundidum and C. x Uanisiammi siqvvhtun. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Upper Clapton, exhibited Cattleya Mendelii, 
C Mossi* Arnoldiana. and a fine dark variety of I . Mossia Called 
" Brilliancy," to which an Award of Merit >• 

Messrs. E. Sander & Co., St. Albans, staged two plants of Spathoglottis 
plicata Micholitzii, and a splendid specimen of Ceelogyne Sanderiana witli 
six fine spikes, to which a Cultural Commendation was given. 

At the close of the meeting Reginald Young. Esq., of Sefton Park, 
Liverpool, explained his system of recording hybrid Cypripediums, and 
handed to the Secretary a copy of the list which it has been his practice 
for man) years to keep posted up from various sources. It is hoped that 
this will prove of great service to the Committee in regulating the nomen- 
clature of the numerous hybrids which come before them. A cordial vote 
of thanks was given to Mr. Young. 

At the meeting held on Jnlv >Sth, the show of Orchids was very small. 
though several interesting things found their way to the Drill Hall. 

The President, Sir Trevor Lawrence, Part., Burford. Dorking (gr. Mr. 
White), staged a neat little group, containing Dendroliinm revolutunl, a 
good plant of Maxillaria Hubschii with seven flowers, a good dark purple 
form of Masdevallia infracta with twenty flowers, and a Cypripedium 
called C. x Charles Steinmetz (C. philippinense 1 X C Lawrenceanum 3 ), 
which appears to be the reverse cross of C. Hobsoni, and therefore a 
variety of the same. An Award of Merit was given to Odontoglossum 
aspidorbinum, with ten racemes, and a Botanical Certificate to Dendrobium 

VV. C. Clarke. Esq., Orleans House. Sefton Park. Liverpool, exhibited 
Cypripedium x Mabelhe (C. superbiens ? X C. Rothschildianum i ), and 


C. Harrisander (C. X Harrisianum superbum ? X C. Sanderanum 3 ), the 

latter a handsome tiling, to which an Award of Merit was given. 

S. Banner, Esq., Sherwood, Sefton Park, Liverpool (gr. Mr. Edwards), 
exhibited Cattleya granulosa Banned, a very remarkable variety, in which 
the sepals and petals were strongly suffused with lurid purple. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, exhibited Selenipedium Brysa 
(S. X Sedeni candidulum J X S. Boissierianum 3 ), Cattleya X Atlanta 
(C. Leopoldi 2 X C. Warscewicziij ), a handsome thing, to which a First- 
class Certificate was given, and Masdevallia X Ajax (M. X Chelsoni 1 
X M. peristeria 3 ), a very pretty hybrid, which received an Award of 
Merit. A flower of each parent was exhibited for comparison. 

Messrs. I. Sander & Co.. St. Albans, staged a small and interesting 
group, containing tin pretty little Aganisia ionoptera, Kestrepia elegans and 
1\. inaeulata. Pholidota obovata, a yellow form of Gongora galeata, the 
pretty little Paphinia Randii, Calanthe X Laucheana, a prettily spotted 
Odontoglossum crispum, Uendrobium bracteosum, Cypripedium X Mas- 
saianum, C X Mabelia; var. Lord Derby, C. X Patersoni. and C. X A. de 

Messrs. Thomas Cripps & Son, Tunbridge Wells, exhibited a splendid 
group of Disa grandiflora, some four feet long by over two feet broad. 
containing a large number of plants, mostlv with two to four flowers each. 
A Silver Banksian Menial was awarded. 

Messrs. YY. L. Lewis & Co., Sonthgate, exhibited two fine forms of 
C granulosa, one being a well developed form of the variety Schofieldiana. 

; . Seavy, of Camberwell, exhibited a group of artistic photographs of 
Orchids, comprising about fifteen of cabinet size, mostly Cypripediums, 
and four large ones ; one of them, representing a house of Miltonia vexillaria 
and Cattleyas belonging to R. j. Measures, Esq., of Camberwell. being 



segments remain partially united. 

E. H . \\\. Scarborough. Brassia brachiat; 
C. Stoldt. Vanda tricolor, var. planilabris. 
G. Bayer. Epidendrum 

■-..-. .. H „. c „u.uiii venosuin, Jlaxillana ochroleuca, and Cataselum viridinorum. 
:. Lawrenceanu^and W °° d ' The Seet "' n ? C VP ri P edium is clearly descended from 

'. tin.- umi h, m- synonymous. 

Euryale, the two being synonymous 

E. A. IS.. Oxford. Apparently a fine light form of Cattleya 
W. E Newchurch. The creatures sen. are leeches, and 
ater with which the Cypripediums were watered. 




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Tin; next meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the 
Drill Hall, James Street, Westminster, on September 8th, when the Orchid 
Committee will meet at the usual hour of 12 o'clock, noon. This will be 
the only meeting during September. 

We regret to learn that the well-known Orchid collection of Charles 
Winn, Esq., The Uplands, Seliy Hill, Birmingham, is to be distributed. 
Mr. Winn being relinquishing their cultivation owing to ill-health. 

Mr. Winn is one of the oldest Orchid cultivators in this country, and for 
the last thirty-rive years he has been an enthusiastic collector of rare 
varieties, and a most successful cultivator. During the latter part of the 
time he has paid much attention to hybridising, and the collection contains 
a large number of seedling Dendrobiums, Cypripediums, and others of 
choice parentage, some of them probably unique. An account of this 
interesting collection is given at page 261 of our second volume. 

The collection has been purchased by Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., of 
Heaton, Bradford, who, we believe, will distribute the plants within the 
next few weeks, thus affording amateurs of Orchids an opportunity of 
acquiring some choice things. We hope that under the process of 
distribution the records of parentage of the numerous promising seedlings 
will not be lost. 

A very line flower of Lselio-cattleya X callistoglossa has been sent from 
the collection of T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefleld, Manchester, by 
Mr - Johnson. It is one of the oldest and best of the group, combining well 
the characters of its parents, Ljelia purpurata and Cattleya Warscewiczii. 


Alarge dark form of the handsome Dendrubium Phalannpsis is also sent 
from the same collection, like the preceding, showing evidence of very good 
culture. This Dendrobium is specially valuable on account of its flowering 
so freely during the autumn months, when flowers are less plentiful. 

A fine flower of the handsome Ladio-cuttlevu X exoniensis has been 
sent from the collection of D. B. Rappart, Esq., of Liscard, Cheshire. The 
characters of Ladia crispa are, as usual, verv apparent, and it flowers about 
the same season of the year. Although the earliest of the Ladio-cattleyas 
—it flowered for the first time in the autumn of 1863— and still one of the 
best, we do not remember to have heard of any later batch of seedlings 
being raised. Cattleya Mossia; is reported to have been one parent, but 
there remains a little uncertainty whether it was this or C. labiata, as the 
former seldom blooms at the same season as Lfelia crispa, which was 
certainly one parent, and not L. purpurata, as was long supposed. We 
should like to hear if anyone has repeated the above crosses. 

We learn with interest that Mr. F. J. Le Moyne, of Chicago, is trying 
to make a complete collection of Sobralias. Most of the species are very 
handsome, though owing to their fugitive flowers and, in some cases, large 
size, they are not so much cultivated as they otherwise would be. The 

defect is 

compensated for by the succession 

flowers which they bear. When seen in masses in their 1 

are among the most beautiful of Orchids, as various travellers have borne 

A three-flowered inflorescence of the magnificent Disa grandiflora has 
been sent from the collection of Mrs. Barclay, The Briars, Reigate, by Mr. 
Badey. The sepals are of the most brilliant scarlet, and the largest 
measures over 2^ inches long by 19 lines broad, while the dorsal sepal is 
correspondingly well developed. It is one of five plants in a 48-sizedpot, and 
the strongest plant carried five flowers. Mr. Bailey states that the plant 
has been grown there ij years to his knowledge, and the two facts speak 
volumes for the soundness of the treatment adopted. It is a splendid 
example of good culture. 

We have received a splendid five-flowered inflorescence of the beautiful 
Ladio-cattleya X Brymeriana, from the collection of Colonel Brymer, 
M.P., Ilsmgton House, Dorchester, to which a First-class Certificate was 
given at the Royal Horticultural Society's meeting on August 24th last. Its 
parents are Ladio-cattleya X amanda ? and Cattleya Warscewiczii S , whose 
characters it well combines, the lip being very densely and beautiful veined 
with crimson-purple on a lighter ground. It was originally described at 
page 21 of our first volume. 


A flower of the beautiful ("attleya Lueddemanniana has been sent from 
the collection of D. B. Rappart, Esq., of Liscard. The lip is very prettily 
veined, somewhat as in C. Mossije, though it differs in its comparatively 
broad petals and narrow lip. and in its habit of flowering on completion of 
the young growths. 

Habenaria polytrichia, Rolfe, is a remarkable new species from Formosa, 
which is figured in a recent issue of the hones Plantariwi (t. 2496). The 
petals are not only divaricately bilobed, as in the section Ate, but each lobe 
is again divided, the upper half into two long filiform lobes, and the lower 
one into four. The lip is also broken up into numerous filiform lobes. It 
belongs to the group called Medusseformes, which contains only two other 
species, M. ternatea, Rchb. (., from the Moluccas, and M. andamanica, 
Hook, f., from the Andaman Islands. 

We have received the seventh Annual Report of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden, founded under the bequest of the late Henry Shaw, which forms 
a handsome volume, containing several important illustrated papers. In the 
Report of the Director, Mr. William Trelease, it is stated that among the 
additions to the plants cultivated under glass— "a small but carefully 
selected collection of Orchids has been placed in the house built in 1894, 
so that with good management there will scarcely be a time during the 
year when one or more of these interesting plants cannot be found in 
bloom, while in the latter part of the winter a considerable number are open 
together. This collection will be extended considerably from year to year, 
my intention being to devote the greater part of this house to a varied 
collection of Orchids. The garden has now in cultivation 156 named 
enhouse Orchids." An illustration of a fine plant 

of Cattleya luteola on a block is given 

and of Chv 

01 i^attieya inreoia on a diock is ^ivch «i t"*&~ — -" 
bractescens in a group of other things at page 23, but we find no refel 
to them in the text. 

A very curious flower of a good form of Odontoglossum X Coradinei 
has been sent from the collection of W. Campbell, Esq., of Kenmshead, 
near Glasgow, by Mr. H. Reid, in which there is a small add.t.ona lip 
nearly in front of the normal one, and slightly adnate to the 

quite perfect in shape and colour, but not half 
„ Th„ rest of the flower is quite perfect, and 

i of the ordinary one. The rest of the flower 


„d broad. I, came out of one of Messrs. Lewi, . 

flowered scape of a hybrid Cypripedium raised from C. bartatum 
,„ o ....,, r «„„!,;; , has been sent from the collection of 

grandiflorum 2 and C. Boxallii 5 has been 


Reginald Young, Esq., Sefton Park, Liverpool. It is a good form of C. X 
apiculatum, and the spots of C. Boxallii are well shown. In the lower 
flower the lateral sepals are free, a character occasionally seen in this genus. 
A plant of Cypripedium Godcfroy*. in the same collection, is now 
bearing ten fine flowers, and as the plant was purchased in September, 
1888, it is evident that the treatment set forth by Mr. Young, at page 45 of 
the present volume, is the correct one. The species of this group grow and 
flower freely enough under proper treatment. 

Flowers of the charming little Odontoglossum X aspersum violaceum 
have also been sent from the same collection. The front lobe of the lip 
is suffused with light purple, and the petals broadly margined with a deeper 
shade of the same, while the sepals and the base of the petals are barred 
with deep brown. It is a very brilliantly coloured form. 

A very beautiful flower of Cattleya Eldorado virginalis comes from the 
collection of E. J. Sidebotham, Esq., Erlesdene, Bowdon, Cheshire. The 
plant is a newly-imported one, and bore a spike of three flowers. The 
sepals and petals are pure white, and the throat deep orange. The history 
of the species was given at page 301 of our second volume. 

Trichocentrum longicalcaratum (Rolfe) is a remarkable little species now 
flowering in the rich collection of Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., Burford, 
Dorking. The flowers are white, slightly tinged with pale green, the disc 
of the lip yellow with two orange keels and a small maroon blotch at their 
apex. The column is short and broad, with fimbriate wings, and a purple 
pubescent anther-case. The spur is \\ inches long, nearly three times as 
long as the rest of the flower. It has recently been named at Kcw. 

A photograph of a fine plant of Selenipedium caudatum Wallisii has 
been sent from the collection of W. C. Clarke, Esq., Sefton Park, 
Liverpool, showing three spikes, each with three flowers. M r. Clarke thinks 
from the new growths that it will have twice as many flowers next time. 

Reverting to our article on Cattleya X Hardyana at page 241, we learn 
that the handsome varieties Statteriana and Countess of Derby were 
obtained from the importations of Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., of Heaton, 
Bradford; also the fine Selwood variety, which realised the highest 
individual price at the Selwood Sale, namely, 140 guineas. In 1889 a plant 
of C. x Hardyana and two of the variety Massaiana flowered in the 
collection of E. G. Wrigley, Esq., Howick House, Preston, which realised 
at the sale 95, 90, and 60 guineas, respectively. These also were from 
Messrs. Charlesworth's importations. It is always interesting to know the 
origin of choice varieties of any kind. 


A very pretty form of Oncidium macrantrram has been sent from the 
collection of M. J. Ragot, Villenoy, near Meaux, France, in which the 
sepals are not much darker than the petals, being onlj lightly suffused with 
dusky brown. The inflorescence, also, is but little over two feet long, and 
the flowers seven in number and rather crowded at the apex, probable 
because not fully developed. 

An excellent photograph of a fine inflorescence of Mormodes luxatum 
has been sent from the collection of A. W. Wills, Esq., of Claregate, Wylde 
("oven. Birmingham. The length of the inflorescence is 13! inches, and its 
greatest breadth 8£ inches, while the flowers number 23. Mr. Wills 
remarks: — "This species, one of the most beautiful of Orchids, has the 
reputation of being difficult to flower. My record, however, docs nut justify 
this opinion, being as follows : Bloomed 1S91. 1802, and I093 ; rested r s ot : 
bloomed 1895 and 1896." The inflorescence is very beautiful, anil we con- 
gratulate Mr. Wills on his successful treatment, of which we should be glad 
to receive a few particulars. 

A good photograph and dried flower of a Stanhopea are sent from the 
collection of Dr. A. W. Hoisholt, Stockton, California. The plant was 
collected in the extreme South of Mexico, near the Guatemalan frontier, last 
November, and has now produced a raceme of four flowers. It proves t" 
be S. oculata. Lindl. Dr. Hoisholt remarks that the Sower was dried in 
Silver sand according to the directions given at page 223 of our first 
volume, and owing to its fleshiness the shrivelling is extreme. Still tin- 
shape of the parts and the spots are so well preserved as to enable any one 
to recognise it immediately. It is a very handsome species, and it is very 
unfortunate that the flowers do not last longer. Good photographs of the 
favourite Odontoglossum citrosmum and Miltonia vexillaria are also sent. 


The article appearing in the last number of the Orchid Review (page 247) 
on Cypripedium X Petri and var. Burbidgei is distit 

I have adopted the 
ie, and added both C. X Petl var. Burbidgei to my list of 

hybrids, as a cross between C. Davanum and C. virens. I presume that tin: 
C virens intended is the C. javanicum var. virens of Veitoh's JW ■<! 
Orchidaceous PlanH (iv., page 35). Curiously enough, neither ( . javanicum 
nor C. virens are mentioned in Williams' Orchid O- ' >' — ■ ™''T< 
that the former is given as one of the parents of I . X I o ,0:. -supeifaens. 
I agree with the suggestion that someone might make the expenmen 


of crossing C. Dayanum and C. virens together, as the result would serve 
either to corroborate or to disprove the conclusions arrived at. 

Still, four or five years is a long time to await the result, and in the 
meantime I would suggest that a bloom of C. X woodlandense he sent to 
you by whoever has the pleasure of next flowering it, for inspection and report. 

This hybrid appears to have been raised by Messrs. Sander & Co., and 
is recorded in Mr. Chapman's list of Hybrid Cypripediums {Card. Chron., 
1895, xvii., p. 199) as C. Dayanum ? C. virens 3 , and in the Orchid Hylirids 
by G. Hansen (page 183) as C. Dayanum X javanicum virens. 

Reginald Young, 
15th August, r896. 


and it is curious what a number of Orchids are only known from a description 
published long ago, and often very imperfect, so that it is not always an easy 
matter to identify them. In the case of the above Stanhopea, which has 
now flowered in the collection of J. D. Hodgson, Esq., Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
from a plant received from Costa Rica two years ago, there was a figure 
of the original plant in existence, and I have long been anticipating its 
re-appearance; as also of one or two others, which will probably turn up 
again some day. The present one was originally discovered by Warscewica 
Mt. Chiriqui, Central America, and flowered in the mii'serv of Herr 

Mathieu, at Berlia, 

1852, and was shortly afterwards described by 
nana (Allg. Gartz., xx., p. 274). A figure was 
arterwards green bj Reichenbach (Xai. Orel,., ii., p. 85, t. 125), after which 
the plant appears to have been lost sight of. This figure shows the whole 
flower of a bright deep yellow, with the exception of the column, while that 
of Mr. Hodgson's plant is much lighter, though identical in structure, from 
which it appears that the species is somewhat variable in this respect. So 
many of the figures of this work, however, are so badly coloured that one 

cannot place too much reli; 

The species 

allied to S. insignis, Frost, the hypochil being quite globose, as 
the flower is much smaller and differently coloured. The sepals and petals 
are about two inches long, very light yellow and unspotted, and the lip is 
still paler, the hypochil being very pale yellow with a verv li-'ht purple 
blotch on either side, and the rest of the lip nearly white. " The pair of 
acute keels on the sides of the hypochil describe a semi-circle. The column 
is slightly over t l inches long, and broadly winged almost to' the base, the 
apical teeth being triangular and acute. The flowers have a strong aromatic 

R. A. R. 



The case of the variety or sport of Cypripedium X Harrisianum in the La« 
Courts, reported at page 239 of your last issue, raises a rathei curious 
question ; but there is a lack of detail in the report, which makes it difficult 
to form an opinion on the merits of the ease. It appears Messrs. Sander 
saw certain peculiarities of colouration in a variety of C. X Harrisianum, 
the comparatively hi^rb price of :i thousand 
Hovered again these peculiarities were nol 
present. What their nature was does not appear, nor i- it ivi nrded whether 
the plant was a seedling flowering for the first time, or a portion of wane 
oltier plant which had originated as a sport, like tile curious forms of ('. X 
Dauthieri, which have been described in the Rantm. Again, it is not 
recorded what the rhavrrs w< ri like th.' ne\t \ onlv that tin \ were of 
an inferior character. And these little details are just what one would like 
to know. It is is a -;„.--. .1 that the vendor of this erratic plant was 
aware of its tricks, and tookadvaut .g' "fan ii.nocnit purchaser, otherwise 
the case might appear different. It has sometimes been rccommoialc.1 that 
in order to avoid being taken in, people should purchase their plants in 
flower, but the present case suggests that even plants in flower may not 
always prove to be what they seem. Such eases, however, are fortunately 
not common, though if the plant is a genuine sport it may again surprise 
its present possessor in a more agreeable way. ate just those things 
which appear when least expected, and which in. one will he answerable for 
when they do come, though in most cases they prove permanent, and what- 
ever their subsequent behaviour, they are invariably regarded with interest. 
I should like to know a little more about the history of the one now under 

It seems quite possible that sports among Orchids may become more 
common in future, as hybridising progresses. It now seems to be generally 
agreed that it is chieflv. if not altogether, among plants which have been 

production of a bud with different characteristic* ,0 that of the plan, which 
Produced it, and this, on devel, pm, in. gives rise to a «w fo™. Complete 

dissociation seldom or never takes pi . then, is 1 bj brid might be found 
sporting back to its ori-inal r 1 ' ■ -. - ; ; - : P'"™ 1 ,VV, ' M "" ,:,k " 


:hus shows a partial reversion t,, the character of C. barba 
,riginal parents. There is also a striped form of C. X I 
vhcther it arose as a sport or otherwise I cannot say. No doubt other 
will be duly recorded as they appear. 

nd history of Catthy a X Hanlyana came very opportunely 
ber ipage 241), when everybody is watching their newly- 
iwianas in hopes of finding this handsome natural hybrid 
I believe that at one of the sales at Protheroe an. I Morris's 
ne ago a gentleman was present who had made a study of 
)f growth of this hybrid and it,-- parents, and who purchased 
ht looked in,, st likely to be C. X 

that in some quiet corner he has a little 
which are sure to be all right, though it 

a number of plants have appeared in the 
dso how distinct many of them are. It is 
vo parent species grow- together, the pollen 
■ by the wild bees which fertilise them, and 
ed must be the result, or the hybrid would 
seems quite likelv that a number of other 
le course of the next few years, though I 
iirnished with a separate name, whether it 
numeration of the different varieties given 
o are fortunate enough to flower additional 
with those already named. In the absence 
rch out all the scattered references, which 

deplorable confusion which occurs among 
t popular Orchids. 

1 he illustration of the charming little group of Habenarias, given at page 
209 of the July number, reminds me how beautiful some of these terrestrial 
species are, and it is fortunate that their merits have been more recognised 
during recent years. Quite an interesting collection could be got together, 
many of which present no cultural difficulties if ,.rdinar\ ear, is exercised, 
though some have a disappointing way of taking 1'ivn, h leave during tin- 
supposed resting period ; and even this is partlv due t,, ne»lect ,,r improper 
treatment. Among the best of recent acquisitions are the Inlaid Disas, 

quite a 

number c 

,f plants which 


na. That gentleman. 

hope he will let 

us know what 


not lie su 

rprised to hear 

batch of home-n 

used seedlings, 


; a good 

deal of patien 


It is rei 
jf about t 

narkable what 

pretty evident th 

at where the tx 

is carried about i 


a good 

main po, 

not be > 

,0 commc 

'ii as it is. It 


forms w: 

11 turn up in tl 

hope th 

at each 

ne will not lie i 

deserves it or no 

t. And the e 

last 11101 

ith will e 

liable those wh 

plants t 


n if they agree 

of such 

a list it is 

1 difficult to set 


partly ac 

counts for the 


icli have assuredly 

easilj growl 

they proved. And with them must Ik- classed the parent speeies. including 
"the peerless Disa grundinoru. the Pride of Table Mountain," which, when 
it succeeds well, is still unsurpassed in cultivation, though it does nol succeed 

everywhere for some reason. Then there are several Satyriutns wortlu ol 
cultivation, the handsome Stenoglottis longifolia and S. thnbriata. and even 
some of the European Orchises are easily "Town and vcrv handsome. And 
there are the hardy Cypripediums, several of which do well in pots, m.l m 
very gay during the early summer. But there is no need to draw up a 
catalogue, as many- of them are well known. Reverting again for a moment 
to the Disas, it is probahle that other ae<|uisitions will soon he lorthcMniing. 
as further crosses have been attempted, and such promising little plants are 
sure not to be neglected. 

t is interesting to note that an importation of the handsome Renantliera 
:hootiana has been secured. Were it not so recent adiseov. n I -le-aM 
; that this must be the scarlet Wanda which was reported some years 
Out of flower, it is more suggestive of a Yanda of the aerulea -roup 
a Renanthera, and if it blooms as freely as appearances seem to indi- 

it will be a great acquisition. Hitherto it has been too rare to l 

linioii, though Mr. Woodall's plant, exhibited some time ago at one ol 
voyal Horticultural Societv's meetings, affords pretty conclusive evid nee 


Under this remarkable name is described a vcrv prcttv hybrid which was 
shown at the last York Gala by Mr. James Cypher, Queen's Road Nursery. 
Cheltenham, and received an Award of Merit. The parentage is recorded 
as C. Forbesii X superba. The habit and general shape of the flower 
approach nearest to C. Forbesii, but in the colour, the more expanded side- 
lobes of the lip, and the texture'of the flower, the influence of C. superba is 
said to preponderate. The sepals and petals are creamy- white, tinged with 
rose, and green at the tips, while the lip is yellowish white with brownish 
yellow raised lines, and the sidedobes rose-purple inside and veined 
with the same colour. The front lobe is rose-purple, with some yellow in the 
centre, as in C. superba.— O'Brien in Card. Chron., July 25th. p. 90. 



me by Dr. Lindley (Bot 
A from Cuba by Mrs 
net in the previous Ju 

. Reg., XXXIII. 
srs. Loddiges, ; 
ly. Since then 

sight ,.f. 

note that a plri 



i.^a; a wry handsome Epidendrum was described and figured under the 
. 35), which had been 
I flowered in their 
has been almost lost 
plant has flowered in the 
collection of Mr. T. L. Mead, Oviedo, Florida, which was brought by a 
tourist from Florida. It belongs to the Encyclium group, in which the lip 
is free fn.m the column, and is nearly allied to E. ceratistes, Lindl. Lindley 
described the lip as rich crimson, also the petals at the back, but the sepals 
and inside of the petals green, the former just warmed and the latter richly 
spotted with crimson. Mr. Mead remarks that the scape is two feet long, 
and the lip in colour like Ladia autumnalis, passing to white in the centre ; 
the petals greenish goldriebuff with maroon tips, and the outer -surface 
sprinkled with buff; and the sepals buff, like the petals, but only edged 
with maroon mottlings, and the reverse surface also dusted with maroon. 
Like many others it is probably variable in colour, and is one of the 
comparatively few handsome species grown. 

One of the prettiest Botanical Orchids now flowering at Kew is Cynorchis 
grandiflora, a terrestrial Madagascar species, whose history was given at 
page 59 of our first volume. Its large purple fourdobed lip and green sepals 
marked with purple-brown are very distinct and attractive, and it grows 
well with other terrestrial species. Spiranthes grandiflora is a well-known 
old species, with spikes of large green flowers, which is found in a few 
collections. Spathoglottis plicata and a very pretty dwarf variety called 
Micholitzii must also be enumerated. The latter is a distinct improve- 
ment on the type, the dwarfer habit being very marked, while the flower is 
rather larger, and of the usual bright purple colour. It was imported by 
Messrs. Sander. Several plants of the pretty little yellow S. Fortunei are 
also very effective. Sobralia sessilis is also flowering, and the blooms are 
very handsome for one day, after which they shrivel, to be succeeded by 
others a few days later. 

Masdevallia floribunda answers very well to its name, for two or three 
plants are now a mass of flowers, and when thus grown is very pretty. It 
regularly flowers in this manner about this time of year. M. Carderi and 

M. Reichenbachi; 

very pretty. Pleurothalhs platyr 

very distinct Costa Rican species with curiously flattened stems and orange- 
buff flowers. P. picta is a dwarf tuft of leaves crowded with short single- 


flowered scapes of brown and yellow flowers. P. velattpes, with long 
racemes of green flowers, is also in bloom. Odontoglossum Kraneriannm 

is a dwarf and pretty little species from Costa Rica, and (). auriculatum a 
rare plant, which came home with O. nsevium some years ago. Om-idiuin 
pumilinn has small dense panicles of yellow flowers. The pretty little 
Sigmatostahx radicans is a very interesting and pretty little species belong- 
ing to this group. Trichopilia hymenantha, one of the small. ■ I 
the genus, is also in flower. 

Of Catasetums may be mentioned C. macrocarpum and C. Rmbriatum, 
the latter a very interesting plant : and of the Dendrobium group, 1). 
alpestre and Cirrhopetalum guttulatum, two pretty little Himal.e 
ISnlhophyllum vitiense, a native of Fiji, and the pretty little Siamese Trias 
discitlora, the largrst-ilowered species in the genus. ('(el'igyne roiTugua 
and Gongora galeata are also among the interesting Botanical On hid, .if 
this season. 


A case which is important both to purchasers and vendors of ( r.-unr 
before his Honour, Commissioner Kerr, at the City of London Court, on 
Tuesday, August 4th. The plaintiff was Mr. D. B. Rappart, Promenade, 
Liscard, Cheshire, and the defendants the Executors of the Estate .if the 
late Mr. G. D. Owen, of Sclwood, Rotherham. The former gentleman 
purchased at the auction sale of this well-known collection of Orchids 
several choice and valuable species and varieties, part of which upmi 
flowering proved untrue to name, and of little value; and not feeling 
disposed to stand by such a bargain, he made application for the high 
prices paid to be refunded. This request being met by refusal, the plaintiff 
decided to bring an action to recover his rights. For the plaintiff there 
appeared two well-known and qualified experts, who testified to seeing the 
plants in flower, and that they were not true. A third expert also appeared, 
who could testify that no variety of Orchid would alter its character by 
changing into another variety. Verdict for the plaintiff, with costs. 

The Orchids mentioned in the case were three :— Cattleya Skinneri alba, 
which proved to be an ordinary coloured form of the species ; Odonto- 
glossum x elegans, w hich turned out a poor form of O. Hallii ; and 
Dendrobium X splendidissimum grandiflorum, said to have been only D. 
X Leechianum. Generally speaking, mistakes of this kind are acknow- 
■edged by the seller, and compensation in some form or another given, and 
had the defendants been well advised, the present case should not have been 
allowed to come into Court. 

H. A. P.. 



first - 

Urchukarum Amtro-Ajnamantm c.xtr,,-lr,ficarum; or Figures of extra- 
ical South African Orchids. By HARRY Bolus, F.L.S. Vol. I., part 
:t. 5T— ioo. London : William Wesley & Son, 28, Essex Street, 

ice of the first part of this valuable work appeared at page 270 of our 
)lume. and now we are able to welcome the second, which has just 
ts appearance. It contains a 5. rii sof fifu partly-coloured plates, from 
' the author, illustrating a selection of the Orchids of South 

Africa, main' of which 

comprise eleven species of Disa, eight each of Satyrium and Disperis, four 
of Habenaria and Pterygodium, three of Angracum. Mvstacidium, and 
Platanthera, two of Brachycorythis, and a single example of Eulophia, 
Pachites, Schizodium, and Zeuxine. The last-named, Zeuxine cochlearis, 
Schlechter (t. 58), is very interesting, being allied to Z. sulcata. Lindl., from 
India and China, and the genus new to South Africa. Eulophia 
ealanthoidcs. Schlechter (t. 51), it may be noted, is drawn from a specimen 
which flowered at Kew in June, 1893, but has been identified with wild dried 
specimens. The handsomest species figured, probably, is Disa purpurascens, 
Bolus (t. 86), one of the blue Disas which it was hoped some time ago would 
prove amenable to cultivation, though the one introduced seems to have 

; '«' lm ■»« st s '." ht °f- Disa sanguinea, Sander it. 80), has deep crimson 

flowers, which are rather small, and arranged i„ a short, dense, cylindrical 
spike. Schizodium antenniferum. Schlechter (t. 88) is a very remarkable 
species in which the petals and lip are extended into dark purple spreading 
tails, giving the flower a remarkable insect-like appearance. This genus, it 
may be noted, was suppressed in the former part of the work, but is now again 
revived, while a somewhat similar remark applies also to Mystacidiuro. 
Brachycorythis ovata. Lindl. (t. 62), has purple, "delightfully fragrant 
violent-scented flowers," which are arranged in a dense cylindrical spike, 
and would be worth introducing to cultivation. Satyrium sphsrocarpum, 
Lmdl. ,t. 75), and S. longicauda. Lindl. It. 70) are already known in gardens. 
D,sa aeonitoides. Sander „. - ul is well named, as the resemblance to a 

Ac te "' &e ^r*. as well as in the shape and colour of the flowers, 

is striking. The How,- ,x -,,-,. i;i.„. „.;,i, , , , 

. ' . ""-•"- hl.u.vuth a few darker spots. 

A u-n , -11, u- pm-pl, -.lowered i) isp( . ris is „„„,.,,,, ,„,,,„ thc name f D. 
1 11. Mim. 1. I- oco, mtii the follow ine significant remarks:— » 

' rtainlj whether this is Reichcnbach's plant. The 
11-s ol so complicated a structure by the use of few words 


is difficult, 

brief. In such ; 

•ssihle : and that by the author of this plant is far too 
! the student ordinarily refers to the type specimen; 

but this is effectually precluded by the terms of Reichenbach's will, by which 
his whole collection remains sealed at Vienna for twenty-6ve years from the 
date of his death. It is a question whether the botanical world generally 
would not have promoted the true interests of the science, and 
similar unworthy vagaries for the future, by agreeing at the rei 
Congress that the usual rule of priority in hold good 
in any case where the only type specimen existed in Reichenbach's 
herbarium, and where no other specimen named by him was available for 
reference elsewhere. At present it can only be said that this is probably 
Reichenbach's plant." Pterygodium Newdigatit. Bolus it. q.ji, is remarkable 
for having a cleistogamous form, which is also represented. This is noted 
as abundant, while the normal form is rare. This cleistogamous form is 
very curious. " No opened or punctured tl.mer has. as yet, been observed ; 
no pollen has in any case been found upon the stigma : yet the ovaries have 
swollen, producing abundance of seed, and Dr. Schocnhmd, win. examined 
them, found the seeds to contain a perfect embryo. The question remains. 
' How is the fertilisation effected?'" We can only suggest that at some 
stage before the buds are fully developed the pollen-tubes begin to grow, 
and find their way to the stigma, thus effecting fertilisation, after which the 
development of the other organs of the flower is arrested, as in the case of 
other cleistogamous flowers, while in the unfertilised flowers they continue 
to develop in the normal way until mature. As regards the plates generally 
it may be said that they will be invaluable as aids to the identification of 
these interesting but difficult plants. Future parts will be awaited with 
interest, and we venture to express the hope that in time most of, if not all. 
the South African species will be represented by a good figure. 

An appendix to the work enumerates thirteen additions to the same 
author's Orchids of the Cape Peninsula, published in 1888, making a total of 
US species known from the Cape Peninsula, a tract of land about 40 miles 
long and varying from three to eleven broad— about a fourth larger than 
the Isle of Wight— which is a remarkably large number for so small an area. 

The third part devoted to the Orchidc;e of Martins Flora Brasilhusis. 
b .v Prof. Cogniaux, has appeared, and is devoted to the Pleurothalleie— or, 

rather, to part of tha 

t group. It contains four species of Cryptophoranthus. 

seventeen of Masdev 

dlia, seven of Phvsosiphon, forty-four of Stelis, two of 

Scaphosepalum, and 

about half the genus Pleurothallis, which from the 

s > nopsis is seen to n 

umber 236 species" Lepanthes. Kestrepi 1. 

nieria stand over fol 

: the next part. As before, a number of specs are 

'"eluded which have 

not vet been found in Brazil, though it is anticipated 

'hat some day they 1 

nay be detected there. Thus, no less than nine of the 


seventeen Masdevallias are not yet known from Brazil, while the genus 
Scaphosepalum. of which two species are included, has not yet been detected 

there. Thus the totals given c lot be taken as representing the number of 

Brazilian species artualU known. The plates of this part extend from 
numbers 76 to o,N, on which nearly a hundred species arc represented. The 
general character of this valuable work has already been indicated, and we 
hope in time to see it brought to a satisfactory completion. 


The end of summer is about the dullest season of the year for Orchid 
blooms, but I find a fair sprinkling of handsome species in Bower in the 
different houses. The beautiful Cattlcya Eldorado is just now at its best, 
and the pure white variety Wallisii is particularly charming. C. Luedde- 
manniana, too, is carrying some of its large and handsome flowers. C. 
superbaand C. Loddigesii are also flowering well, and C. Leopoldi is bearing 
several large trusses of its finely-spotted flowers. Ladia crispa is always 
handsome, and just now is coining on well, together with several pans of 
the charming little Ladia Dayana, which is about the best of the dwarf 
kinds. Ladio-cattleya X Schilleriana is also at its best, and the equally 
beautiful L.-c. X elegans is coming out well. Both are invaluable at this 
time of year. In this house are also beautiful plants of Miltonia spectabilis 
and its richly-coloured variety Moreliana, which deserve to be grown in 
quantity, so useful are they at this season. 

Nothing can exceed the brilliancy of colour of the old Disa grandiflora 
when it does well, and the contrast with a fine dark Vanda ccerulea is really 
most effective. Another blue Orchid which is now very charming is 
Rhyncostylis cudestis, generally grown under the name of Saccolabium 
cceleste. Near it are Phalienopsis cornu-cervi, pretty, but not showy, the 
handsome Aerides Lawrences, the pretty little Angracunr Scottianum, a 
good Ansellia africana, and a fine plant of Cycnoches chlorochilon, which 
completely scents the house in the early morning. Selenipedium X Sedeni 
and its varieties are just commencing to flower on a number of new spikes 
just thrown up, and are now very handsome, and the same remark applies 
to S, X calurum. These useful plants flower during the greater part of the 
year. Cypripediom I laj antral is also (lowering well, together with numerous 
hybrids, of whirl, ('. x Ashbortoniie and C. x Io are very effective. 

Among th. few hand-, .in,- things in the Cool-house, Oncidium varicosutn 
is just now one of the showiest, while the coral-red Kodriguezia secunda and 
Cochlioda vulcanica are both very charming. Other showy plants are 
Epidendrum nemorale and Odontoglossum bictoniense, together with one 
or two mentioned in previous notes. 

Ridley under the nam 

eofC. i. 

the author r 


:— " Thi 

me to obtair 

i from a n 

ative col 

resembling i 

t from so 

far soutli 

both in form 

i and colo 


the scape shorter, the 

flower r; 

The general colouring 

is similn 


The appearance of the handsome variety of Cypripedium Exul, for which 
Major Joicey, of Sunningdale Park, received a First-class Certificate on 

April 7th last, and of the richly coloured C. E. aureum in the collection of 
W. M. Appleton, Esq., of Weston-super-Mare (noted at page [62), has 
again called attention to the species, which is proving rather more variable 
than at first supposed, and now that it has become established in 
cultivation it may be seen to better advantage, as hitherto it has bad the 
character of being rather shy flowering. It was originally described by Mr. 

'nsigne var. exul (Gard. Chnm., 1891, x., p. 94), 
s is a native of Nepal, so it was surprising to 
[lector a large quantity of a species closely 
1 as Siam. It is very distinct as a variety, 
The leaves are shorter and more crowded ; 

rather smaller than that of the typical form, 
ilar to that of the Nepal plant, but the white 
margin of the standard runs right down to the base; the purple spots are 
crowded into the middle of the apple-green centre. The petals and lip 
much resemble those of the Indian forms, but the lip is more yellow. The 
shield is different in shape ; instead of being cordate with a notch in the 
apex, it is almost ovate, with, at the most, a depression at the top. It is 
decidedly a charming plant, of very neat habit, and appears to be very 
floriferous. It will, I think, be welcomed by the lovers of Cypripedia. A 
considerable quantity was brought into Singapore, and a number of plants 
have ere this found their way to England." A plant was exhibited at a 
meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society on April 12th, 1892, under the 
name of Cypripedium insigne suimense, from the collection of R. I. 
Measures, Esq., Cambridge Lodge, Camberwell, and being referred to Kew 
for determination, re-appeared a week later (April 19th) under the name of 
C. Exul, Rolfe, with a note to the effect that it was the C. insigne var. exul 
mentioned above, but evidently a distinct species nearer C. Druryi in several 
respects. An Award of Merit was then given, and a note appeared in the 
Journal of Horticulture for April 21st (page 301), in which its distinctness 
was briefly pointed out. Two days later a description by Mr. J. O'Brien 
appeared in the Gardeners' Chronicle, together with a figure (1892, xi., pp. 
5 22 > 52J, fig. 77)- A figure appeared also in Lindenia, whence the following 
note on its distinctness is extracted :— " Last autumn I saw a large im- 
portation of this particular plant, together with a coloured drawing. In 
the former 1 could not see any evidence of C. insigne, though the drawing 
certainly bore a considerable resemblance to that species, yet there were 
certain discrepancies which I could not understand. And now, having seen 


a plant which has flowered in tin- collection nf k. I. Measures, Esq., . . 
it only confirms my suspicion that we have a distinct species, and not a 
variety of C. insigne, to deal with. C. insigne and its numerous varieties 
have spreading leaves, while the Siamese plant lias more or less erect leaves, 
which, with other differences, render the two quite dissimilar ; and no one 
seeing the Siamese plant out of flower would think for a moment of C. 

insigne, but rather of a narrow-leaved form of C. philippinense 

The differences which strike me most in the Siamese plant, in addition 
to the different habit, . . . are : the shorter scape, with smaller flower, 
of rather more rigid texture : the less undulate dorsal sepal, with the regular 
white margin all round, and the darker spots confined to the centre of the 
basal half, where are also a number of darker green lines; the connate 
lateral sepals considerably larger than the lip ; the shorter petals distinctly 
spotted at the base ; the smaller stouter lip, which, like the petals, is more 
yellow in colour, and very glossy : the smaller staminode, and, lastly, the 
different season of the year when the flowers are produced. Although the 
dorsal sepal and the central boss of the staminode bear some resemblance 
toC. insigne, . . . yet the lip is equally near to C. Druryi, while in 
general habit it is much nearer to tin- i ,st named. All things considered, 
I think it entitled to rank as a distinct species, fir which the name of C. 
Exul may be retained " (Rolfe in Lintknia, sub. t. ;j;i. The various plants 
which have since flowered indifferent collections have served to confirm 
most of these remarks, and there is no longer any doubt of its distinctness. 


-ibunda has appeared at 
e charge of Mr. 1". W. 
wing out of the centre of 
the bract of the lower 
and then with the lateral 
y their margins, but to 

In other respects 
remarkable. The 
> without a bract, 

possible that this 

R. A. R. 

A VLRV remarkable 


nee of Masdevalli 

a ll< 

the Royal 




nevin, und 

er ti 

Moore, wh 

ieh has tl 

ance e 

'f one flowe 

the other. 

On care 

fill exami 



flower has 



t first 

with the o 

sepals, whi 

Hi latter 

are not u 


toe;, ell ,,tl 

either side- 

of the bn 

ict. Tht 

; in, 

" or" in has 

• lsi 

sepals, and 

lensely spotted 

with brow i 

i in 1 

looks like a 

nal sepal 


en the two 

has a free 

apex, bu 


only a line 

1 represer 

t- the 

apie.llu. o 

■' lin- 

the flower 

is p. iter 

t. The 


flower is 

stalked a 

lid a 1 

ittle exseri 


but as the 

lateral si 

ipals of l 

:his o: 

:ie are con 


also is mad 

e up of the lateral 


and the bract. 

Last month 
Orleans Hous 

Mr. Clarke, 
was cut off be 
a seedling fro 


X Har 
■. Seft. 

The sc 

fore the 


228) we gav 


; a short description of the beautiful 

the collection of W. C. Clarke, Esq., 

tool, which received an Award of Merit 
yon July 28th, and now we ate able to 
need from a photograph kindly sent by 
owers. but the lowest oik- being deformed 
as taken. As previously remarked, it is 
the'pollen parent being the long-petalled 

Harrisi 1 
aph w 



' i 




L_ JL 


•ire very well combined in the hybrid 
the pollen parent, but the petals are 1 
flower is modified in other respects, t 
colour may be described as light y 
regularly striped and the basal half ol 


lp is also shining purpf-bi own 

s that the characters of the two parents 
In general habit it most resembles 
educea to 4.! inches in length, and the 
.■itli in shape and colour. The ground 
■llowish green, with the dorsal sepal 
"the petals spotted with purple-brown. 
;,, front and the staminode convex, 


obcordate, and pubescent all over. The leaves are marbled with two shades 
of green, much as in the seed parent. A fresh flower was also sent, together 
with a s.c.nd photograph showing the whole plant, which has evidently a 
more robust constitution than C. Sanderianum. It is a decided acquisition 
to the ranks of hybrid Cypripediums. Contrary to what was stated on page 
JJ.N. we believe that this hybrid was raised in the collection of Charles 
Winn, Esq., of Sclly Hill, Birmingham, as the following note from Mr. 
Winn will show :— " With regard to the seedling Cypripcdium X 
Harrisianuni X Sanderianum. when the latter was imported I purchased 
some plants, and one dowered very soon. I used the pollen, and had some 
dozen or more plants. I parted with a few of these, in exchange, to Messrs. 
Lewis, from whom my friend, Major Mason, purchased one, and Mr. Clarke 
tells me he purchased another. Probably- it is from these seedlings that the 
one exhibited flowered. Messrs. Charlesworth have now the remaining 
stock of beautiful healthy plants/' Thus it would appear that our 
note with respect to the origin of the plant was correct, though not as to the 
raiser. Whether the same cross has been raised in any other collection we 
cannot say. 


This interesting little plant has again flowered in the collection of A. H. 
Smee, Esq., The Grange, Carshalton. It was described by Keichenbach in 
1887 (Card. Chron., 1887, ii„ p. 2I4 ) from a single plant, which is still 
believed to be the only one in cultivation, and, curiously enough, its origin 
: still unknown. It passed through different hands before coming into Mr. 

possession, and is recorded to have first tlowi 

It still shows the peculiarity originallv pointed < 
colour of the small flowers," for when these first expand the lip is of a pretty 
light violet with a white line near the base. This hue graduallv becomes 
yellow, while at the same time the violet is replaced by yellow on the front 
of the lip. and passes into dull brownish-purple on tin- sides, until by the 
time the flower fades scarcely a trace of the original colour remains. The 
flowers are small, and borne in a branchin" raceme, something like some 
species of Sarcanthus. It is, however, a true Saccolabium. there being no 
trace of a septum in the spur. Although a botanical Orchid, it is a very 
interesting one, and the curious change of colour mentioned above is vef 
seldom seen in this family, though a few examples are known in which a 
distinct change of colour occurs before the flowers fade. 



A question has been raised by a correspondent as to the distinctness or 

otherwise of the forms of the pretty little Ladia pumila group, which are 
again beginning to flower, and as their history has been much confused, an 
account of them may probably prove interesting. 

Ladia pumila was originally described in the Itotanieal Magazine, in l.\;<>. 
under the name of Cattleya pumila, from a plant which flowered in the 
collection of John Allcard, Esq., in the previous year. It was said to have 
been received from the Essequibo, but the statement probably originated in 
some mistake, as the species is unqik stmnablv Brazilian. It was discovered 
by Gardner on the Organ Mountains in April. iSj;, and is noted as "found 
on the small branches of trees ; very rare." In 1844 it was also figured in 
the Botanical Register, from a plant which flowered in the establish- 
ment of Messrs. Loddiges, of Hackney, where its original introduc- 
tion is attributed to a French dealer, M. Pinel, who sent it from Brazil 
under the name of Cattleya marginata. It was afterwards stated that M. 
Pinel originally sent plants to M. Morel, an amateur of Orchids at Paris. 

This particular plant, Cattleya marginata, had been figured in the 
previous year in Paxtons Magazine of Botany, from a plant which flowered 
in October, 1842, with Messrs. Loddiges, who appear to have received an 
importation about this time, probably from M. Pinel. A few years later it 
was also figured in the Florist. 

In 1844 » plant flowered in Messrs. Rollisson's Nursery to which the 
name of Catthya Pinelii was given, which clearly indicates its origin. 
This was doubtfully admitted as distinct by Lindley, who remarked that it 
differed from C. pumila in having white sepals and rose-coloured petals, 
which were straight and almost exactly ovate, but was insufficiently known. 

In 1850 a plant was figured in the Florist under the name of Cattleya 
spectabilis. This, to... had flowered with Messrs. Loddiges, who exhibited 
it at one of the Royal Horticultural Society's Shows at Chiswick. The 
following note was contributed by Messrs. Loddiges :— " With respect to 
the Cattleya spectabilis, we received a small parcel of Orchids from Brazil 
'" the spring ,,f u s 4 o, amongst which were some Cattleyas having the 

appearance of marginata : man}' of these flowered 

such. This being 

stronger in growth evidently appeared different, and flowered in June, when 
it was exhibited at Chiswick ; it seemed to be an extraordinarily fine variety 
of marginata." 

In 1853 Keichenbach showed that Cattleya pumila was a true Lsha, 
ai "l gave the name under which it is now known, considering most of the 
Preceding as forms of the same species, which they evidently are. 

1" 1857 the same author described Ladia prastans from a plant which 


flowered in the collection of Herr Reichenheim, of Berlin, in the previous 
winter. It was compared with L;elia pinnila, bin was considered distinct 
on account of its large flowers, broad petals, and the broader more curved 
and ileshv tube of the lip. which was yellow inside. It came from the 
province of Santa Cathcrina, South Brazil. Two years later a plant 
appeared in the collection of Mr. John Day, at Tottenham, about which 
Lindley contributed an account to the Gardeners Chronicle, stating that it 
was purchased at Stevens' Rooms among Cattleya marginata. The flower 

In 1859 ;i plant was figured by Lemaire in the Illustniliim Hnrticli under 

the inline ef Cattleya pnmila major, which Reichenbach afterwards claimed 

I Ueli pi est 5. This had been sent by M. Pinel to M. 

wini. n Verscfc :: ll ii I > 5 5 . d-o under the name of Cattleya marginata. 

In 1X77 a still larger and very handsome form appeared in the collection 
of M. Massange de Louvrex, which was figured in the Belgique HorticoU in 
111" following year as Ladia pumila var. mirabilis. It is much like an 

I here is a very beautiful white variotv known as L. prcestans alba, which 
appear, d in the establishment of Mr. \V. Bull, of Chelsea, and received a 
Iii-t-i ! isa Certifi, at, ,„, 1 ), t ,,!„ r 8th, 1889. It may also be remarked that 
a similar award was given to L. pnestans typical on November 5th, 1867, 
and to L. pumila on June 2nd, 1869, both the plants being exhibited by 

1 pne- 

tans can 


.. pumila is doubtful. 

ho ret 

luce it to 

tin 1 ml 

: ti, .audi it by the 

in tl 

e type, 

.ver-lapping at their 

in te: 

eture, so 

that tl 

leJ < :n 

not be 

spread out without 

f the 

disc aim 

DSt Obst 

detc: 1 

iisc ora 

nge-yellow." These 


upon by 


nbach ■ 

to sepa 

rate it as a distinct 

an ex: 


of a sei 

ies of forms it 

is evident that they 

tpon a 




, the f 

.vi, last figures cited 


have th< 

ellow, z 

s has also the form 

j 1 sp. 


while Cattleya 


a major, which was 


. as Lali 

n>, has 

disc, while forms in 
v, been recorded on 
from the shape and 


Laelia pumila is n native of South Brazil, and is said to occupc 
extending from tin- eastern part of the province of Rio de Janeiro southwards 
to Santa Catlierina, where it grows upon trees on the mountain slopes at 
1,500 to 2,500 feet elevation. 

The following are the references to descriptions and lie. 

L.m.u pumila, Rohh. f. in /■'/. des Serres, ix. (1853), p. km 
ii., p. 44. t. 115, figs. 3-10; Warn. Sel. Orch., ser. 2. I. 32; Vatek Man. 
Orch.. ii.. pp. 77, 70, with tie;. : Rolf' in Curd. Chron.. i.Sijo. vih.. p. 242 ; 
Orchidophile, 1890, p. 50, with plate: Garienflora, xxxix.. p. 169 
hg- 3- 

Cattleya pumila. Hook. Bot. Mag., fxv. (1839), 1. 3656; Bot. Reg., 
xxx., t. 5 ; Card. Chron.. 1N.S5. i.. pp. 59(1. 5(17. fig. no. 

Bletia pumila, Rchb. f. in U'alp. A,,,,., vi. (1862), p. 421. 

Cattleya marginata, Paxt. Mag. Bot., x. (1843), p. 265, with plate; 
Florid, 1N51. pp. 25, <j,S, with plate: /-'/era/ ll'nrW, 1N74. p. 35.S. with plate. 

Cattleya Pinelii, Lindl., Bot. Reg., xxx. (1844), t. 5, fig. i, text, n. 9. 

Cattleya spectabilis, Florist, iii. (1850), pp. 89, 91, with plate. 

Laslia prastans, Rchb. f. in Bert. Allg. Garteuz, xxx. us, 
Lindl. in Gard. Chron., 1S59, p. 240; Bot. Mag., t. 54')' s i /;/ - ■' 
1900; Reichenbachia, ser. 2, I., p. 13, t. 6; Ore*. Album, s.. t. 433. 

Bletia prastans, Rchb. f. in Waif. Ann. vi. (1862), p. 425; Xe». Onh.. 
ii., p. 43- t. 114. 

Ladia pumila pnestans, Veitch Man. Orch.. ii. (1887), p. 79; Rolfi m 
Gard. Chron., 1890, ii., p. 242. 

Cattleya pumila major, Lent, in III. Hort., vi. (1859), t. 193. 

Ladia puinila major, Lent. I.e. in note. 

Ladia pumila var. mirabilis, E. Morr. in B'elg. Hort., xxviii. 
2 79, t. 17. 

L*lia Dayana was described by Reichenbach in 1876, from materials 
sent by the late Mr. John Day, of Tottenham, after whom it was named. 

The author remarked :— " An unexpected and lovely plant. Take a Ladia 
pumila and give the lip a very dark purplish border, similar very .lark 
veins covered with dark low lamella: : this is the Lslia Dayana. " :in ^ (l J 
honour of mv excellent correspondent. Mr. Day. who most 

... 1 . •■ rt ,vis -1 s,. compared 
«ven glorious flowers of this new Brazilian plant. It was a. 1 

with the rare Ladia Jonghcana. It was sent home by Mr. l'.oxall. the »>^ 
k 'iown collect, .r l"..r M, -srs. Hugh Low & Co.. and is said to have leen sen 
<">"<« ». duantttv with a batch of Ladia pumila. Messrs. Low also 

flowered it at the - time as Mr Dav. Sbortlv afterwards it was figured 

'". ^Floral \4aga ine Iw Mr Burbidge, under the name of L. pumila Dayana. 


There is not the same difficulty in distinguishing L. Dayana from L. 
puinila as is experienced in the case of L. pnestnns, for tile present one has 
the disc of the lip always traversed by rive to seven narrow keels, highest in 
the centre, which gives it a very distinct appearance. The flowers are also 
usually darker in colour, the margin of the side lobes and front lobe of 
the lip being deep purple ; they also generally appear rather earlier in the 
autumn. Owing to these differences it can easilv be retained as a distinct 

A very fine flowered variety known as L. Dayana superba, which 
appeared with Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, received a First-class 
Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society on November 18th, 1879; 
while a similar award was given to the type on January 17th, 1877, "lien 
exhibited by Sir Trevor Lawrence. 

The following are the references to descriptions and figures :— 
L.elia Dayana, Rchb. f. in Card. Chron., 1876, vi., p. 772 : Orch. Album, 
hi., t. 132. 

Laslia pumila Dayana, Burbidge in Fl. Mag., 1877, t. 249 ; Bclg. Hort., 
xxx., p. 185, t. 10 : Veitch Man. Orch., ii., p. 79 ; Rolfe in Card. Chrvn.. 
1890, viii., p. 242 ; Gartenflora, xxxix., p. 169, t. 1319, fig. I, 2. 

Respecting the culture of this group Messrs. Veitch, in their Manual of 
Orchidaceous Plants (11., p. 80), remark that they are best cultivated in 
shallow pans that can be suspended near the roof glass, where they can 
receive a maximum of light, and in a position where there is a considerable 
range of temperature between the opposite seasons of the vear. The small 
quantity of compost sufficient for the plants to root in must at no time be 
allowed to get dry, and during the growing season water must be liberally 
supplied; the higher temperature should then be maintained, takine. can- 
not to let it sink below 55° Fahr. This treatment is evidently consonant, 
as far as practicable, with the climatic conditions of the comparatively high 
latitude from which they are brought, and the altitude at which they 

LjELIA jongheana. 

• one appear to have again imported it, or even to know 
t is most allied to L. pumila, but has much larger 
istmct in other respects. It was described in 1872 by 
marked :-« Here you have a first-rank novelty. Ah ! 


Ladia majalis is degraded, Cattleya Mossiae and labiata have— according to 
my taste at least— a very dangerous rival. Imagine shining wood (sic), 

small bulbs of darkest green, very shining, exceedingly thick, quite a leaf- 
beauty; the flower as in La-lia majalis, but of the most brilliant amctlnst 
colour, as bright as that of Vanda teres itself— the sepals narrow, the petals 
very broad, a little crisp, the lip with pallid amethyst side larinia- - beautifullj 
crisp and denticulate : seven high keels of darkest orange in the enure of 
the lip: longer than the arched whitish column, and all veins of side 
lacinia; with radiating keels inside. The wonderful beauty of this grand 
flower is based on its purest colours, and it makes the beholder think of that 
little gem, Dcndrolmim Devonianum, by the combination of amethyst, 
yellow, and white, lite \ iolaceo-amethyst holder of the wonderfully wavy 
and denticulate lip adds the crowning beauty. 

The plant has just flowered with MM. Thibaut & Keteleer, at Paris. I 
have to thank M. Luddemann for it, that gentleman having sent it. . . . 
I am informed that it was flowered some years ago, and had been sent t<> 
me, but I never received it. Such a gem would not have been left 
unpublished. The merit of its introduction is due to the excellent M. de 
Jonghe, of Brussels. ... It was discovered by his ill-fated traveller 
poor Libon, who fell a victim to his zeal in the Brazils. They both belonged 
to the most ardent lovers of plants. If I mistake not, I remember to have 
seen the plant in 1856 with M. de Jonge. Libon praised it very highly, and 
named it Brassavola Jonghei. Thus the plant may bear the name of M. de 
Jonghe, in accordance with the wish of his young friend and zealous 
collector, the late M. Libon, and my own. Jonghe look out 
how many many Orchids would be capable to beat that one dedicated to 
him." (Card. Chron., 1872, p. 425. tig. 128.) 

In the following year it flowered in the establishment of Messrs. James 
Veitch & Sons, of Chelsea, and was figured in the Botania 
(»• 6038). A vcar later a figure of the plant which flowered with M. 
Luddemann was given in the li.vuc HorticoU (1873, p. z"i, with plate), and 
in 1875 another appeared in the Floral Marine (U.S., t. i; 7 >. These show 
the plant to have a dwarf stout habit, both bulbs and leaves being stout, 
'■hlong, and dark »ivon in colour while the flowers measure from four to 

five inches across. The sep; 

ds. petal 

s. and has 

2 of the li 

p are br 

illiant deep 

amethyst purple, and the t 
keels, yellow. In front of t 

olour pass 


the fin 

llite. while 

the crisped margin is more 1 
a hard dark line, as shewn 

in the Gar&aurt 

h purple : 
'Shronick t 

not. however, being 
igttre, but gradually 

shading off into the white c 

Messrs. Veitch remarked 

in several British collections 

,f the cei 

in 1887 

that it was now fortunately 

flowering in March, and we 

should like 


to know- if this is still the case, as it is a matter for regret that so little 
should be known of so handsome a plant. 

One hybrid from it has been raised, namely, the beautiful Ladio-cattleva 
X Baroness Schroder (Cattleya Trianae S X Laelia Jongheana 3 ), which 
was raised in the rich collection at The Dell, Egham, and received a 
First-class Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society on August 2.;rd. 

Under this title we recorded at page 180 an experiment which Mr. T. L. 
Mead is making at his home in Oviedo, Florida, in raising seedling Orchids. 
Mr. Mead now sends us a further note :— " The season has been a trying 
one. with extremes of heat and wet and drought, and though my Orchid 
eyrie in the live oak top promised great success in June, it was very difficult 
to keep the compost in good condition during tin- hot nmgg> days "f July. 
Still, out of thirty-two crosses planted on a space of p. .it -:\n - n inches l"ttg 
by twelve broad I obtained plaids having first leaf of twenty-two of them— 
mostly Cattleyas and Laslias— though a good many died when it was neces- 
sary to transplant them, on account of mould and alga; threatening to swamp 
the tiny plants. A single plant of Vanda ccerulea J X V. Amesiana 1 
appeared, and is now showing its third leaf. This year I have repeated the 
cross Bletia verecunda ? x Schomburgkia tibicinis 3 , and have several 
plants in their first leaf, and also one or two of Bletia verecunda crossed 
with our native Calopagon pulchellus." 

We shall be glad to hear from time to time of the progress of these 
interesting experiments, as also of those which any other of our readers have 


CYPRIPEDIUM X SCHOFIELDIANUM.— JoWn. of Ihni., Julv 3°. P' I01 ' 
fig. V). 

Dendrobium speciosissimum, Rolfe.— Card. Mag., Aug. 15, P- 55 1 . 
with tig. 

L.elio-cattleva x Andkeana.— Rev. Hort., July 16, p. 328, with 

Miltonia sp.— Card. Clirrm., Aug. 8, pp. 158, 159, tig. 29. This is M. 
flavescens, Lindl. 

Odontoglossum Galeottianum.— Card. Chum.. Aug. 8. p. 158. tig. 28. 

Sakcochilus hainanensis, Rolfe.— Bot. Mag., t. 7489. 


By H. A. Burberry, Highbury, Moor Creen, Birminglum. 

In the Cool Orchid house no warmth from the hot water pipes si Id be 

required this month. Ventilate freely both night and day, and keep the 
temperature as low as possible; at the same time keep up plenty of moisture 
by damping down several times during the day. The cool night an is a 
great invigorator, and the plants enjoy it. If healthy, robust growth is 
desired, fresh air, and plenty of it, must not be denied. 

This is, so far as Orchid flowers are concerned, a very dull season. To 
an enthusiastic grower, however, flowers alone are not the only pleasing 
feature. To my mind the sight of the plants growing so freely a! this 
season fully compensates for the lack of bloom. If previous instructions 
have been followed, the latter happy state of affairs will now exist : for at 
no time of the year do Cool Orchids grow so freely as at this season. 

But although flowers are scarce, there are still a few to be had. For 

time of the year. One very pretty ami useful sprcies lowering now is ( ). 
obryzatum ; its long and many-branched spikes carrying an enormous 
quantity of pretty little flowers of a golden yellow colour, spotted with light 
brown. Such spikes of bloom are very graceful, and produce a love k i It., t. 
This species is of easy culture, growing well either in pots or in baskets. If 
repotting is desirable, let it be done when new growths and roots are 
pushing. It is best removed to the Intermediate house during winter. 
Another exquisite little species is now in bloom in the form of O. Gardneri. 
It is not one lending itself very readily to cultivation ; hence its scarcity. 
I find generally that it grows best in the coolest house, except, perhaps, for 
a short time during winter, when it mostly happens that it is forming new- 
growth, necessitating, of course, the warmth of the Intermediate House. 
It is essential that it should be grown in small pans or baskets, and sus- 
pended. O. spilopterum (O. Saintlegerianum) is another species now in 
bloom, which promises to become a very pretty addition when more fully- 
established. In fact, it is very pretty already ; the large yellow labellum 
showing up the prominent violet-coloured crest very effectively. It appears 
to be of easv culture, growing well in the coolest house, in either pans or 

In this department a good many spikes will now be making then- 
appearance, which will bloom later on in the autumn and winter months. 
Amongst them may be noted such line things as Oncidium crispum, O. 
F °rt>esii, O. ornithorhynchum, O. tigrinum, and O. varicosum. Also 
Odontoglossum Edwardi, and O. ramossissimum. All should be carefully 
guarded against injury from the various troublesome pests. Tobacco 


powder rubbed on to the tender young spikes is a capital protection against 
most insects, and even slugs do not care to travel over it. The latter 
should be diligently sought for at night, and killed. A scooped-out potato 
is, I think, still the very best kind of trap in which to catch the greatest 
variety of pests, including slugs. 

If any of these Cool Orchids still require attention in the matter of 
repotting or top-dressing, no time must now be lost. As I have said before, 
I never recommend repotting Orchids later than this month. It is best 
to err on the safest side. In some localities I admit it can be done with 
impunity,- even throughout the' winter months, but that is where the air is 
clear, and consequently the light is good. In other places sunlight during 
the winter months is a rare commodity, and it is in such places where the 
greatest difficulties applying to cultivation occur. 

In the Mexican house, also, very little assistance from the hot water 
pipes will be required this month, unless the nights, or even the days, be 
unduly cold, when it is certainly by far the best and wisest plan to have a 
little warmth in the pipes, so that the ventilation need not be entirely 
closed. Nothing is more hurtful to Mexican Orchids than a stagnant 
atmosphere, and if a house is shut up close, without fire heat, it is 
absolutely sure to become so. It is better, then, to have slight warmth in 
the pipes with ventilation, and the thermometer ranging at night about 6o°, 
a little more or less. In this house, flower spikes of Lielia anceps, L. 
Gouldiana, and others of the same type will now be showing in quantities. 
Let them have exactly the same kind of treatment in all respects as 
previously advised— viz., watering them when dry only, keeping them near 
the light, and giving them the full sun, and an abundance of air in favour- 
able weather. It is best, perhaps, now to discontinue syringing overhead 
at night, doing it only the first thing in the morning ; otherwise a few spikes 
may be lost through damping. Cattleyas of the Warscewiczii and Warneri 
sections should also receive similar treatment in this department, for if 
they remain now in a warm and moister place there is great danger of their 
starting a second growth. 

I find that the general conditions of the Mexican house suits Burling- 
tonias better than any other. This is a genus that is seldom seen growing 
well for any length of time, and it seems to me that the cause is their not 
being grown sufficiently hardy. What is more sweetly delicate and lovely 
than a well-grown and flowered plant of Burlingtonia fragrans ? but it is a 
sight rarely seen. It always grows freely when first imported, and also 
blooms well the first year ; after which it slowly but surely becomes smaller 
and weaker, until it finally disappears. I would advise growers who have 
hitherto been unsuccessful to try it suspended in this department in full sun, 
keeping it syringed during the growing season. In reality it seems to require 


but little attention ; baskets or pans are the best receptacles, in which the 
plants should be fixed firmly, in the usual compost of peat and sphagnum 
moss. Such treatment is also to be preferred for the short-bulhed Cattleyas, 
such as C. nobilior, C. Schilleriana, C. Walkeriana, and C.citrina. 

Pleiones are now fast swelling up their new pseudobulbs. and must be 
given the lightest and airiest place in the house. Still give them a liberal 
supply of water, as the pseudobulbs will still continue to enlarge until the 
foliage turns yellow, and drops off; even after that it is a mistake to let 
Pleiones get too dry. 

The Cattleya house will alse require a little assistance from the lul 
water pipes when the weather is cold, maintaining :i nielil temperature from 
60° to 65 , with a circulation of air. Let the plants now receive a larger 
amount of light by reducing permanent shading, and by using the roller 
blinds only occasionally when the sun is very blight. Twice daily will now 
be sufficient for damping down the paths between the pots, &c, doing it 

the first thine in the 1 nine, and again about three or four o'clock in the 

afternoon. Many of the inmates of this department will by this time have 
almost completed their new growth ; such as the earliest of the labiata 
section of Cattleyas, like C. Triana: and C. Schrceders, whilst other later 
kinds, such as C. Mossia; and C. Mendelii, together with Lalia purpurata 
and some few others, have still a good deal to do. If it be possible it is 
best to place the former at the coolest and airiest part of the house, and the 
latter at the warmest part. Of course, those kinds having finished their 
growth will need less water at the root than others, but they should not at 
present be kept too dry. 

Ladias and Cattleyas newly imported at the end of summer do not 
establish so readily as those arriving in spring. The latter start away 
freely, and become firmly established during the summer, but those coming 
at this date are slow to break, and when they do so result in weak and 
spindly pseudobulbs. They therefore require careful handling. If it is 
impossible to import some species at any other time, we must make the 
best of them at this. They should be nicely potted up without delay, and 
taken to their respective houses, and the compost should be kept just moist, 
and also the immediate surroundings, so that shrivelling and tin undue loss 
of vitality is prevented before they start to grow. Those which show signs 
of making new growth should at once be encouraged to do so, by being 
given a little extra warmth and moisture, and by placing them at the same 
time near the roof-glass, where they get the maximum amount of light. 

Dendrobiums are also now rapidly finishing up new pseudobulbs. It is 
most essential that these Orchids have a complete rest during autumn and 
winter, in a much cooler temperature than that in which they make their 
growth. Upon this much will depend in the successful cultivation of this 


most beautiful and useful genus. Most of the various species of Dendro- 
bium can be well managed in one structure when growing, but when resting 
they are better for being separated, and placed in different houses. 
Generally speaking, the spring flowering kinds, such as D. crassinode, D. 
Wardianum, D. Falconeri, D. Devonianum, U. aureum (heterocarpum), 
D. nobile, and many other species and hybrids which flower only after 
resting, should, after completing their season's growth, be removed to a 
department offering similar conditions to the Mexican house, where they 
should remain throughout the winter months. Upon their removal the 
supply of water should gradually be lessened, and in a month or two's time 
a very little water indeed will be found necessary to keep the plants quite 
plump and healthy. Such evergreen species as D. thyrsiflorum, D. 
densinorum. &c, should, if possible, be given a place even cooler than the 
Mexican house. A cool greenhouse, for instance, where the temperature 
sometimes falls as low as 40 , providing the root and the atmosphere is dry, 
suits them well, as it also does D. Wardianum and the Thunias. On the 
other hand there are a lot of Dendrobiums that will take harm if subjected 
to a low temperature at any time, even when at rest. The chief amongst 
these are D. Bensoni, D. Lowii, D. macrophyllum, D. aggregatum, D. 
Dcarii, D. Parishii, D. formosum, and all the D. Phalamopis section. 
These would be seriously injured if allowed to become too cold. A 
temperature ranging from 6o° to 65 is a good one for them during the 
winter months. 

Such miscellaneous species as Monnodes, Catasetums, Cycnoches, 
Coryanthes, Chysis, and Cyrtopodiums, as they complete their growth, 
should be thoroughly well rested by being suspended in the lightest and 
dryestpart of the Cattleya or Mexican houses. 

Ladio-cattleya X elegans is a most variable Orchid, and a good many of 
its varieties are to be seen in flower at this time of the year. Although there 
are so many different varieties, I have never yet seen one that could not be 
called pretty, and worthy of its room. It should be grown at the warmest 
end of the Cattleya house ; as should also C. Leopoldi, C. granulosa, and 
C. elongata (Alexandra;), likewise now in flower. Cattleya Dowiana aurea, 
too. wdl be flowering this month. Take great care of this lovely and now 
rather scarce species, and see that it does not rot at the flower spike after 
the flowers are cut ; for, if so, the leaf, and the greater part of the pseudo- 
bulb, will decay before it can be stopped. When this is so, it is a great 
misfortune, for it has at all times a delicate constitution, and rarely is ■' 
possible to again bring the same plants back to their former strong and 
healthy condition. To avoid this, entirely remove the spike and the sheath, 
and sprinkle on the wound a pinch of powdered charcoal, at the same time 
placing the plants in a warm and dry position in the Cattleya house as the* 


winter quarters. C.labiatais also very liable to rot in exactly tin same 

manner. This must not be mistaken for a disease : il is siinph 

the damp, and it can only be avoided by the usual methods a.].. pled foi 

procuring a suitable atmosphere. 

Such East Indian house Orchids as Ae'rides, Saccolabimns. Valutas. 
Phalenopses, etc.. must now have a trine less water given thcin, and ;<Im> 
the amount of moisture in the atmosphere should be somewhat reduced. 
They have now partially completed their season's growth, and, like all other 
kinds of Orchids, it is necessary to ripen and harden these also. Hut it 
must be carefully done : species having no pseudobulhs are very rasil\ 
injured by extremes of treatment. All that is necessary, in addition to the 
above, is to shade less, and give as much air as the outside conditions will 


At the meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society held at the Drill I hill. 
James Street, Westminster, on August nth. there was a moderate displa) 
of Orchids, which included several interesting exhibits, particular!) .< \ >-r> 
fine form of Cattleya X Hardyana, and a second hybrid from ( attleya 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham (gr. Mr. Ballantin. 
a First-class Certificate for Cattleya X Hardyana splendens, one of the 
finest forms of this handsome hybrid yet seen, and exceedingly well grown. 
The flowers were large and well-formed, the sepals and petals most 
resembling C. Warscewiczii, but the lip very dark purple-crimson, ami 
veined with deep yellow, as in C. Dowiana. He also sent cut examples ol 
Lselio-cattleya X elegans, a richly coloured form, L.-c. X elegans 
Morreniana, and the rare L.-c. X Sedeni— the latter plant, we believe, not 
being represented in any other collection. 

R. I. Measures, Esq., Cambridge Lodge, Ca.nberwell (gr. Mr. 
Chapman), received a Bronze Banksian Medal for a very interesting group, 
including Lselio-cattleya X Schilleriana, Cattleya Wasrcewic/ii, the pretty 
little orange-red Lailia monophylla, Oncidium longipes, Cypripediutn X 
Clinkaberryannum, C. Godefroyje, C. X Lachmee, C. X Charles Canham, 
a fine plant of C. X cenanthum, Selenipedium X grande, the remarkable 
Pleurothallis scapha, Masdevallia Chimera, M. Barbeana. M. amab.lis. 
^eral good forms of M. coccinea I Harryanai, M. X Stella, M. guttulata, 
M Keiehenbaeluana, eve. A Botanical Certificate was given to the singula, 
'"tie Scaphosepalum anchonferum. , species formerly known as Masdevallia 


Sir Frederick Wigan, Clare Lawn, East Sheen (gr. Mr. Young), received 
an Award of Merit for Lselio-cattleya X elegans Cawenbergiana, a hand- 
some light-coloured form, with an inflorescence of nine large flowers. A 
ten-flowered inflorescence of a fine dark form of L.-c. X elegans was also 
sent from a plant hearing twenty-nine flowers. 

C. I. N. Ingram, Esq., Elstead House, Godalming (gr. Mr. Bond), 
received an Award of Merit for Ladio-cattleya X Seraph, a very interesting 
and pretty hybrid derived from L.-c. X elegans 2 and Cattleya citrina t. 
The pseudobulbs were dwarf and swollen about the middle, and the flower 
erect, much resembling the pollen parent in shape, but smaller, and the 
segments proportionately broader. The sepals am! petals were light yellow, 
tinged with green, and the front lobe of the lip crimson-purple. Th.- 
influence of the pollen parent was less marked than in C. X citrino- 

E. Ashworth, Esq., Harefield Hall, Wilmslow (gr. Mr. Holbrook), 
exhibited a very fine Cattleya Gaskelliana alba, the flower very large and 
pure in colour, and the handsome C. X Kienastiana (C. Lueddemanniana 
2 X C. Dowiana 3 ). 

Sir William Marriott, Down House, Blandford, showed Cattleya X 
Marriottise, a very pretty hybrid, derived from C. Eldorado and C. 
Warscewiozii, the latter presumably the pollen parent. It bore an in- 
florescence of five flowers, most resembling C. Eldorado, but the segments 
broader and a little darker. 

A. H. Milton, Esq., White Ladies' Road, Clifton, showed a curiously 
striped form of Cattleya Gaskelliana, and a six-flowered inflorescence of 
Cattleya Loddigesii. 

Pantia Ralli, Esq., Ashstead Park, Epsom, showed a very good form of 
Odontoglossum aspidorhinum, and cut examples of a pretty purple Sobralia, 
something like S. Lowii. 

A. Singleton, Esq., Chapel-en-le-Frith, sent an inflorescence of Ladia 
crispa, and Cypripedium X Singletonianum, said to be derived from C. X 
vexillarium and C. barbatum Warneri. 

Reginald Young, Esq., Frigilla, Linnet Lane, Sefton Park, Liverpool, 
sent good cut examples of Cattleya velutina, Ladia crispa Buchaniana, 
Laelio-cattleya x elegans Turneri, and L.-c. X e. Houtteana. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, staged a very pretty little group, 
containing Cattle) , Eld rad , Wallisii, Ladio-cattleya X elegans Turneri, 
two good plant, of Sobralia xantholeuca, Phaius Humblotii, the pretty 
dwarf Spathoglottis plicata Micholitzii, Miltonia vexillaria, the pretty 
Trichopilia brevis, Dendrobium bracteosum, and Eria accrvata. An Award 
of Merit was given to a very fine Cypripedium called C. X Excelsior var. 
Mars, derived from C. X Harrisianum and C. Rothschildianum. 


At the meeting held on August ->5th Orchids were exhibited in moderate 

numbers, being about the average for this time <if the year, and several of 

tile exhihits received awards. 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glcbelands. S. Woodford, losses (gr. Mr. 
Davis) received a Silver Mora Medal lor a tine group of well-grown plants, 
including the handsome Lalio-cattleva X Fowlcri. L.-c. X Aurora \ai. 
Vedasti, L.-c. X elegans, some good Cattlcva Dowiana. C. Eldorado, the 

white C. E. YVallisii. and C. Loddigcsii. the handsome Parhvst a Thorn- 

sonianum with several spikes, the rare and pretty Renanthera matiitina. 
Cycnoches ehloroehilon, Catasetum Bungerothii, the curious Stanhopea 
calceolus, Odontoglossum tripiidians. Dendrobhnn Phalauopsis. a good 
plant of Cypripedium LawTenccanuin Hycanum. and 

The President, Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart.. Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. 
White), sent a number of interesting things, including well-bloomed plants 
of Epidendrum alatum and E. Fournierianum, good plants of Cypripedium 
X euryandrum, C. X cenanthum and C. X Harrisianum superbum, a tine 
spike of RhviK dlostvlis retlisa. cut flowers of Maxillalia fueata, and a plant 
of Eria stellata with several racemes. Well-grown plants of Habmana 
carnea and its variety nivosa received a Cultural Commendation. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild, Tring Park (gr. Mr. Hill), sent three 
interesting plants, to each of which an award was given. These were Mil- 
tonia Schrcederiana major, a handsome form with flowers larger than in the 
type, which received an Award of Merit ; an unnamed Bulbophyllum from 
Borneo, allied to the Himalayan B. striatum, Rchb. !.. with glossy light 
yellowish brown, delicately striped flowers, a Botanical Certificate : and 
Cycnoches maculatum with a long pendulous raceme of male flowers, an 
Award of Merit. The latter is described at page 228 of our last number. 

Major Joicey, Sunningdale Park (gr. Mr. Thorne), staged several line 
things, including the pretty little Odontoglossum aspidorhinum with four 
spikes, the handsome Anguloa eburnea. Stanhopea Lowii var. Amesiana, 
Cattleya Leopold!, and an unnamed species of Warscewic/clla. The three 
following each received an Award of Merit :-Lslia monophylla with large 
flowers, one of the spikes hearing two blooms, a good plant of Stanhopea 
eburnea, and Miltonia Candida grandiflora. a very tine form with three 

Col. Brymer, Ilsington House, Dorchester (gr. Mr. Powell,, exhibited 
the handsome Laelio-cattleva X Brvmeriana (L.-c. X amanda ? X I attlcya 
Warscewiczii 3 ), bearing a strong raceme of five flowers, to which a First- 
class Certificate was given. _ . _j 

T. B. Haywood, Esq., Woodhatch, Reigate (gr. 
™ Award of Merit for Ceelogyne Micholitzii, 

. a handsome thing allied to C. 


W. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange, Stone (gr. Mr. Stevens), received 
a Cultural Commendation for a splendid plant of Lalio-cartleya X elegans 
var. Cawenbergiana with two spikes, and an Award of Merit for a very fine 
plant of Dendrobium longicomu, covered with its pretty white and orange 
flowers. He also sent a large and prettily-blotched form of Odontoglossum 

T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefleld, Manchester, sent the handsome 
Cypripedium X Excelsior (C. Rothschildianum ? X C. X Harrisianum 3), 
and handsome forms of Lriio-cattleya X clegans and L.-c. X Schilleriana. 

Reginald Young, Esq., Fringilla, Linnet Lane, Sefton Park, Liverpool 
(gr. Mr. Poyntz), sent Cypripedium X Ashburtonia- expansum, the form 
raised by Mr. Cookson ; and C. X Atropos, a small and brightly-coloured 
hybrid derived from the last-named crossed with C. purpuratum. It was 
described at page 292 of our last volume. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Clapton Nursery, staged a fine group, to 
which a Silver Banksian Medal was given. It included some well-flowered 
plants of Dendrobium Phalamopsis and D. formosum, good specimens of 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, exhibited a fine form o 
Ladio-cattleya X Clonia (Cattleya Warcewiczii ? X L.-c. X elegans 
Turner! 3 ). 

Messrs. IS. s. Williams & Son, Upper Holloway, showed a fine plant of 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, showed the handsome I.adio- 
cattleya x Gottoiana.a natural hybrid between Cattleya Warneriand LaJia 

Mr. J. W. Moore, Bradford, showed an undeveloped species of 
Cymbidium of the C. pendulum group. 


the flower win!,: h'e,h, ,'arcfull'v mm„e TT,! .and 
w ^fl°w=rforafe«r days in blotting paper. T 
preservec n- this pmress, and the speeies ran easily be in o- 

W. II. A., Blackburn. A good form of Cattleya Leopoldi. 

the shape and colours 


4 i . / i \ ^ 



Tie 6rehid )grou)eM' Manual 


<>}!.;■„/■> J},, I, ,,■},,, J |/|.„„, ' • <.;;,,■! /.-,,„.„,„/ !.[in, r ,<i*: "<7l""S Slur. ■:.■! I... . ;*;■■.,■■ l'n.:<; no./ ]■!.</< 

•'Vhuicc .S/r.c. -nW i , ,v. 11;,... -. < i«,<iMi:..i" 1 l'l,vit», Ac. 

7th Edition, Enlarged and Revised up to the present time, by 

nth 54 Page and 2s; H.uililc hige Kngnivings on Wood, togel 
Types of the Various (i.e. 

nlarged to Xoo pages. It c 

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Orchids I Orchids I 




Collections and They earnestly invite the inspection of intending purchasers. 




GEO. HANSEN, Jackson, California. 


Of every description from 1- each ; samples post fret 
1/3. Rare Plants at bow Prices. 1"' 








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Try them once, you'll buy again, 

Don't forget Seasell's the name. I *-j- 





B E ^etr:; 

nu-nui- patmns and IneiMs iha: :hey have purchased the 
Orchids formed by Mr. Winn, of Birmingham, whose name 
w su wen-known to all lovers or Orchids. The collection is in excellent condition, 
the plants being clean, vigorous and well cultivated, it embraces all the best known 
species and varieties besides containing many rare and some unique plants. 

Mr. Win 
Plants in 8owe 

collection over thirty years, buying many nt ! 

n ported plants haw been pur' iia>ed ami flowered, none but 
"»e Dest varieties have been kept. The same course has been persued with the 
seedlings, the inferior varieties having been disposed of in various ways. 

A Catalogue of all the species, varieties, and named hybrids, also plains with 
seeds on them not visibly germinating, is in course of preparation, and will be for- 
»arded at an early date. 

Non-Customers can hare a Catalogue on affiliation. 




Charlesworth & Co, 

Heatoo, BRADFOp, 

Have a large and fine stock of established 
and imported Orchids. 


Orchids ! 
Orchids ! 
Orchids ! 

Established and Imported. 










Upper Clapton, 


r. WEEKS & CO., 

toorticultural BuUDera 

>ept., Ko^^Hort.' Soc.^HwU Botanic Soc, 
Telegraph. "HORTULANUS." London. 

Patentees of t he D uplex Hprigh t Tubular Boilers, 






Orchid Houses, 

Cucumber and 

Melon Houses, 



All Classes of 

Hot Water Boilers 

Heating Apparatus. 

OCTOBER, 1896. 


an 3Uu5tratcB HDontblv Journal, 


Calendar of Operations for October .. 


Lrclio-cattleya X Clive 

Catasetum Bungerothii 

. 292 

Natal Orchids 

Cattleya Disease v 

■ 3°7 


Cattleya X Hardyana 

Correspondence, &c 


Cirrhopelalum graveolens 

Corvanthes maculata vitrina (Fig. 15).. 


Cvrtopodium niicranthum 

Cypripedium x Atropos and C. X 

Kpidendrum xipheroides 


Oncidium Jonesianum flavens 

Cypripedium x Calceolus macranthos 


Oncidium panduratum 

Cypripedium x Hamsianum virescens 

Orchid Portraits 

Cypripedium x Rossianum 

Orchids at Royal Horticultural Society 

Cypripedium x Thayerianum 


Orchids at Twickenham 

Dies Orchidians 

Epidendrum osmanthum 


Sacred Orchid 



Seed vessels ot Orchids 

Cattleya x Euphrasia 

Selenipedium X Sedeni abnormal ... 

Cypripedium x Rotbwellianum 

iup for Orchids ... 

Lselio-cattleya x Bryan 




[■/Vie right of repr, 


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The Editor invites short communic 
written on one side of the paper only), also portr; 


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JAMES VE5TCH & SONS, TRc^al Ejotic IRunsaw 




Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the Drill 
Hall, James' Street, Westminster, during October, on the ijth and 27th 
respectively, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hum of 

We learn that Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., of the Clapham Nursery, have 
acquired the entire collection of Orchids belonging to the late Mr. F. G. 
Tautz, of Dibdin House, Hanger Hill, Ealing. It consists for the must 
part of undowered seedlings of Cypripedium, fully a thousand plants, and as 
Mr. Tautz was an enthusiastic hybridist it is anticipated that some good 
things will be found as they come into flower. Among named firms. 
Cypripedium X Cowleyanum, C. X Mrs. Tautz, and C. X N'andii may be 

It is exceptional for Miltonia spectabilis to produce tuo-flowered scapes, 
but a plant of the variety Moreliana, in the collection of John \Y. Arkle, 
Esq., West Derby, Liverpool, has just produced one. It is one of a few 
imported about a year ago, and the only one that will flower this season. 

An unusually large form of Cattleya Leopoldi has appeared in the 
collection of H." B. Boardman, Esq., Thornleigh, Burton. Westmoreland, 
in which the flowers measure over 5! inches across the petals, 

spondingly well developed. 

be;ir> t hi r; 

wers. It flowered out of Messrs. John Cowan & Co.'s importations. 

We learn that an albino of Lielia prastans has appeared in the collec- 
"i of D. B. Rappart, Esq., Liscard, Cheshire, as an imported plant. 
Pals, petals, and lip are all pure white, with only the addition of a trace 


of yellow in the throat. L. prsestans alba approaches the nearest to this 

condition of any form we have yet seen, but this has some purple on 
the lip. 

Another form of Cattleya Lueddemanniana has flowered in the same 
collection, this one being of great size, as the flower sent measures gi inches 
in diameter across the petals. The latter are 2$ inches broad, and the 
front lobe of the lip a little narrower. 

Several beautiful flowers have been sent from the collection of T. 
Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield, Manchester, by Mr. Johnson, 
including Ladio-cattleya X Nysa superba, with very richly coloured lip, 
L.-c. X elegans blenheimensis, and three varieties of the beautiful Dendro- 
bium Phalaenopsis, all of them very useful autumn flowering things. 

Some little difference occurs in the colour of the markings on the lip of 
Dendrobium formosum, and this is very marked in two flowers sent from 
the collection of Reginald Young, Esq., of Sefton Park, Liverpool, one of 
them having the disc chrome yellow, and the other distinctly orange, 
forming a striking contrast. 

Other beautiful flowers from the same collection are Vanda Sanderiana, 
Miltonia spectabilis Moreliana, a fine flower of Cypripedium X Youngianum, 
the uppermost and smallest of a spike of three, the pretty little Ladia 
Lucasiana, and a good form of Ladio-cattleya X Schilleriana. 

We have received from Messrs. Charlesworth & Co. the Catalogue of 
the Selly Hill collection of Orchids, which they are now offering for sale, 
comprising over two thousand lots. It comprises all but the unflowered 
seedlings, and plants with seedlings growing on the pots, which will be 
included in a later catalogue. We note, however, many plants with seeds 
sown on the pots not yet visibly germinating, and others carrying seed-pods 
of which the parentage is given. On plants of Sophronitis grandiflora, for 
example, there are seed-pods representing crosses with Cattleya Gaskelliana, 
C. labiata, C. Loddigesii, C. maxima, Ladia Dayana, L. harpophylla, and 
Epidendrum X Endresio-Wallisii. The Catalogue contains a large number 
of choice things. 

A fine flower of Miltonia spectabilis Moreliana has been sent from the 
collects of W. S. M'Millan, Esq., of Maghull, near Liverpool. The 
sepals and petals are very dark, and the lip 2 | inches broad. 

With respect to the seedling Vanda, mentioned at page 280, Mr. Mead 
writes that he now suspects the plant may have come from a seed of some 

t&£ orchid review. !9 , 

other genus which has got in among the Vanda seeds in some way— a 
kind of accident with which most hybridists will be familiar. 

A very curious flower of Cypripedium Charlesworthii has appeared in 
the establishment of Messrs. Hurst and Son, Burbage Nurseries, Hinckley. 
The dorsal sepal is absent, or, rather, it may be described as united to the 
lower one, for the single sepal present is underneath the lip, and has the 
appearance of the dorsal sepal divided, and half of it united to either side 
of the lower one, each organ retaining its own distinctive colouring. The 
two petals are united into a single erect one, thus taking the place of the 
dorsal sepal, while the fertile anthers are either absent, or united with the 
staminode, which itself is only represented as a single white tooth. The lip 
and stigma are normal. 

A curious proliferous growth of Epidendrum cochleatum has also 
appeared in the same collection. It appears at the base of the pseudobalb, 
and quickly divides into two small, almost seedling-like shoots, from 
which roots have begun to push. It looks very different from an ordinary 
growth, but it is difficult to suggest any reason for the peculiarity. 

This is one of the handsomest Epidendrums of the Encyclium group, and 
is now flowering freely in collections, though under other names. It is a 
native of Brazil, end was described in 1881 by Rodrigues {Gen. d Sp. Orch. 
»»»•, ii., p. 134). The author remarks that it grows in the forests near 
Casa de Pedra, in the province of Minas Geraes, flowering in September, 
the flowers being very aromatic. In 1891 Messrs. F. Sander and Co. intro- 
duced some plants from the Pernambuco district, and the original description 
king overlooked, the plant was re-described under the name of E. Godseffi- 
anum (Rolfe i n Card. Chron., 1892, xi., p. 136), and still later as L. 
Capartianum (L. Lind. in Lindema, VII., t. 333)- The identity of E. 
°smanthum with these later forms was only recently discovered from the 
examination of M. Barbosa Rodrigeuz's original drawings, which contains 
a coloured sketch of a single flower, and, of course, the original name must 
•* stained. The flowers are about I* inches across, and borne m large 
Prides, the sepals and petals being light, green, more or less suffused or 
°^ed with light brown, and the lip white, with some bright «~*g* 
lln «on the front lobe. It is allied to E. atropurpureum, W.Ud., and .s 
no * Pretty well known as a useful autumn-flowering species. 



A plant of Catasetum Bungerothii in the establishment of Messrs. F. 
Sander and Co., St. Alban's, has produced a spike of three flowers which are 
in a transition state between the sexes. The lower flower is nearly a female, 
but the saccate lip has in addition the broad white membranaceous margin 
of the male and the column is also beaked. The second flower is nearly a 
male, but the lip has a sac three-quarters of an inch deep, instead of being 
simply concave ; while in the third flower the sac is still smaller. In each 
case the sac is fleshy, as in the female flower. It is a very curious example. 

R. A. R. 


Last month I alluded to Cattleya X Hardyana (p. 264), and I even 
mentioned a " batch of home-raised seedlings " as among the possibilities 
of the future ; but little did I suspect that at that very moment home-raised 
seedlings were actually expanding their magnificent blooms on the banks 
of the Tyne. Such, however, was the fact, and a few days later they 
appeared in all their glory at the Drill Hall. There were two plants, cne 
bearing a single flower, the other a raceme of two, but unquestionably 
Hardyana ; home-raised, obtained by crossing Cattleya Dowiana aureawith 
the pollen of C. Warscewiczii just nine years ago. Mr. Cookson and his able 
gardener took that lesson about Cattleya x Hardyana to heart at a time 
when Mr. Hardy might have obtained a record price for his handsome 
novelty, and set about obtaining it for themselves. And they have succeeded, 
as all the world now knows. There will be no need to speak of Cattleya X 
Hardyana as a " supposed " natural hybrid in future, for its origin has been 
proved by direct experiment, and if the result only confirms the opinion of 
our most competent experts it is none the less interesting on that account. 
Nothing short of actual demonstration was sufficient to set the question at 
rest, for even as late as September 2nd a note appeared in Garden and Forest 
(!>■ 354) that some forms of C. gigas "so nearly resemble C. Hardyana that 
one eels disposed to look upon the latter as a sport simplv from C. gigas." 
On the other hand, one form at least of C. X Hardvana has been ranked as 
a variety of C. Dowiana, from which the utilitv of such exoeriments as the 

present one will be 

apparent. Probably others ' 

have just dropped across a storv entitled, " The flowering of the 
strange Orchtd," which puts that of the "village of the demon flower" 
the shade, and I fear that my congratulations on the failure of 

xpedition were a little 

premature. It would appear that one Winter 


Wedderburn was an enthusiastic amateur of Orchids, and, as need hardly 
be explained, was in the habit of visiting the Sale Rooms where things new 
and strange are sometimes to be found. One day, after a preliminary 
announcement to his housekeeper that he felt as if something was about to 
happen, he started out to attend a great sale of Orchids from India and the 
Andaman Islands, the spoils of a collector who was never heard of again, 
though, of course, his plants were. Nothing very important happened, 
however, at least so it might appear to the casual observer, though he 
secured the inevitable " few dried sticks." including the very one under 
which the collector's dead body was found, and these were deposited 
lovingly on the dinner table, pro. ton., for the facts being detailed over the 
soup nearly led to a contretemps, and the things had to be removed in 
deference to the prejudices of the worth} housekeeper. Next day there 
were great preparations for potting the new arrivals, which being duly 
accomplished, they were placed in the Orchid house, and pro: 
reported from time to time. Eventually all proved dead but the one afore- 
mentioned, on which a new growth appeared. Nothing, however, would 
reconcile the worthy housekeeper to it ; it was enough that she saw the 
" tentacles " gradually developing. In due time the buds appeared, and the 
psychological moment was at hand when they would unfold their mysteries. 
Our hero now sallied forth to inspect the wonder. It would at least be a new- 
species, possibly a new genus. He entered the house. Could it be ? Yes, 
there were the strangely marked blossoms, and he inspected them eagerly. 
They were scented, too.' But what is this ?-a haze floated before his eyes, 
his head began to swim, he swayed and— Had the sight been too much for 

Dinner waited, but our hero came not. Had he not gone to inspect the 
•* Orchid ? so our housekeeper wended her way in that d.rectton. But 
on opening the door what a sight met her view. There was our hero on 
the floor, with the tentacles of the plant entwined around h.s prostrate 
f °™. The brave woman rushed to the rescue. But the smell! Her 
h ««l. too, began to swim, and another catastrophe was imminent. 
Quickly realising the situation she made a dash for the door, winch she 
fortunately reached in time, and with a suitable weapon the glass of he 
st ™cture was quickly demolished, allowing the smell to diffuse. Aga. 
^hed to the scene "of the tragedv, and tins time succeeded .. ^"^ 
h «ofrom the clutches of the monster, whose tentacles -"*££ 
^Merable damage. The handy man now turned up an h *™ 
^"e off ,o the house, where he was slowly nursed back to life a am 
*"* outline, and my readers can fill in the details for themselves as they 
P e «e, should they fail to fall in with the original. 


Is not this the Orchid of the demon village seen from a somewhat nearer 
standpoint ? My readers will remember that the members of the expedition 
were only able to view it from a respectful distance through their field-glasses, 
and, under these circumstances, they might easily have overlooked the 
tentacles. It is true that the Andaman Islands are not exactly in Brazil, 
but with such a substantial agreement in the main facts one can easily 
overlook a few discrepancies in detail. And here the matter must be left 
for our experts to decide. 

And now, joking apart, let me ask is it any wonder that the general 
public entertain some remarkable notions about Orchids when such pre- 
posterous absurdities and gross distortions of facts are put before them ? A 
phrase once applied to Orchids in a somewhat different sense may be 
repeated here :-•• It is high time such noxious superstitions were 


Mk. Charles Andre, in he Journal des Orchidks, gives an account of his 
experiences when on a botanical expedition by the shores of the river 
Amboan, which, though interesting to read when safe at home, gives a good 
idea of the unexpected dangers often incurred by botanical collectors. M. 
Andre was ,n search of Ccelogyne aspersa, and happened to be in a Dyak 
hut when the natives were sorting rice preparatory to sowing it. In the 
evening a noisy procession entered the hut and the females who were among 
them laid with much ceremony large bouquets and garlands of the longed- 
for Orchid on and around the stores of rice. Such was the quantity of 
blooms that the perfume was so powerful as to drive the explorer out of the 
house to spend the night in his boat. He afterwards heard that seed-time, 
as well as harvest, ' 
on theii 

important season to the natives, who are dependent 

eir crops, and that he had witnessed rejoicings caused by the abundance 

at year of the Ccelogyne asperata blooms, which were believed to herald 

an equally fertile harvest. When, some time later, M. Andre returned to 

the spot with, among other treasures, a load of the all-important Orchid he 

chance oTf ^ °'" ^^^ g " ef a " d hatred ' a " d that his «*> 
and n =° j ! 7 aS '" a onerous distribution of money and tobacco 

mined an a t f ■ ^ ^ " the °P inl ° n of the D > akS ' C ° m " 
of -hi,* »k i.,. Sacnlege m gathering plants sacred to them, the lives 

clL t Sn '' 6d W6re In S ° me ^ c —cted with their own.-** 

LHron., 1890, viu., p. 5 66. 



The history of this very handsome species, together with a figure of :i very 
beautiful specimen from the collection of R. Brooman White, Esq., of 
Arddarroch, were given at page 337 of our first volume. The following 
interesting note by Mr. E. O. Orpet, South Lancaster, U.S.A., appears in 
Garden mid Forest for August 26th (p. 348) : — 

"This is one of the most beautiful of Orchids, considering the wealth of 
bloom produced from comparatively small plants ; the sprays are long, 
arching gracefully, and the flowers are of the purest white, with a trace of 
yellow on the lip. This plant is not new, it having been well known at the 
lime of its introduction, just fifty years ago, but like many other Orchids, 
as, for example, Cattleya labiata, it became scarce after a time, and not 
until the re-discovery of the Cattleya did this Rodriguezia appear again. 
Both Orchids come from the same part of Brazil, Pernambuco. Our plant, 
in a small pan, had twelve flower-spikes, and it was exceedingly pretty when 
in bloom, but owing, probably, to the intense heat at the time, and the 
amount of moisture present in the atmosphere, the flowers only lasted a few 
days. They seem to be self-fertilising, as a number of the caps containing 
the pollen were found on the bench under the plant, some at quite a 
distance, as though they were forced off by some mechanical means, such 
as those developed in Catasetum and other genera, and a day or two later 
many of the seed-vessels began to swell. The flowers were evidently 
impregnated without artificial aid, not common among Orchids, though there 
are well known exceptions to the rule. It would be interesting to learn if 
other cultivators have had the same experience with this Rodriguezia, as I can 
find no record of this in any work to which I have access. We find it best 
grown in a pan or other open receptacle suspended in the warmest house 
the roots are slender, and seem to avoid the compost of living moss as much 
as possible, preferring to grow out and breathe in the moisture in the 
atmosphere. It was tried among the Ca.tleyas for a time, for we thought 
this ought to be the place for it, as it is found growing with .hem, but some 
of the young growths soon began to decay. It ev.dentH was not warm 
enough there, so it was taken back to the warmest house, where , ha 
prospered. When re-introduced into cultivation, like many more plants it 

are self-fertilising, and should consider the occurrence as exceptional. 


This distinct and pretty Oncidium, which flowered in the collection of 
Welbore S. Ellis. Esq., Hazelbourne, Dorking, in October, 1894, was again 
exhibited at the Royal Horticultural Society's meeting on September 8th 
last. It is a native of New Granada, and was sent home by Mr. A. Millican, 
with Odontoglossums, in 1891, and was described early in 1895 (Rolfe, in 
Kew Bull., 1895, p. 9 ; Orck. Rev., III., p. 83). The species is allied to 0. 
bracteatum, Rchb. f., and O. anthocrene, Rchb. f., but has smaller flowers, 
which are borne in a narrow panicle about two feet long. The sepals and 
petals are deep chestnut-brown with crisped-undulate narrow yellow 
margins, and the lobes of the small pandurate lip are bright yellow, with a 
shining brown disc. The column is without wings. It has much ofthe 
habit of an Odontoglossum, and the pseudobulbs have some broad blackish 
bars at the base. It is a very distinct species, and at present we do not 
know of its existence in any other collection. 



This is a handsome hybrid raised in the collection of Norman C. Cookson, 
Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne, from Cattleya Gaskelliana ? and La-lia 
crispa 3 , to which an Award of Merit was given on September 8th last by 
the Royal Horticultural Society. It is comparable with L.-c. X exoniensis, 

but the front lobe of the 

liform crimson-purple 

for the paler much-crisped margin, as 'in the Cattleya parent, 
whole it most resembles the last-named, the sepals and petals being light 
rosy-purple ; but in the shape of the lip, the yellow throat, and the shape of 
the segments, the influence of Lalia crispa is distinctly seen. It is a large 
and handsome hybrid, the petals measuring over l| inches broad. It is 
one ofthe many fine things raised by Mr. Murray. 


A distinct and very pretty hybrid between Cypripedium Argus ? and 
C Stone, J was exhibited by Messrs. F. Sander & Co. at the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society's meeting on September 8th last, under the above name, 
t >ore a raceme of two flowers, which well combined the characters of the 
two parents. In general shape it may be compared with one or two others 
"tie Morganis type, the characters of C. Stonei being most apparent. 
1 he dorsal sepal ,s greenish-white, delicately lined with faint purplish lines. 
e petals somewhat similar in the ground colour, with several dark bromi 
blotches, and the front of the lip of a reddish-pink tinge. The shape is 
good, the ground colour clean, and the blotches, on the petals, derived from 
^ Argus, set the flower off to advantage. It is a very promising thing. 


Cattleya X Euphrasia. 
Another handsome hybrid raised in the establishment of Messrs. James 
Veitch & Sons, from Cattleya Warscewiczii ? and C. superba s . to which 
an Award of Merit was given by the Royal Horticultural Societ) on Sep. 
tember 8th last. The flower is of good form and substance, and most like 
the seed parent in general character. The sepals and petals are bright rose- 
purple, and the lip subentire, rich crimson-purple in front, the throat 
nearly white, with a pair of light yellow blotches at the sides, and some 
reddish nerves towards the base of the disc. The features of C. superba 
are less prominent than might have been expected. 

All the natural hybrids of the genns Cypripedium from tropical region* 
which have hitherto appeared have been described in our pages, and it will 
therefore be interesting to add an account which appeared some time ago 
of the single example known from temperate regions :— 

" The appearance of a genuine natural hybrid in the genus Cypripedium 
is a matter of considerable interest, as until quite recently no single example 
was known, notwithstanding the facility with which they can be raised in 
gardens by artificial means. Few of the species grow together in a wild 
state, however, so that few opportunities occur for the flowers to be cross- 
fertilised by insects. C. Calceolus and C. macranthos are both natives of 
Siberia, and we now know not only that they grow intermixed, but that they 
may be cross-fertilised. M. Barbey, of Geneva, has recently published an 
account of a natural hybrid between them, and given an excellent coloured 
plate of it, together with its two parents. About ten years ago the late 
M. Edmond Boissier obtained a batch of plants of C. macranthos, which 
were planted on the rockwork of the garden at VaUeyres. After several 
seasons they flowered, and among them appeared not only macranthos, but 
C Calceolus, and a third form, quite intermediate in character, which, after 
careful examination," M. Barbey was convinced was a natural hybrid between 
'hem. It appears that in the Birch forests of Western Siberia, whence the 
Plants were obtained, these two species occur indiscriminately intermix 
The plate amply proves M. Barbey 's contention, as the hybrid 
i every respect, just 

the multitude of artificial ones I have 
examined. The flower" is 'smaller than C. macranthos, and much paler in 
colour, the dorsal sepal narrower, more acute, and shaded with brown, the 
Petals longer, and twisted; the lip intermediate, but slightly fluted, as ,n 
C - macranthos; and the staminode and lower sepal also thoroughly inter- 
mediate. It i s not only extremely interesting, but decidedly handsome.- 
R olfe in Gard. Ckron., 1892, xi., p. 394- 


Another natural hybrid must be added to the list of those whose parentage 
has been proved by experiment, namely, the handsome Cattleya X 
Hardyana. Two artificially raised plants were exhibited at the meeting of 
the Royal Horticultural Society on September 8th, from the collection of 
Norman C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne, and, needless to 
say, attracted a good deal of attention. These, Mr. Murray states, were 
obtained by crossing Cattleya Dowiana aurea with the pollen of C. Warsce- 
wiczii (gigas), the cross being made in August, 1887, the seed sown twelve 
months later, and the first flowers expanding in August of the present year, the 
plants thus being eight years old. One of them bore a single flower, and 
the other a spike of two, which were quite identical with some forms of the 
wild plants. The sepals and petals are rosy purple, most resembling those 
of C. Warscewiczii ; the front lobe of the lip rich crimson-purple, and very 
undulate; the disc bearing some of the characteristic golden veining of C. 
Dowiana, while on the sides of the throat are two deep yellow blotches. It 
is a very interesting matter to have the parentage thus confirmed, and as there 
are additional seedlings of the same batch which have not yet reached the 
flowering stage, it will be curious to watch whether any of them prove more 
like the seed parent than the two above-named. Possibly some one may 
have tried the reverse cross, and whenever the plants flower it will be 
interesting to note the result. Probably some of the choice white varieties 
will in due time appear, and in any case the present example is sure to lead 
to renewed efforts to obtain them artificially. Whether they are more 
likely to result from the reverse cross, or whether they appear exceptionally 
as single individuals among batches of the coloured forms is at present 
quite uncertain ; meantime, however, we may note that in the present 
examples the flowers most resemble the pollen parent in colour. 

The dull season is now about over, and the usual autumn-flowering species 
are rapidly putting in an appearance. Even such autumn flowerers as 
Cattleya labiata and C. Bowringiana have some buds now well advanced; 
and having grown so well during the past summer, will soon make a superb 
display. The same may be said of Cypripedium insigne-indeed, a flower 
on a very forward plant has already expanded. The two Cattleyas of this 
particular season are C. Dowiana and C. X Hardyana. Both are superb, 
and I am never tired of admiring their beauty. Several of the former, how- 
ever, are still m bud, and the display will be finer in a week or two. C. 


elongata has also put in an appearance, and is very prettv, though not yet 
equal to what we were led to expect. Ladia Dayana is still good, and ihe 
pretty little orange-coloured L. monophylla is just now very attractive, 
while Laelio-cattleya X elegans and L.-c. X Schilleriana are not yet over! 
They have been very good this season. 

Oncidiums are always to the front in the autumn, and the species of the 
O. crispum group are now very gay. There is O. crispum itself, with a 
great panicle of its large and handsome brown flowers, with a little yellow 
on the lip ; the equally brilliant O. Marshallianum, in which the yellow as 
strongly predominates; the handsome O. Forbesii ; the clear yellow O. 
concolor, which, as well as O. Marshallianum, is even better in June: the 
pretty white and purple O. incurvum with its large panicles of flowers. (). 
ornithorhynchum with much branched panicles of light-purple flowers, ( >. 
caesium, the graceful O. flexuosum ; O. obryzatum, the handsome O. sar- 
codes ; and O. micropogon with the lip prettily fringed in the middle. 
There is something so light and graceful about the Oncidiums that they 
amply repay any additional attention paid to them. Even Oncidium 
Papilio, which seems to have no particular season of flowering, is just now 
bearing several of its remarkable flowers. Odontoglossum grande is another 
of the showy plants of this season, which no collection is complete without, 
while in the same house O. Harryanurn, Miltonia Candida, Cochtiodfl 
vulcanica, and Trichopilia fragrans are very attractive. Miltonia spectabilis 
Moreliana is still making a good show. 

I think that without exception Vanda ccerulea is the most beautiful 
Orchid now in flower in the Cool house. Its flowers are so large, so 
beautifully reticulated with two shades of lilac-blue, quite unlike anything 
else, and so gracefully arranged in a noble raceme, that it is scarcely 
equalled at any season, and Mr. Woodall has shown that the character 
which some give it of being a bad grower is largely due to improper 
treatment. Near it stands a plant of the good old Zygopetalum inter- 
medium with its bold racemes of handsome and very fragrant flowers. This, 
too, is unsurpassed of its kind. Other good things now flowering freely 
here are the handsome Ccelogyne ocellata, Epidendrum prismatocarpum, 
Restrepia maculata, Masdevallias bella, Carderi, macrura, and Reichen- 
bachiana, which make an interesting variety. A few flowers of the 
charming little Pleione Wallichiana are also expanding. 

In the Warm house several showy things are in flower, first and foremost 
being a number of plants of Dendrobium Phalanopsis, make a 
beautiful display. There is a good deal of variation in colour, and some of 
the light forms are especiallv charming. It is a capital thing for 
: of its long stalked racemes, and fc 
iter. D. bigibbum is very goo. 


contrast effectively with the lighter colours of the preceding. The yellow 
D. chrysanthemum must also be mentioned as flowering freely, and the 
handsome D. formosum. Then there is the pretty little Cypripedium 
Charlesworthii, the gem of the gems, C. tonsum, an early flower or two of 
C. purpuratum and C. Spicerianum, C. Stonei, the pretty little C. X 
cenanthum, C. X politum, C. X Ashburtonia;, and a number of other 
hybrids which invariably make a good display at this season. Selenipedium 
X Sedeni, and others of the group, are also very good just now. The 
principal remaining Orchids in flower in this house are some good trusses 
of Vanda suavis, the pretty little Angracum Scottianum, and some plants 
of Phalajnopsis Esmeralda, P. rosea, and P. violacea. 

The plants generally have made very good growths this season, partly 
on account of the large amount of sunshine and the abundance of air which 
it has been necessary to give, and almost everything promises a good 
display of flowers at the proper season. There can be no doubt that most 
Orchids like plenty of light and air, and with a due attention to shading and 
damping down they succeed better than in cold, wet, and comparatively 
sunless years. 


The freaks of Cypripedium X Dauthieri have been recorded in our 
columns, and at page 239 of our August number a case of sporting in 
C. X Harrisianum, which led to an action at law, was noted. We have 
now another case to record. Cypripedium X Harrisianum virescens is a 
green variety, which was described at page 235 of our second volume, from 
a plant in the collection of H. Little, Esq., of Twickenham, and a 
year later from another which appeared with M. Peeters, of Brussels {supra 
III., p. 296). Mr. Little's plant passed into the collection of R. I. Measure 
Esq., Cambridge Lodge, Camberwell, a small piece being retained by 
Mr. Little. This has now flowered as an ordinary light form of C. X 
Harrisianum, and suggests the probability that it originated as a sport and 

as now reverted back again. This point about its history has never been 
cleared up. Mr. Little remarks that when he obtained the plant it was 
potted in loam and was rather starved, but it is now in peat. Whether 
these facts had anything to do with the plant's peculiarities we cannot say. 

t would be interesting to learn the behaviour of Mr. Measures' plant. 
Also to know how ai 

behaviour of these plants will be watched 

he variety originally appeared. The future 

: curiosity. 



" Horticulture is said to be progressive, and we venture to think that 
botany or botanical nomenclature is also, and if the attempts constantly 
made to classify and re-arrange the work of the hybridist are to be taken 
seriously, ordinary cultivators will never be able to keep pace with the 
progress. Cypripedium Boxallii has for nineteen years been generally 
regarded as a well-marked variety of C. villosum. The Hower is different 
structurally, and there appears to be no evidence of forms merging into the 
type species, but a late writer on the subject, Hansen in The Orchid 
Hybrids, has suddenly decided that C. Boxallii must henceforth be con- 
sidered the same as C. villosum, and a host of hybrids having the former 
for one parent must then be considered as synonyms, and cultivators will 
have to begin to learn over again the names of the plants they possess. C. 
X Thayerianum is one of these; it is the result of a cross between C. 

and what is knowr 

i dark form. 

having the large dowers and rich wine colouring of C. Lawrenceanum, with 
the high polish of C. Boxallii atratum over the whole surface of the Bower 
Among hybrid Cypfipcdiums it is considered one of the best, ami it 
improves each year in size and colouring, is of healthy vigorous growth, and 
was raised by the Messrs. Sander, of St. Alban's, England. It remains to be 
seen whether Mr. Hansen', man 3 innovations will be generally accepted by 
botanists, but from the cultivator's standpoint it will make i 
confounded. The above is only one of the many reforms : 
E. O. Orpet in Garden and Forest. August 26th, p. 34 8 - 

r~, . • ^ -.u:„l, u„ r Imon referred ti > IIS "11 two "I' lhl< 

different occasions, namely, whether Cypripedium Boxallii is a distm 
, ' ■ t . „f r i-illnsnm and it opens the old questio 
species or onlv a vanch ot L. unosum, anu p 
,.-,,„.„. ::...„. „ „„,;«>" to which an answer was attempted 

page 2 66 of our last volume. Those who Sgree 

with the line of argument 
there adopted will probably agree with us ,n regarding C. Boxallii as 

distinct from C. villosum, at least as a sub-species, and not a mere van. 

Compare C. X Lathamianum and C. X Calypso 

Harrisianum and 
Godseffianum. for 


of C. vffli 

in a supplementary note on pages io+-^ 

the respective hybrids of each from the work. U rtd « car 

, pages 184-186, so that 


these two plants pass into each other we feel justified in regarding them as 
distinct. There are many cases of closely allied species of Orchids which 
are yet distinct in the sense here indicated, and we have to investigate the 
differences which occur in Nature rather than to point out how we would 
have them to be.— Ed.] 


Among the interesting Orchids now in flower in the collection of H. Little, 
Esq., The Barons, East Twickenham, is an exceedingly handsome form of 
Cattleya X Hardyana, of the Massaiana or marmorata type. The sepals 
and petals are beautifully marbled, and the latter veined with white on a 
rose-coloured ground, the front lobe of the lip deep rich velvety crimson, 
which extends round the side lobes as a narrow margin, and the disc and 
side lobes with the yellow blotches and golden veining almost as in C. 
Dowiana aurea, forming a most harmonious blending of colour. The 
raceme bears two flowers, which are quite intermediate in shape between 
the two parents, and the sheath is six inches long. Side by side with it is 
a form of C. Dowiana with a dark lip and no trace of the yellow blotches at 
the sides, but the sepals and petals clear yellow. The sheath is £ inches 
long. About a dozen others are showing flower, and as one has a sheath as 
long as in C. X Hardyana its development is being carefully watched. 
C. labiata and C. Bowringiana are also showing for flower, and a few are 
already bursting their sheaths. Cattleyas and Lalias are generally strongly 
represented in the collection. Five plants of Ladio-cattleya X Schilleriana 
are carrying seven spikes of bloom, and two of L.-c. X elegans are still out, 
but about a dozen are just over, including the handsome variety Littleana. 
Five nice plants of Miltonia spectabilis Moreliana are just at their best, also 
Vanda Kimballiana, while V. suavis, Dendrobium formosum, and D. 
Phalsnopsis are making a good show. Among Cypripediums may be 
mentioned several plants of C. Charlesworthii, C. tonsum, and C. t. 
superbum, C. Chamberlainianum, C. niveum, C. Haynaldiannm, C. Stone., 
Spicenanum, with the inevitable hybrids, including C. 

superbum, X Crossianum, x politum, X snperciliare, X marmorophyllum 
po ystigmaticum, x Laforcadii, X Mrs. Canham, x vexillarium, X Seegerianum, 
Xapiculatum superbum. Those who grow these plants can rely upon having 
some flowers throughout the year. A batch of Vanda Hookeriana is 
thriving splendidly in a low house close to the glass in full sunshine without 
a particle of shading, which suggests a method of treatment for those who 
tail to succeed with it. 


An illustration of a Summer Camp for Orchids at Troy, New fork, VS. V. 
is given in the Gardeners' Chronicle for September 19th last (p. 337, fig. 62)! 
together with the following note :— " In climates having more summer 
warmth than the warmest parts of these islands, cultivators of Orchids find 
it beneficial to these plants and other inmates of warm houses to place 
them out of doors during the summer months, taking care not lo expose 
without shading plants liable to injury by direct sunshine, and to keep the 
ground moist on or above which they are placed. Mr. A. Dmunock, of 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., The Nurseries, St. Albans, Herts, to who,, r 

thanks are due for the use of the photograph from which our illustration 
(P- 337) was taken, sends us the following note:— 'About M;iv 1st 
A. R. Smith, Esq., removes all his plants from the houses into the open air, 
and places them on wooden stages, where at all times they are surrounded 
with pure air and ample shade from the trees. The collection includes 
some magnificent specimens of Ccelogyne cristata hololeuca (tin,, art 
across), and a quantity of small plants, fine examples of C. ocellata maxima 
(about 100 plants), C. Massangeana, C. Sanderiana, C. flaccida, C. Havana, 
and others. Vandas and Aerides thrive well, and several may be noticed 
in bloom. Cymbidium eburneum and C. Lowianum, &c, also make very 
vigorous growths, and at the rear a fine lot of Cypripediums in bloom make 
an extraordinary display. They all remain outside until the end of 
September, and are afterwards removed to their winter quarters, and grown 
comparatively cool, which enables the plants to pass through the excessive 
winter months without any difficulty.' " 

Among the interesting Botanical Orchids flowering in the Kew collection 
three species of Cycnoches may first be mentioned, the handsomely spotted 
C pentadactylon with its five-toothed lip, the striking C. Loddigesii, and 
C chlorochilon, the best-known species of the genus, in each case the 
flowers being exclusively males. It is only occasionally that the females 
occur. Another remarkable species of the same group is Mormodes 
Cogniauxii, a recent addition to the genus. A collection of these plants 
and the allied Catasetums would be extremely interesting. Oncidium 
dichromum, which under its old name of Odontoglossum bicolor remained 
a mystery for so many years, but which was re-discovered about a year ago. 
is also flowering, but' very weakly at present. Its history has already been 
given (supra, III., p. 363). Again, O. trulliferum and O. cesium, with 


several of the better known kinds are out, with Odontoglossum crocidipterum, 
a rare species allied to O. blandum. A good plant of the pretty little 
Sigmatostalix radicans is bearing several racemes of flowers, which remind 
one of some small white-lipped Oncidium. Trichocentrum Hartii and 
Aspasia variegata are two other interesting plants belonging to the same 
group. Several species of Epidendrum may also be mentioned, as E. 
inversum, E. latilabre, the remarkable E. equitans, E. fragrans, and 
E. osmanthum. Spathoglottis Fortunei and S. plicata var. Micholitzii are 
still in flower, also the handsome Stenoglottis longifolia, which was 
mentioned two months ago. Another handsome terrestrial species is the 
old Habenaria Susanna;, of which a figure was given at page zoo. 

Dendrobium alpestre is a very pretty little Himalayan species bearing 
half-a-dozen graceful racemes of white with some purple on the lip. Other 
members of the genus are D. bicameratum and D.bracteosum. Bulbophyllum 
recurvum is a West African species with dense racemes of green flowers ; 
and Liparis cuneilabris, one of the few Australian species in cultivation. 
Of the Pleurothallis group may be mentioned a specimen of P. pulchella 
with many graceful spikes of light green flowers, and the pretty little 
P. picta, also Stelis discolor, the pretty little hybrid Masdevallia X 
Measuresiana, Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi, and Sarcanthus pallidas are flower- 
ing well, the latter bearing a large branching panicle of numerous flowers. 
Arachnanthe bilinguis, Xylobium scabrilingue, Isochilus linearis, Lycaste 
macrophylla, and L. Schilleriana are the principal remaining ones flowering 

This very handsome hybrid was exhibited at the Royal Horticultural 
on September 8th last, and received a First-class 

Certificate. It ■ 
Oakwood, Wyla 

i raised in the collection of Norman C. Cookson, Esq., 
i-on-Tyne, from Cattleya Dowiana S and Laelia prsstans 

i previously exhibited on September i?th, 1893, when it had not 
full development. The flowers now measure five inches from 
tip to tip of the petals, which latter measure li inches broad, and with the 
sepals are of a bright rosy purple shade. The lip is large and very richly 
coloured, the front lobe being two inches broad, beautifully crisped, and of 
the richest deep velvety crimson-purple, with dull orange throat, and some 
almost black nerves which extend on to the base of the front lobe, giving a 
very rich effect. On the whole it takes most after the Lselia parent, but the 
robust, and the flower enlarged, owing to the influence of the 

parent. It can best be 

the allied Lielia Dayana was one of the parents. 

pared with L.-c. X Ingran 



Ouk present illustration represents the remarkable Coryanthes maculata 
var. vitrina, Rolfe, which was described a little over a year ago (supra, iii., 
p. 240), on its appearance in the establishment of Messrs. F. Sander and 
Co. It has now flowered in the collection of Dr. Hodgkinson, The Grange, 
YVilmslnw. Cheshire, to whom we are indebted for the photograph here 
reproduced. The flowers are almost self-coloured, not spotted, as in the 
type, the sepals and petals being light greenish-yellow, the hood and 
column a little paler yellow, and the rest of the lip a semi-transparent 
shade of very pale yellow with a slight dash of palest green. The name 
was given in allusion to its glassv appearance. It was imported from 
Central America. Dr. Hodgkinson remarks that on first opening it was 

a beautiful object, owing to the lower sepals being expanded hke a bat 
w,ngs, but after a few hours these rolled U P /"^/ofVrT pT 
seen in the photograph. The odour is pecuhar, being that of npe , pea 

Like the' allies, the Stanhopeas, the flowers are : ra her fleeting nd as 
the plants are often found difficult to .keep long m ^^^ „, 
much g r0 w„ -hey m^be « ^ h—e, the beautiful C. 
structure, and some, at least a on remarks that he finds these 

leucocorys, Rolfe, for example Dr Hod ns ^ 
plants soon die if grown in the stove, as tney v j 


before the previous ones have formed pseudobulbs. He therefore grows 
them in a cooler and brighter house with the Mexican La;lias, and here 
they do well. The peculiar conditions under which they grow have been 
pointed out by different observers, and a very interesting account by Mr. 
James Rodway was reproduced at page 41 of our last volume, together with 
a figure showing a plant of C. macrantha in flower in its native habitat. 
It is interesting to glance at this picture and remember that in the mass of 
fibrous roots a garrison of carnivorous ants is almost invariably found. 
There they make their nest, and in return for the shelter provided they 
defend the plant against the attacks of cockroaches and other insect 
enemies. Other plants sometimes take advantage of this protection, and 
Mr. Rodway records one clump containing two distinct species of Cory- 
anthes, a Bromelia, several Anthuriums, and a young shrub, all growing in 
a ball hardly a foot in diameter. 

It is sometimes supposed that the presence of these ants is essential 
to the well-being of the plant, and Mr. Rodway remarks that when 
specimens are brought into gardens in the tropics, these useful tenants 
having been removed by the collectors by soaking in water, they are par- 
ticularly subject to the attacks of insects, and rarely thrive for any length of 
time. But under cultivation in European hot-houses, where the protection 
of the ants is not required, the plants will succeed under proper treatment. 

A full account of the structure and fertilisation of this remarkable genus 
may be found at page 338 of our second volume, and a figure of C. 
macrocorys, Rolfe, at page 265 of the following one, and a comparison of 
the three figures will show some of the differences which occur in the 

The photograph here reproduced is an excellent one, and shows not 
only the pair of horn-like glands which secrete the liquid which falls into 
the bucket-shaped lip underneath, but each shows a glistening drop of the 
liquid just before it falls. It is a pity we cannot add the little group of 
metallic green and gold bees (Euglossa aurata), which invariably find out these 
flowers when they expand in their native habitat, and come buzzing round, 
creeping under the hood-like appendage of the flower, and then flying off 
or dropping into the pool below. At all events, we can imagine one of 
them floundering in the shallow liquid, its wings bedraggled, its vain 
struggles to climb the slippery sides of the bucket, and finally its 
triumphal exit through the narrow opening between the lip and the column, 
with the yellow pollen masses affixed to its shoulders. It reads almost like 
romance that the insect, in spite of its troubles, should hurry off to another 
flower and repeat the process, this time leaving the pollen on the stigma, 
and thus effecting fertilisation. Yet the fact has been observed over and 
over again, and warns us not to judge the experiences of others exclusively 


>oint. It is evident that the bees, ants and flowers get 
surprisingly effective and harmonious way. in spite of 
nay have about the matter. We should much like to 
■ plants better represented in our collections. 


We have received some examples of diseased pseudobulbs of Cattleya 
Dowiana aurea from Mr. E. Pidsley, gardener to Richard Ashworth. Esq., 
Ashlands, Newchurch, Manchester, with request that we should ascertain 
the cause of the attack, if possible. In some cases the mischief commenced 
m the leaf, and in others at the base of the pseudobulb or in the rhizome, 
the plants hanging side by side with others which remain perfectly healthy. 
Mr. Pidsley has seen several plants in other collections affected in the same 
way, and in each case the gardener was unable to suggest any cause for the 
attack. We also have seen it in this species, and exceptionally in C. labiata 
and C. Trianas, if not in others, and once it was a good plant of C. 
X Hardyana (of which C. Dowiana aurea is one parent) which suddenly 
went off without any apparent cause. We believe that some time ago some 
diseased portions were submitted to microscopical examination, with a view 
to ascertaining if any fungus was present which would account for the 
mischief, but the result was negative or doubtful, as the only fungi present 
were such as live upon decaying tissues, and not the cause of the disease. 
In the case of the " Spot " disease, it was shown that the initial cause was 
the presence of minute drops of water on the surface of the leaves at a time 
when the temperature is exceptionally low, and the roots copiously supplied 
with water (supra, p. 19), and this confirmed the opinion of those who held 
that " spot " was simply the result of improper treatment, and not of a 
parasitic fungus. Whether this disease of Cattleyas can be attributed to 
similar causes, or to some parasitic fungus like that which produces the 
Vanilla disease (supra, III., p. 51), is at present doubtful. It would appear, 
however, that the disease is not contagious, and this rather points to its not 
being of fungoid origin. Cattleya Dowiana is usually considered difficult to 
grow, though some people succeed very well with it, and we should be glad 
to know of any special treatment which has been applied with beneficial 
results, as well as of any conditions which seem to favour the disease. 
Almost every grower has experience of some kind or other with this 
beautiful Cattleya, and a comparison of notes might yield some useful 
information. The disease is not a new one by any means, and whether it 
be of fungoid origin or not it is important to know how to combat it 


Oncidium Jonesianum flavens. — A curious variety, in which all the spots 
have vanished from the sepals and petals, which are slightly barred with pale 
yellowish green, and the lip white, with the usual markings. It flowered in 
the collection of T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield, Manchester, and 
afterwards with Mr. James Cypher, at Cheltenham.— O'Brien in Card. 
Chrm., July 4, p. 9. 

Epidendrum xipheroides, Kranzl.— A Brazilian species, which 
flowered with Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans. It is very nearly allied 
to E. xipheres, Rchb. f., which is figured at t. nr of the Refugium Botanicum, 
but is said to differ in having much larger bulbs and smaller flowers of a 
different colour. The sepals and petals are dark green with sordid purple 
lines, and the lip golden-coloured with a thick whitish callus.— Card. Ghrm., 
July 18, p. 63. 

Cyrtopodium micranthum, Kranzl.— A Brazilian species which flowered 
with Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, in June last. It is said to be like 
a small-flowered form of C. maculatum, Lindl., but to have the side lobes of 
the lip more developed, and the front lobe larger,, obovate, and rounded at 
the top. In colour, it is like a pale form of C. maculatum.— Gard. Chron., 
July 18, p. 63. 

Cirrhopetallm graveolens, Bailey. — A large-flowered species brought 
from New Guinea a few years ago by Sir Walter Macgregor, which has 
now flowered in the greenhouse of the Brisbane Botanic Garden. It is a 
showy species, but the strong disagreeable odour of its flowers will probably 
prevent its becoming a favourite in cultivation, except where collections of 
these curious and beautiful plants are kept. The strong odour of the flowers 
seems to have the effect of attracting and stupefying flies, so that when by 
the turning over of the labellum they become jammed between that organ 
and the column, they are unable to extricate themselves, and die. The 
leaves are 12 inches long by 41 inches broad at the top ; and the scapes 6 
or 7 inches high, bearing a short raceme 7 inches in diameter, composed of 
about 13 strongly-scented flowers, which are so crowded as to appear 
almost umbellate. Colour yellowish, tinged with green, and the inner face 
of all the segments more or less speckled with red, and the lip reddish 
brown, changing to deep purple.-F. M. Bailey, Contributions to Queensland 
Flora, Botany Bulletin, xiii. (1896), p. 33. This is evidently the fine 
Orrhopetalum robustum, Rolfe, described in this work three years ago 
(vol. 1, p. 175), which received a First . class Certificate from the Royal 
Horticultural Society on June nth, 1895. 



I AM sending you two blooms of Cypripedium X Atropos (together with 
the two parents) as an example of the wide divergence possible, both as to 
form and colour, in the flowers of seedlings emanating from the same 

The influence of both parents, Cypripedium X Ashburtonia expansum 
(Cookson's variety) S and Cypripedium purpuratum 3 , can be readily 
seen in each of the seedling flowers, but while in the smaller flower the 
good qualities of each parent appear to be compressed, in the larger flower 
it is the less desirable qualities that are reproduced. The inference to be 
drawn from this is that the purchase of unflowered seedlings, even where 
the parentage is undoubted, is to some extent a lottery, and that the raiser 
of a batch of seedlings may find some among the number by no means 
equal to others, while, on the other hand, if the first seedling to flower is 
a disappointment, there is no occasion to despair as to the quality of those 
still unflowered. 

I still hope to flower one of the batch of seedling Cypripedium barbatum 
? X Cypripedium niveum 3 (Orch. Rev. III., p. 201), in which the 
influence of the pollen parent will be unmistakable. I have so far flowered 
eight out of the fourteen seedlings raised, and the only effect of Cypripedium 
niveum that I can perceive is that the climbing propensity of Cypripedium 
barbatum appears to be completely checked, the plants remaining squat. 

Twin-flowered spikes are more common with me this year than usual, 
as I have at the present time spikes of Cypripedium X Harrisianum, 
C. X cenanthum superbum, C. X Laforcadei, C. X T. B. Haywood, 
C. X Ashburtonise -calospilum, C. X A. expansum, and C. X Mas- 
ereelianum, all carrying two flowers. 

Reginald Young. 


September 15th, 1896. 

[The flowers sent are very interesting. The small flower of C. X 
Atropos is like the original one described at page 292 of our last volume 
(where the history of the plant is given), and bears a remarkable 
resemblance to the pollen parent in size, shape, and colour, though the petals 
are narrower and scarcely spotted at the base, and the dorsal sepal is less 
reflexed, and has broader stripes. The large one is much nearer the seed 
parent in size and shape, though it has more of the purple tint 

parent — in fact, in colour and marku 


the small flower and the seed-parent, with the dorsal sepal more 

reflexed at the sides. These features render the group very striking and 


interesting, and we do not remember another instance showing quite the 
same remarkable character. One seedling may very well be said to be 
much like its father, and the other almost as much like its mother. The 
other cross mentioned is also remarkable. Its history has already been 
given, as above indicated. The seedlings ought to be varieties of C. X 
Tautzianum, which, however, they resemble very little, except in the 
dwarfed habit, which shows that the influence of C. niveum is not quite 
absent. — Ed.1 

Several species of South African Orchids have become familiar in gardens 
during recent years, and among them two or three from the Natal district. 
In 1886 Mr. R. W. Adlam published some notes under the above heading, 
in which he enumerated the following eight as among the showiest of the 
Natal species :— Eulophia ensata, Lindl., E. Dregeana, Lindl., Lissochilus 
Krebsii, Rchb. {., Satyrium candidum, Lindl., S. carneum, Lindl., Disa 
polygonoides, Lindl., D. macrantha, Lindl., and Disperis Fanninis, Harv. 
The two Satyriums are in cultivation, as well as S. spha:rocarpum, Lindl., 
which is not enumerated. Concerning their culture Mr. Adlam remarks :— 
" Our Orchids flower in the moist season from November to March, during 
which time they enjoy much rain and sun alternately. From April to 
October rain is scarce— a slight shower every month on the average ; but— 
and I wish to draw special attention to this— the soil beneath the surface 
does not get dust-dry. Nearly all our Orchids, save Lissochili, delight in 
a heavy retentive black loam or red clay, interlaced with grassroots ; during 
winter the air is very clear and the dews are heavy, and of course the dry 
grass absorbs a good deal of moisture. There is no deep secret in the 
cultivation of terrestrial Orchids ; we see Disas and Satyriums growing 
alongside of Gladioli and Gazanias, and surely anyone can grow the last 
named. Lissochili and Eulophias, from the nature of their rhizomes, have 
an indefinite life, but the members of the great tribe Ophrydea: seem to live 
but a few years. Take Disa polygonoides for instance. The first year's 
seedling will be a tiny plant about two inches high, the second year it 
increases in strength, the third it flowers, the fourth a stronger spike is sent 
up, and then the plant perishes. Disas and Satyriums, however, seed very 
freely, and there should be no difficulty in thus propagating them. I 
would advise firm potting in turfy loam with good drainage, and to meddle 
with them as little as possible. Keep the plants cool and moderately dry 
in the winter, and give heat with moisture in the summer."— G«rrf. Ckm*, 
1886, xxvi., p. 58. 


The tendency of Selenipedium X Sedeni to produce abnormal flowers lias 
often been noticed, but one of the most remarkable we have yet seen has 
been sent from the collection of Colonel Marwood, of Whitby, by Mr. 
Horner. The ovary is completely confluent with the axis, and the sepals 
partially so with the bracts of the next two flowers, thus giving the appear- 
ance of two buds arising from within the flower itself. The two sepals 
stand to right and left of the axis, and the front half of earh is sepal-like, 
and the remainder bract-like in texture and colour. Instead of a lip then' 
are three separate bodies, one lanceolate, partly coloured, and occupying 
the position of the median petal, the other two arising laterally to it. and 
showing the characteristic spotting, pubescence, and infolded margins of 
the side lobes of the lip. These are evidently the petal.. i.l staminodes A 1 
and A 3 of the Darwinian notation, which in the normal flower coalesce 
with the median petal to form the lip. The petals and column are not 
present in a normal condition, though there are about Ave light-green 
irregularly crumpled bodies in the centre, and in front of tlu- young bud-. 
which probably represent them— in part, at least— and one of these, which 
occupies the position of a 2, has an anther below the apex, evidently one of 
the fertile anthers of the normal flower. Both this and the opposite one 
are united to two undulate crumpled bodies, which apparently represent the 
petals— crumpled because the union prevents them from elongating, as they 
should do— and the one without an anther distinctly shows the median 
nerve. Most remarkable of all, perhaps, is the presence of a perfect anther, 
very shortly stalked, immediately behind the median petal afore-named. 
This is exactly in the position of a 3. the anther totally suppressed 1.1 a 
normal flower which it evidently represents. The flower had been observed 
in this condition about a week before it was sent, and was in the condition 
of a bud a few days before it begins to open, the colours betng onk partially 
developed and dehiscence of the anthers not having yet begun. It would 
have been better if left on the plant until fully matured. The partially- 
opened condition evidently arose from the fact that the back half of the 
flower represents the bracts and young buds of the inflorescence, and the 
union caused the organs of the front half of the flower to develop separate^ 
-the lateral sepals free from each other, but united .0 some bract-like 
tissue behind, the lip brok,r up into its three constituent parts, and he 
additional stamen developed in front, instead of being absent. The regular 
development of the intermediate parts is easily explained by the peculiar 
union of the flower with the axis, and the consequent displacement The 
example is interesting for the light i, throws on the corr.pos.tron of a tvpical 
Orchid flower. 



Another seedling of the above has flowered in the collection of H. J. 
Ross, Esq., of Florence, which differs slightly from the original form 
described at page 359 of our last volume, both in the leaf and flower, but 
shows the same unmistakable evidence of its descent from C. barbatum 
and C. tonsum. The inflorescence is two-flowered. A two-flowered 
inflorescence and leaf of another seedling is also sent, in which each petal 
of the lower flower bears from twenty to two dozen small dark blotches, 
while in the upper flower they are not half so numerous, and are almost 

X Rossianum. The flo 

smaller, the petals rather 
C. barbatum, but in other respects the resemblance to C. X Rossianum is 
so great as to suggest that it is simply a variety of the same. At all events it 
does not agree with any of the well-known types, and we are unable to find 
any other species that will account for the characters of the hybrid. Mrs. 
Ross, in writing, remarks that it may be interesting that many Cypri- 
pediums in the collection have two-flowered scapes, including nearly all the 
plants of C. callosum, C. concolor, and C. X Ashburtonia:. This affords 
evidence that the plants are well-grown and very vigorous. 


It has sometimes been remarked that Orchids do not seed very freelv in a 
wild state, and Mr. N. Blandford once recorded the finding of a seed-pod 
on an lm ported plant of Sophronitis grandiflora as something exceptional. 
(Card Chron., l8 8 5 , xxiv., p. 47 o.) Replying to this remark Mr. James 
Douglas observed .—« It is perfectly well known that imported plants come 
over with seed-pods on them, ripe or otherwise ; hundreds of seed-pods 
may be found clustering on the plants in the sale-room, scores of them on 
one plant ' (I.e., p. 470). We have observed seed-pods on newly-imported 
plants of Sophronitis grandiflora, and have no doubt that it seeds freely 
enough m a wild state, as do many, if not most, other Orchids. These 
plants fad to produce pods under cultivation because the necessary insects 
are not present, but if the flowers are artificially fertilised capsules are 
formed m abundance. Where Orchids grow abundantly iu a wild state we 
nave no doubt the necessary fertilising insects are there, and generally 
Perform their work satisfactorily. The fact that most Orchids fail to 
produce capsules without artificial aid of some kind affords conclusive 
evidence of this, for without their aid no seeds would be produced-at all 
events in many cases-and it is quite obvious that an Orchid which 
produced no seed would soon vanish from the scene. 



By H. A. BuRKERRV, Highbury, Birmingham. 

October now being here, it is no longer possible to keep up the temperature 
to the same high degree as recommended for the past few months. Nor, 
indeed, is it advisable to attempt to do so, as it would be quite opposed to 
the requirements of the plants, which would soon show the evil effects. 
Warm and intermediate growing Orchids having completed their new- 
growth, or nearly so, will delight in nothing so much as a reduction in the 
temperature, so that they may repose and ripen, free from the over-exciting 
influences of excessive heat and moisture ; while for cool Orchids, of course, 
a suitable temperature can generally be more readily maintained during the 
cool weather than when it is so very hot. 

The following figures will be a guide to the temperature most suitable 
for the autumn months : — 

Cool house.— Day, with sun, 6o° to 65 ; without sun, 55 to 60° ; night 
and morning, 50 to 55 . 

Intermediate house.— Day, with sun, 70 to 75 ; without sun, 60 to 65 : 
night, 6o° ; morning, 58 to 6o°. 

Warm or East Indian house.— Day, with sun, 75 to 8o°; without sun, 
70° ; night, 65 ; morning, 6o° to 65 . 

Of course it is impossible to maintain these figures always exactly, and 
no one should attempt it. The inside temperature as well as the outside is 
bound to fluctuate. It is perfectly natural, and an occasional fall of five 
degrees on the whole of the above figures will do more good than harm, 
while for short periods only a fall of ten degrees need not be dreaded, 
especially if the atmosphere is kept good by careful ventilation. 

It is no use grumbling about the weather, we have to take it as it comes, 
and make the best of it. Before the rain came we were longing for it to 
cool and moisten the parched up earth. But only hot fierce sunshine was 
to be had then, from early morn till close of day. To keep up a semblance 
to a growing temperature within the houses was done only by sheer dint of 
perseverance, with a syringe and bucket of water, during the greater par, of 
the day. And I must sav that I doubt whether any Orchid grower of 
experience will say that he considers such periods of tropical heat, occurnng 
only at lengthy intervals, does, on the whole, benefit his plants, ttwas 
more than they could stand, as they had grown unaccustomed to ,.. Their 
tissues, constricted artificially under the usual English climate. oHapsed 
under the strain; consequently weakly plants shnveUed up and » ■ 
potted ones retained their plumpness only when tended "'<--"' 
trouble. But this intensely hot and bright weather sudden > 
Now it is rain dull weather, and more rain, the atmosphere « reeking «*» 


moisture, and growth is active which was previously very slow. But I am 
afraid now that the plants will soon suffer from the almost total absence of 
sunshine. From the time of writing (September 15th) I don't believe we 
have had here altogether during the last three or four weeks six hours of 
sunshine. I would prefer weather slightly more mixed and varied. 

Dendrobiums, however, have prospered this year more than usual. 
This seems to point to the fact that it is not only heat they like when 
growing, but air also. Undoubtedly they have had plenty of the latter this 
summer, for there has been no stagnant atmosphere. No sooner were the 
plants syringed than they were dry again, and this kind of thing Dendro- 
biums seem to enjoy. They have with but few exceptions made up really 
fine pseudobulbs, long and stout, in fact nothing so far left to be desired. 
If we can only get enough sun to thoroughly ripen them they will make a 
grand show of flower next spring. We are now gradually getting our 
spring flowering kinds in their winter quarters. This is done quite 
independent of any secondary growth that may have started again from the 
base ; such growths must fare as best they can ; we must not keep the 
plants in a hot growing temperature just for their sake. 

Dendrobium Dearei is a species that requires a different and special 
treatment from most of the others during winter. It is never dormant, it 
is always either making new growth or flowering. By the appearance our 
plants now present one would think that the season was spring instead of 
autumn. The new growths are only a few inches high ; consequently they 
must still be kept growing in a light position in the warmest and moistest 
house, and given a liberal supply of water, to which this species is very 
partial. D. Brymerianum is another often late to start away, making it 
very uncertain when the pseudobulbs will be completed. It should now 
occupy a similar position, and be given a like treatment to the last-named 
until the main growths are made up, when it should at once be well rested in 
a temperature ranging between 50° and 6o°, otherwise it will quickly push 
aerial growths from where the flowers should appear. D. Dalhousieanum is 
another that is also late; it should receive every encouragement until 
completed; afterwards, like the last-named, it should be given a decided rest 
in the same temperature, until the flower spikes begin to push, about April, 
as these also are apt to turn to growths instead. 

Dendrobium crepidatum is a very pretty species, but with us behaves in 
an extraordinary manner, by appearing so healthy and then suddenly going 
off dead at almost any period of growth or rest alike. My experience and 
observation of this species is that it is most susceptible to a check through 
cold draughts, &c. It seems to require more heat than most of the other 
deciduous Dendrobiums, and I have no doubt it is collected from hot nooks 
and corners in its native habitats of Burma and Assam. 


I believe the same may be said regarding D. Phalacnopsis, D. bigibbum 
and D. superbiens, although it has been rumoured that some find the first- 
named grows well enough if subjected to a tolerably cool treatment. There 
is no doubt in my mind that during the season of active growth a great heat 
is most desirable for this species. I think as years pass by it will be proved 
that D. Phalamopsis is not the same vigorous and easy-growing species that 
the newly-imported plants of the same would have us to believe, so I would 
advise that they be carefully looked after and kept in good health. No 
doubt that these hot-growing and warm resting species do, in time, become 
very late and out of season in localities where the absence of sun is greatest. 
And when we come to think it over it is no more than we might reasonably 
expect. Unfortunately, however, the cause of the plant becoming so late 
and out of season is simply owing to its greatly reduced vitality. The one 
is the inevitable result of the other. These are disturbances and troubles 
which a month or two of occasional tropical weather do not always redeem. 
And these are facts that should always be remembered and allowed for m 
cultivation. At the same time they must never prevent us from doing our 
utmost and giving our untiring attention to counteract in every conceivable 
form all climatic conditions that are unfavourable, and to make the most of 
those which are favourable. 

Syringing or otherwise wetting the plants over-head must now be pretty 
strictly forbidden in all departments. Of course there may be exceptions 
when it could be practised with advantage on some plants— such, for 
instance, that are late in completing their growth, which it is desired to 
hasten. But it should only then be done first thing in the morning, when 
the day is likely to be fine. Damping down the floors and stages, too, 
should likewise now be done much more sparingly, once or twice a day 
being sufficient, according to the nature of the weather and the amount of 
warmth required from the hot-water pipes. Do not damp down later than 

All repotting is now done for the present season, and we shall hence- 
forth be in a position to devote much more time to that important and 
ever-recurring work, cleaning. It is work that should never be neglected, 
nor done with clumsy, uncareful hands. Where Orchids are extensively 
grown there is often so much other pressing work that I fear it is sometimes 
found impossible to go through the plants and clean them so frequently as 
could be desired. It is a long and tedious job, and ,0 make a thorough 
good hand one must have considerable interest in his wor an^ ^ 
possessed of a good amount of patience to enable him to s ic a 
varm damp houses day after day. But, nevertheless, it must be done ad 

L - , V . . .. ,- ™.-r should have at his command enough 

under his charge absolutely 

uftenerthe better. Every growe 

nable him to keep every pla 


clean from dirt and free from insect pests. Then his work is a pleasure, 
and the plants a delight to all who see them. When the plants are once 
got nicely clean, to keep them so should be his sole aim. That is the easiest 
way, and insures less labour. On the other hand, if the whole collection is 
left so long after being cleaned, so as to become again infested with the 
various pests, then indeed it is a sorry affair, for the plants will never 
present a respectable appearance. My favourite insecticides are still, as 
formerly advised; for fumigating purposes, "X.L.A11 fumigating insecticide"; 
for destroying all kinds of scale, bug, &c, "Murray's electric insecticide," 
one part, to five parts of rain water, applied with a small brush carefully, 
so that it does not run down to the roots, otherwise it is harmless, and need 
not be rinsed off ; and for the general cleansing and sponging of the leaves, 
&c, " Kilmright " is very effective, cheap, and handy. I dissolve about a 
teacupful to three or four gallons of rain water. 

The winter blooming kinds of Cypripedium and Selenipedium will 
now be rapidly completing their flowering growths, and commence to push 
up their spikes. With good drainage and sweet compost they love a liberal 
supply of water, and no possible harm can occur if watered in moderation 
throughout the winter. Of course it is always well to be careful, for it is a 
very bad practice to get the compost soddened. It is better rather to err 
on the side of dryness from now and throughout the winter months. A few 
years back Cypripediums were, perhaps, even more popular than they are 
to-day, if that is possible. The excitement then, which ran so high, caused 
by the number of beautiful hybrids and new species, swelling the list in 
cultivation by leaps and bounds, has gradually subsided. Few growers then 
could have thought the time so near at hand when other popular genera of 
Orchids would burst upon us at almost the same rate, yet here we are face 
to face with facts. Oattleyas and Lalias, Dendrobiums and Masdevallias. 
are flowing in ; and, as in the case with Cypripediums, chiefly by means of 
hybridization. I am told that the future has great things in store; that 
hybridization has barely commenced ; in fact, that the occupation of the 
■collector and importer will soon be gone. 

On the subject of raising Orchids from seed, a few hints may here 
perhaps be useful. It is very interesting work when successful. But first 
let me sound a few notes of warning. If you have already as much 
work as you can possibly get through, and have no more time to spare ; if 
you have not houses built on the most modern principles ; if you are lacking 
patience; then don't attempt raising Orchids from seed on your own 
account, and you will probably save yourself from much disappointment- 
you are fortunate enough to have these necessaries at your command, 
and feel disposed to try your hand, then, in order to further prevent 
disappointments, do not be over sanguine about results ; never set a flower 


if the plant is not in first rate condition, and quite able to bear the stress 
of producing the big seed-pod, which will take the best part of a year to 
mature ; for it kills weakly plants. Never cross inferior varieties, because 
the progeny, if reared, would probably be worthless. And cross only those 
varieties from which, for some reason or another, something good might be 
expected. Be very careful in labelling the flower directly it is crossed, 
and remove its own pollen clean away, so that there may be no mistake in 
the parentage. 

When the seed is ripe the pod will split. Now immediately sow the 
seed on the surface of the compost, selecting plants which have lately been 
repotted — recently imported plants, that are making plenty of roots, in 
preference to others — but make sure that any plant on which seed is sown 
will require to be kept moist for at least two or three months afterwards. 
The seed germinates more surely on plants that are suspended near the 
light. Be careful that the seed is not washed away by the lirst f™ 
waterings the plant receives ; afterwards there is less danger. If the seed 
is good it will soon commence to germinate, and become round shaped, 
about the size of the head of a pin. This is a critical juncture, fur if the 
compost is not just so, those green globules will speedily disappear. 
Therefore if the surface of the compost appears not to be in a good sound 
condition, commencing, as it often does, to become sour and decomposed, 
it is better at this stage to at once transfer them to sweet material in tiny 
seed pots, placing five or six in each pot, a number of which should be 
placed in teak baskets, and suspended in a shady part of the house, and 
kept continually moist. The cause of the surface of the compost becoming 
prematurely decayed is often insects living within the pot. In some 
gardens the compost become literally alive with a small species of fly. and 
these quickly destroy Orchid seed. When once these tiny globular plants 
become established in their new pots— and most will do so— the}- quickly 
form a little leaf, and a little root grasps the compost. After this the rest is 
comparatively easy. They will soon require to be potted off singly m the 
seedling pots, and then growing on. Be always watchful, do not over-pot, and 
see that fresh sweet compost is supplied whenever necessary. The foregoing 
are the chief points to be kept in sight in order to ensure a reasonable 
amount of success in raising hybrids. There is yet a large field open to 
hybridists. Even supposing quite new crosses cannot at all times be made, 
there is still no reason why crosses already in existence, if good, should not 
again be reared. By doing so better varieties might be obtained, and. more 
than that, advanced as we are in Orchid culture, we have still much more 
to learn before we can say to ourselves, " These plants we possess, and we 
are absolutely sure of retaining them," for, like other garden plants, 
Orchids will ; 



Cattleya intermedia (double). — Rev. Hort., Sept. i, p. 404, fig. 
Cattleya Skinneri, Lindl.— Rev. Hort. Beige, Sept., p. 201, ■ 

Dendkobium Hookerianum.— Journ. of Hort., Sept. 3, p. 221, fig 

Dendrobium Leonis, Rchb. {.—Bol. Mag., t. 7493. 

L,elia crispa superba.— fount, of Hort., Aug. 27, p. 197, fig. 40. 

Mr. Hanson has written me respecting my crosses between the genera 
Selenipedium and Cypripedium for his Supplement, so, thinking it may be 
of some interest to your readers and lovers of these favourite flowers, I send 
you briefly a copy of what I said I had written in one of your issues, that I 
had plants up between S. Schlimii (seed parent) and C. Spicerianum (pollen 
parent). These are growing away well, and now have two or three pairs of 
leaves. Also the reverse cross was tried, but the seed pod of this latter was 
not ripe when plants of the former were up ; and even when sown, did not 
grow. But I think I have established a " record time " in the following 
cross, made between S. X Dominianum as seed parent and C. Chamber- 
lainianum as pollen parent. This was hybridised in December, 1895 ; the 
pod was ripe in March of this year ; the seed was sown immediately, and 
now, in September, nine months after hybridising, I have strong young 
plants, some with leaves 4! inches long, and of a Selenipedium character. 
The reverse cross of this also did not germinate. Whether the cross 
between these two genera will ever be got to flower remains to be seen. 
T. W. Swinburne. 
Corndean Hall, 


There was a good display of Orchids at the Royal Horticultural Society's 
Meeting at the Drill Hall, James Street, Westminster, on September 8th 
last, and three First-class Certificates were awarded. One of the roost 
interesting features was an exhibit of two plants of Cattleya X Hardyana, 
artificially raised, the first which have reached the flowering stage, from 
the collection of Norman C. Cookson, Esq. 


Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham (gr. Mr. Ballantine), received 
a Cultural Commendation for a good plant of the pretty little cerise-red 
Sophrocattleya X Veitchii, with a two-flowered inflorescence. 

Norman C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. Murray), 
staged four very interesting plants, including two of Cattleya X Hardyana. 
artificially raised by crossing Cattleya Dowiana aurea with the pollen of C. 
Warscewiczii thus settling the question of its parentage. The others were 
Laelio-cattleya X Bryan (C. Gaskelliana ? X L. crispa 3 ). which 
received an Award of Merit, and L.-c. X Clive (C. Dowiana ? X L. 
praestans J ), a First-class Certificate. Both are described on another 

C. L. N. Ingram, Esq., Elstead House, Godalming (gr. Mr. Bond), 
received a First-class Certificate for Laelio-cattleya X Charles Darwin, 
the inflorescence bearing two flowers. It received an Award of Merit on 
August 25th, 1895. 

Walter Cobb, Esq., Dulcote, Tunbridge Wells (gr. Mr. Howes), sent 
a good plant of Odontoglossum CErstedii majus, with seven flowers, and an 
exceptionally large and very dark form of Miltonia spectabilis Moreliana, 
called Dulcote variety, to which a First-class Certificate was given. 

E. Ashworth, Esq., Harefield Hall, Wilmslow (gr. Mr. Holbrook), sent 
a pretty, light-coloured form of Cypripedium X Mabelia; called Henry 
Ashworth, cut blooms of the handsome Dendrobium X Leeanum, a fine, 
richly-coloured form of Cattleya X Hardyana, two forms of C. Gaskelliana, 
a fine nine-flowered inflorescence of C. bicolor, and a plant of C. bicolor 
Lewisii, a distinct and pretty variety with green sepals and petals, and the 
lip purple in the lower half but white in front. An Award of Merit was 
given to the latter. 

T. Statter. Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield, Manchester (gr. Mr. Johnson), 
received an Award of Merit for a splendid eight-flowered inflorescence of 
Laelio-cattleya X elegans Oweniae. 

G. S. Ball, Esq., Ashford, Wilmslow, Cheshire (gr. Mr. Hey), sent 
Cypripedium insigne Ballianum, a fine greenish-yellow form, with the spots 
on the dorsal sepal nearly, though not quite obliterated. 

Welbore S. Ellis, Esq., Hazelbourne, Dorking (gr. Mr. Burrell), showed 
the rare Oncidium panduratum, and a five-flowered inflorescence of Stan- 
hopea oculata. 

G. O. Sloper, Esq., Westrop House, Highworth, sent flowers of 
Cypripedium X polystigmaticum. 

Messrs lames Veitch and Sons, Chelsea, staged a fine group, to which 
a SUver Flora Medal was awarded. It contained the handsome Laelio- 
cattleya X callistoglossa ignescens, L.-c. X Pallas, two plants of L.-c. X 
Nysa, L.-c. X Schilleriana, Cattleya bicolor, C. Leopold!, C. Harnsomana, 


two well-flowered plants of Lselia monophylla, Odontoglossum Harryanum, 
O. bictoniense, Miltonia Reezlii and its variety alba, Sobralia X Veitchii, 
two plants of Cycnoches chlorochilon, two plants of the pretty little 
Saccolabium Hendersonianum, Selenipedium X Phadra, S. X Brysa 
candidulum (S. X Sedeni candidulum S X S. Boissierianum 3), 
Cypripedium x oenanthum superbum, C. Curtisii, C. X Milo (C. insigne 
Chantini ? X C. oenanthum superbum 3 ), C. tonsum superbum and C. 
X oenanthum superbum. An Award of Merit was given to Cattleya X 
Euphrasia, a handsome hybrid from C. Warscewiczii S> and C. superba <f, 
which is described on another page. 

Messrs. F. Sander and Co., St. Albans, staged another fine group, 
containing Cattleya granulosa, C. Harrisoniana, two well-flowered plants 
of Rodriguezia fragrans, a good plant of Zygopetalum Gautieri with eight 
spikes, Coelogyne Micholitziana, a well-flowered Dendrobium bracteosum 
album, Epidendrum inversum, E. fragrans, a pan of the brilliant Habenaria 
mihtans with six spikes, the interesting little Trichocentrum iridifolium, 
Miltonia spectabihs Moreliana, Cypripedium insigne, C. X Cahuzac, C. X 
Mabeha var. Lord Derby, and C. X Rothwellianum (C. Argus ? X C. Stonei 
3 ). An Award of Merit was given to Maxillaria striata grandiflora, a fine 
form of the species. . 

Messrs. B. S. Williams and Son, Upper Holloway, received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for an interesting group, containing the handsome Pesca- 
torea Lehmanni, and P. Klabochorum, the latter with three flowers, 
ngracum citratum, Pach) stoma Thomsonianum with three-flowered 
spike, Oncdium dasytyle with branched raceme, Cochlioda vulcanica 
grandinora with four spikes, Cypripedium tonsum, C. X oenanthum super- 
um C. x Adonis, and C. Charlesworthii with five flowers. A First-class 
Certificate was given to Arachnanthe Lowii, with a raceme of thirty- 
six flowers and buds, the two basal flowers being orange-coloured and the 
next one intermediate between them and the red-blotched ones, of which 
tne rest of the raceme is composed. The cause of difference between the 
flowers has hitherto remained a mystery, but it is said that the orange ones 
can alone be fertihsed, a point which we should like to see confirmed. 


J- H, Whitby. Stanhopea Ward.i 

•■i: .^ h aX s te p B1c c Sea c 4™:. hich T ^ a '•r *"3 <* m i^° 

rmems and comparatively short uils 8e a " d ™' y ha ' ry V 

W. S. B., Dorking. Eria floribunda. 

J ' R " L « li »-°«"«ya X elega„ 5 , about typical. 

Vests Patent Improved.) 


Price Liil, will, full parti, ulars, u he had from all Orchid Great;;;, Nurserymen, S„ 
The Cheapest (under 1 !, per inch empiric) and Hi, Best (see Testimonials ). Samflei fer pail, IwcHX stamps. 

Save expense by making your own Baskets, for with a West's Patent Bottom :> child il.l ]■•» 'hem 

together, for then liio only require threading. 

latest improved machinery. In-peetion invited. 




The Grchid $rou)em' Jhanuai, 


7th Edition, Enlarged and Revised up to the present time, by 

Hinted with S4 Page and , 5 ^J£*g£J_ ' ^ "" * '"'^ '" " 

p,an,s, together rvith^^n^^^^^^^^ 

• ____________ '' 





Orchids I Orchids! 


stock: of'orchids, 


in great Variety; and additions are constantly being made by the Purchasing of Private 
Collections and otherwise. They earnestly unite the inspection of intending purchasers. 

The Company are constantly receiving Importations of Orchids from various parts 
he world, all of which they Offer for Sale by Private Treatv as they come to hand, 
cry reasonable Prices. 

DsScriptii; and Pried Catalogs ,,/ their Stock of Established Orchids, as well a 
i importation as it comes to hand, will be sent Post Free on application to the Company. 



Tu-o Thousand 


Twenty Thousand 


SiJty Thousand 



Burbagc IRursei-ics, 

Near Hinckley, Leicestershire. 


GEO. HANSEN, Jackson, California. 

Of every description, from IV- 1 
1/3. Rare pl-„,ts 






Awarded Certificate of Merit, November, i8% 



Seasell's Orchid Baskets try, 
The Best and Cheapest you can b 
Try them once, you'll buy again, 
Don't forget Seasell's the name. 





\ EG to inform their numerous patrons and friends that they have purchased 

* above Collection of Orchids formed by Mr. Winn, of Birmingham, whose na 

o well-known to all lovers or Orchids. The collection is in excellent conditi 

being clean, vigorous, and well cultivated, it embraces all the best knc 

d varieties besides containing many rare and some unique plants. 

Mr. Winn has been forming this collection over thirty years, buying many of 

plants in flower, when imported plants have been purchased and flowered, none 

the best varieties have been kept. The same course has been persued with 

seedlings, the inferior varieties having been disposed of in various ways. 

A Catalogue of all the species, varieties, and named hybrids, also plants w 
seeds on them not visibly germinating, is in course of preparation, and will be I 
warded at an early date. 

Non- Customers can have a Catalogue on application. 




Melon Houses, 


All Classes of 
Hot Water Boilers 

Beating Apparatus. 

Vol. IV.] NOVEMBER, 1896. 




tin Sllustrateb fl&ontblp Journal, 


Book, N'oticc of 

... 3-'4 

H,t„id,sation, Quick ... . 

Calendar of Operations for 


*' 343 


Cattleya x Hardyana Countess of Derby 323 

Cattleya x velutmo-elegans 

Catikya x Lord Roihschild 


■6) 337 

I-uilio-caltleya x belairensis 

Correspondence, &c ... 

- 35' 

Hybridist's Notes 

Cypripedium x burfordiense 

... 3,0 


Cypnpedium x ILirnsianun 


ns 325 

Cypripedium x regale ... 

■■ 3-'4 

Acanlhophippium tburneum 

Cypripedium group 

••• 3*7 

Dendrol.ium Jennyanum 


•• 3*9 

Gongora Sandenana 


■ 3*9 

Odontoglossum Hunnewellianu 


•• 33* 

Odontuglossum Uroskinneri aib 


.. 3*8 

Orehid I'ortraits 


•• 33° 

Orchids in the Law Courts 


• 33" 

Orchids at the Royal Hon 


•• 33' 


Gongoras in Trmidad ... 


Pensleria elata 


Post Fkee 

2- P 



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rsss 1 . ^Z^ZZL* Cdvanon, u.,,0* 

Part III.-DENDBOBIUM Src^lof "2? h* "*V ft ^ ^ 91 
Part IV.-CYPBIPEDICTM. Prroel^ 6J h/rfrr? 8 .^ 
P" Z^ScJ^t ^ "^-- ~ 7S S 6 9 /; by post, 7s. 91. 
Part TO -ra iL S^r P a 1DE - NraUM ' &C ' Prio ^ i0s " ^ ; ^ P° 8 '' 103 ^ 
ptstflOs 9d ' ABRLDts . VANDA, &c. Price, 10a. 6d.; by 

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™ Sst fds m' OPETAI ' UM ' LYCA STE, &c. Price, 10s. 6i j 
Part X - GEN p EKAL s REVIEW of the OECHIDE^. Price, LOs. ML; by 

JAMES VE!TCH & SONS, IRo^al Erotic flurserfc 



the Drill 

NOVEMBER, [896. 


an enumeration of the plants cultivate! in iSS.5 In' M. [almond Doissicr. at 
Valleyres, anil La Pierriere. Switzerland. It is a work of over 500 pages, 
ninety of which are devoted to Orchids. The collection is a thorough!) 
representative one, and contains 772 sp ies 1 longingto 122 genera, both 

the showy and botanical species 1 r . . : !-:■ - "ted. M- Boissier. the 
author of the Flora Ori-^iiK .11- .1 :n i--S. -:■'■ «"ich time the collections 
have been maintained and enriched In his son-in-law. M. W'.IIiam Barbey, 
to whom we are indebted for the work, which has been compiled by M. 
Autran, the Conservator of the Boissier Herbarium, and M. Th. Durand. 

A fine two-flowered scape of Cypripedium X cenanthum superbum has 
been sent from the collection of Rginald Young, l-sq.. Sefton Park. Liver- 
pool, the flowers being very large and richly coloured, and afford, i 
of good culture. 

Flowers of Larfia Davana. and three forms of L. pumila. also con,.. Iron, 
the same collection, one'inflorescence of the latter bearing two flower,, a 
somewhat unusual occurrence. As has already been pointed out. the latter 
species is rather variable. 

A very remarkable flower of Miltonia spectab.hs has been sen. from the 
collection of Colonel Marwood, of Whitby, by Mr. Horner. ,n winch 


the petals and iip are reduced in size, and terminate each in a long narrow- 
filament or tail, somewhat as in the sepals of Masdevallia. The petals are 
of the usual breadth in the basal third, beyond which thrv abruptly ter- 
minate, except the tails. In the lip, however, the tail-like filament is 
pendulous under the lip. and only united to it up to the middle, this or«an 
being less than half the usual size. As the column and other parts of the 
flower are normal, it is difficult to account for the peculiarity, and it will be 
interesting to note if it appears again next year. 

A curious flower of Odontoglossum odoratum comes from the collection 
of M.s. Holland, Wonham, Hampton, Devon, with seven sepals and petals, 
two hps, and two columns fused together side by side, 'file ovary is also 
somewhat flattened, and the example apparentlv consists of two flowers 

An inflorescence of a richly-coloured form of Odontoglossum X Rucker- 
anum has been sent from the collection of W. J. Thompson, Esq., Walton 
Grange, Stone, by Mr. Stevens. The sepals are suffused with light rose, 
.nd bear two or three large irregular deep red-brown blotches, while the 
ictals are nearly white, with several small spots. The lip also bears one 
arge blotch in front and a small spot on either side of the crest. It is a 
ery pretty form. 

The handsome Miltonia Schroederiana is also sent from the same 
ollection, its brightly-coloured crimson and yellow lip being very effective. 
t is a native of Costa Rica, and still seems to be rare in cultivation. 

Another very pretty Orchid from the same collection is Oncidiura 
nustum, an inflorescence of a dozen of its bright yellow flowers being very 
■ms to be an easily cultivated species, and flowers regularly 
Its history was given at page 329 of our last volume. 

1 the 

florescence of the handsome hybrid Cattleya X Brymeriana has 

been sent from the collect 

1 of T. Statter, Esq., Stand Ha 

Manchester, by Mr. Johnson. The sepals and petals most resemble those 
of C. superba, but the lip is more open, rather obscurely three-lobed, and 
the throat light yellow in front, and nearly white at the sides, in which 
respect it approaches C. Eldorado, the other parent. A fine flower of 
Cattleya X Ashtoniana is also sent, in which the characters of C. Harri- 
sourana and C. Warscewicziana are combined, those of the former being 
the most obvious. 

A fine flower of Cattleya Gaskelliana has been sent from the collection 
of F. M. B llrton; Esq> Highfield, Gainsborough, together with a small 


light form of the same, which has probably not reached its full dc\vln|)iurni. 
They are rather late for this Cattleya. A good flower of {he beautiful 
Cypripedium insigne Chantini is also sent. 

In reference to our note at page 269 respecting the inclusion in tin- l-'lorj 
/''nismV/rsrs of Orchids not yet known within the limits of that country. 
M. Cogniaux writes that on completion of the work a statistical table will be 
given, showing the number of genera and species of each group actually 
known to be Brazilian, an arrangement we view with satisfaction, for 
reasons already pointed out. 

A flower of the beautiful white Sobralia macarantha kicnastiana lias 
been sent from the collection of W. V. Burkinshaw . lis.]., of Hrsslr. In 
Mr. Baker, from a newly-imported plant. This variety occasionally appears 
among importations of S. macrantha, but is comparatively- rale. It is also 
known as S. macrantha alba, a more suitable bin I iter name. 


The two-flowered inflorescence of this magnificent ("attln a Ins been sent 
from the collection of T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall. Whitefield, Manchester. 
Its characters have been recorded in these pages on more than one occa- 
sion, and it suffices now to remark that the contrast between the pure white 
sepals and petals and the intense dark velvety crimson lip and the pa,r of 
yellow blotches on the side lobes, is more striking and effective than in any 
Cattleya we know, while the form of the flower is equally good, and it richly 
deserved the Silver Flora Medal which was awarded to it on October ijth 
last by the Royal Horticultural Society. Why it is that the plant ,s per- 
sistently called a variety cf C. Warscewiczii in the reports ,s a mystery N , , 
one can compare it carefully this species and with C. Dowtana without 
seeing that the sepals and petals have the characteristic shape and arrange 


; other forms of C. X Hardya 

there are distinct traces of the vetoing of C. Dowiana m the basal hah , 
the lip, as well as of the deep colour in the front. It ,s certainly a natural 
hybrid between C. Dowiana and C. Warscewiczihand the re* 
the latter-as, indeed, of other forms of C. X Hardyana-.s s p > rt a 
which is usually seen between a hybrid and it. parents All hyb 
between these two species must stand as forms of C. X Hardyana and .« 
quite time the present magnificent variety was called by .ts proper name. 



Dktiunuairc hoiiographiquc dcs Orchidecs. Direction et redaction par A. 
Cogniaux : Dessins et Aquarelles par A. Goosens. Brussels, A. Goosens. 
We have received the first number of the above work, whose object, 
briefly stated, is to take cognisance of interesting Orchids, and to facilitate 
their determination and the verification of the names of those which 
amateurs possess in their collections. The first part contains Cattleya X 
Brvmeriana, Lalia purpurata. Miltonia vexillaria and varieties superba and 
radiata. M. spectabilis and varieties bicolor and Moreliana, Odontoglossum 
crispum and varieties Bousiesianum, Madame Madoux and stellatum. The 
plates represent a single flower, and each plate is wrapped in a sheet or 
more of text, containing a short description and history of the species, in 
French, and sometimes wood-cuts of the whole plant, each sheet being 
loose, so that they can be kept in alphabetical order as later parts appear. 
The size of the work is about 51 inches deep by yi wide, the shape not 
being the one best adapted to the library shelves, and, unfortunately, the 
Lalia plate is folded across the middle. The plates are faithful repre- 
sentations of the plants intended, and this is a point which is emphasised 
in the prospectus, where it is remarked that too often in analogous publi- 
cations, edited by horticultural establishments, the plates are highly 
fantastical, or the beauty or dimensions of the flowers are exaggerated 
without measure in the interest of the sale— a remark not altogether without 
justification, though we are glad to think that it does not apply generally. 
It was intended to commence with the genus Odontoglossum, but owing to 
certain difficulties this part has been deferred for a short time. We cordially 
wish tile new venture success 


A FLOWER of the above has been sent from the collection of Reginald 
Young, Est]., Sefton Park, Liverpool, together with one of C. purpuratum, 
one oi its reputed parents. It was raised by the late Mr. J. C. Bowling, "f 
Windsor, and is said to have been a seedling from C. insigne Maulei crossed 
with the pollen of C. purpuratum. It was sent out by Mr. Bull, and we 
have found a brief record of it in rSSg, though when it was raised and when 
■t flowered for the first time we have not succeeded in tracing. The flower 
most resembles C. insigne, particularly in shape, though the dorsal sepal is 
nearly orbicular, the petals broader, and the staminode almost exactly 
intermediate in character. In colour the influence of the pollen parent is 
more apparent, for the petals are distinctly suffused with light purple, and 
at the extreme base occur a few traces of purple spots, while the dorsal 


sepal is suffused with a similar colour, except round the broad white 
margin, and the numerous nerves are all of a deeper purple shade. The 
lip, too, is darker in colour. There is only a slight trace of the reflexed 
character of the dorsal sepal of C. purpuratum, and. indeed, much of the 
character of this parent is so much blended into that of C. insigne as to be 
almost lost. The features of C. purpuratam may be more apparent in the 
leaf, which we have not seen. It is a bright and very pretty hybrid : but 
one might be excused for not guessing that C. purpuratum was one of tin- 
hat this is one of the original ..lock. 
; been correctly given. 


A pretty hybrid derived from Cattleya velutin.i and Ladio-cattleya X 
elegans 3 , raised by M. Chas. Maron. Orchid grower to M. Fonrnii 1. "t 
Marseilles, and which recently received a First-class Certificate at Paris. 
At present it most resembles the mother plant, though rather stouter 
in habit. The flowers are fragrant, and are produced several together in an 
erect raceme, the sepals being creamy-white tinged witli nankeen yellow 
and veined with rose, and the lip blush white at the base, with the front 
lobe rich crimson-purple, veined with white, and having an orange blotch 
at the base.— O'Brien in Card. Chron.. Sept. 26th, p. .569. 
A very interesting hybrid, raised in the collection of M. G. Mantm. 
Chateau de Bel Air, Olivet, France, from Cattleya Bowringiana J and 
Ladia autumnalis 3 . The inflorescence and flowers closely resemble those 
of the Ladia in almost every particular, but the pollen is that of Labi 
cattleya, four of the pollinia being very s 
dication of the Cattleya parent in the habit. It was e 
Horticultural Society's meeting on October 27th last. 


On page 300 of the October number of the Onhui J* there is a note 
wth reference ,0 the sportive nature of this Cypnpeduun hybn. and 
request to know the behaviour of the plant in Mr. Measures a cote,,, 
may say that it bloomed again shortly after ,t came here the -£«ta-l 
,m P „ an ordinary form of C Xj— ^ ««££££ 
produced on a different part of the plant. 1 f °" ,, .... nla „ rflowe ,i„.. 
Mr. Little of the facts, and have watted to learn the result ^^^ 
The plant here has now developed a second flower, from the growth 


the one which produced the green flower originally described in your pages. 
It is just what one might term a poor form of C. X Harrisianum, being 
neither one thing nor the other— that is to say, it is neither an ordinal; 
form of Harrisianum, nor yet the variety virescens as described. With 
reference to the plant being potted in loam, there is a little mistake. When 
I divided the plant I found that it had a mixture of a little loam, but the 
greater portion of the potting material consisted of peat and sand, the 
whole being in a decayed condition, though the plant was perfectly healthy. 
I am afraid that evidence of this kind will not quite bear out the statement 
of the expert reported at page 267 of the September number, that no 
variety of Orchid would alter its character into another. 

Cambridge Lodge, 


Further observations on the time of ripening seed-pods have convinced 
me that there is no fixed rule as to the influence of foreign pollen in this 
matter, but that certain species have a prepotency in influencing the time 
of ripening which other species do not possess. For example, Ladia anceps 
pollen seems invariably to cut down the time needed to ripen pods of the 
Cattleya labiata group by about six months, while pollen of the latter species 
does not appreciably lengthen the time needed by an anceps pods to ripen. 
On the other hand, Broughtonia sanguinea. which, both with its own and 
with foreign pollen, ripens its seeds in i| to 2 months, has no power to 
quicken the ripening of C. Bowringiana, with which it gave good seed in 8} 
months. Probably certain species have now 

other peculia 

upon their hybrid offspring, just as the 
1 group always transmit the three-lobed lip to their 

Cattleyas of the gul 

hybrids with species having an entire lip. 

This summer a pod of C. Triana X labiata ripened, which was remark- 
able in two ways— the pollen was 35 days old before it was used, and the 
pod ripened in 7 } months. Only a few seeds were plump, but one of them 
grew fast, and is now pushing a leaf. 

Cattleya Dowiana seems to have the most perishable pollen of any 
Cattleya experimented with, as I get no pods from it if over a week or ten 
days from the flower. Nor have I been able to get pods with C. B* 
pollen, of the same age. Very hot and damp weather seems to shorten the 
life of all sorts of Orchid pollen very materially, though no change is visible 


Oviedo, Florida 

TiitoDum-: 1- Me-* d - 


Several years ago I commenced a study of the Orchidee, with .1 view of 

ascertaining the relationship of tin difurenl groups in e.ich other. ,md 
naturally commenced with the primitive group Apostasies;, a paper, 
entitled "A Morphological and Systematic Review of the Apostasies:." 
being published in the Journal of ilic Unman Society (Vol. X\V.. pp. 211- 
243, t. 40), in which tile structure, affinities, and geographical distribution 
of the group was fully discussed. Subsequently, two species of the- remark- 
able genus Neuwiedia came into cultivation, and flowered at Kew, and .111 
account of its structural peculiarities was given in these pages two years 
ago (supra, II., p. 70). The Cypripedium group follows next in natural 
sequence, and as it occupies such an important position in gardens, an out- 
line of the species, and their natural arrangement, cannot full to be 
interesting. And in order to make the account of the sub-order, Diandra, 
complete, a brief account of the Apostasies may also be included. 

As regards the arrangement adopted, a few words must be said. Darwin 
has very well pointed out that a system of classification, in order to be 
natural, must be strictly genealogical, as the characters which indicate true 
affinity between any two or more species are those which have been 
inherited from a common parent. But as there is no written pedigree 
we can only trace community of descent by a comparison of structural 
agreements and differences, carefully distinguishing between those characters 
which indicate consanguinity, or real affinity, and those which are merely 
adaptations for some special physiological effect, which latter are onh 
analogical resemblances, sometimes between members of quite distinct 
groups. A difficulty presents itself here as to what are ancestral and what 
adaptive characters, but it is evident that the two are essentially distinct. 

Ancestral characters are those which have been the least modified in 
relation to the conditions of life to which organisms have been recently 
exposed, and consequently they may be recognised as those extending with 
the greatest amount of uniformity throughout a group, and subject to the 
least amount of variability. Moreover, they are invariably most apparent in 
embryonic structures, becoming most masked or obscured in those stages 
where the greatest amount of specialisation is devolved. And from this 
the importance of rudimentary organs in a natural scheme of classification 

' AdVptiveTharacters are those by which an organism keeps itself in 
harmony with changing conditions of existence, and these may produc, 
similarities of structure in organisms far apart by ties of consanguinity, as. 
for example, in the pollinarv apparatus of Orchids and Asclepiads, wh,ch 
are adaptions for fertilisation by insects. Adaptive characters may m time 


become ancestral ones if sufficiently beneficial to give rise to a dominant 
group of organisms, the acquired characters being then handed down to all 
the descendants in common. But when a group becomes dominant, and 
widely diffused, some of its members again come under new conditions of 
environment, still newer adaptations arise as the group diverges, and the 
original adaptive character having served its purpose, may now only persist 
in a modified or rudimentary form throughout the new group. From 
these remarks the significance of the two sets of characters will be 

In the following sketch 1 have aimed at a natural arrangement, as fa 
as the broad features are concerned, but it is quite possible that future 
discoveries may render modification necessary in some details. 
SUBOEDEK I. Uiandk.i . 

This suborder is characterised by the presence of either two or three 
perfect stamens situated on one side of the flower, and by the pollen grain) 
being invariably simple. The stamens represent the lateral pair of the 
inner staminal whorl, and the median one of the outer whorl. It contains 

Tribe I. Apostasies 

itn regular, or 

., rnents slender. 

slender « 

:h regular, or nearly so. with subequal segments; column very 

oil, filaments slender, anthers more or less elongated, pollen dry: style 

e stigma. The tribe contains three genera and over a 

range, from Continental India and Ceylon through the 

Three stamens all perfect, linear or oblong : flowers in dense erect spikes 

i. Neuwiedia, Blume. 
Dorsal stamen imperfect or absent ; flowers in pendulous simple or branched 

style: anthers with oblique base 2. APOSTASIA, Blume. 

Dorsal stamen entirely suppressed; anthers with equal base 

;. Ada( 1 vi. 1 s. Rolfe. 
I. Neuwiedia. 
The most ancestral of existing Orchids, and of remarkably simple 
structure, as the linear versatile anthers with .lender- filaments, and the 
distinct style, are very different from those of most Orchids, though it agrees 
in every other respect. It ranges from Malacca and Penang to New Guinea, 
six species being known. 


Key to the Specks. 
Segments 6—8 lin. long, yellow. 
Anthers linear-oblong. 

Ovary and sepals puberulous or subglabrous. 
Ovary and sepals puberulous. 

Bracts narrowly lanceolate. ii-2 T lin. broad 

i. X. Lindlevi. Rolfe. 
Bracts lanceolate-linear, i-ij lin. broad 

2. X. calanthoides, Kidl. 
Ovary and sepals subglabrous ;. \. Zollinger., Rchb. I. 

Ovary and sepals pubescent . . 4. N. Cnrtisu, Rolfe. 
Anthers broadly oblong .... 5. X. vcratrifolia, Blumc 
Segments 3 lin. long, white . . . . 6 . N . Grim ,hu, Rchb . f. 
A small genus of live species, ranging from Continential India and 
Ceylon, through the Malay Archipelago, to tropical Australia. The 
median stamen of Xeuwiedia is here reduced to a narrow staminode, and 
the anthers are oblong and versatile, with oblique base. 
Key to the Species. 

Leaves lanceolate 1. A. odorata. Blume. 

Leaves elongate-linear. 

Leaves 3-8 lin. broad .... 2. A. Wailichii. R, Br. 
Leaves iJ-2± lin. broad. 

Australian species .... 3. A. stylidioides, Rchb. f. 

Bornean species. 

Panicle lax. ovary 5-; lin. long. 4. A. gracdis, Kolfe. 

Panicle congested, ovarv 4 lin. 

long 5. A. alba. Kolfe. 

III. Adactylus. 
A genus of three species, ranging from Continental India and Ceylon, 
along the Malay Archipelago as far as Borneo. The third stamen is here 
entirely suppressed, and the anthers are basifixed, with equal subcordate 
base, and sometimes partially cohere by their margins. 

Key to the Species. 
Leaves elongate-linear. 

Leaves 3-5 lin. broad 1. A. nudus, Kolfe. 

Leaves 4-7 lin. broad 2. A. Lobbii, Kolfe. 

Leaves broadly lanceolate j. A. latifolius. Kolfe. 

Tribe II. CvPKlPEDIEi. 
Perianth irregular, with very unequal segments, the median petal 
developed into a large saccate lip ; column well developed, anthers 
subsessile, globose, pollen grains viscid, dorsal stamen modified into a 


generally more or less shield-shaped staminode ; stigma subsessile, shield- 
shaped. The tribe contains about 86 known species, and is widely diffused 
through the northern hemisphere, and part of tropical America and Asia, in 
the latter ranging along the Malay Archipelago to the Philippines and New 
Guinea. The species have been variously arranged in from one to three 
genera, but from the following it will be seen that they can be arranged in 
four natural groups, whose claim to generic rank now seems to be well 
made out. 

Key to the Genera. 
Ovary 3-celled with axile placentas ; sepals valvate. 

Leaves plicate ; perianth persistent ; seeds subglobose 

4. Selenipedium, Kchb. f. 
Leaves conduplicate : perianth deciduous ; seeds fusiform 

5. Phragmipedium, Rolfe. 
Ovary i-celled with parietal placentas ; seeds fusiform. 

Leaves plicate ; perianth persistent ; sepals valvate 

6. Cypripedium, L. 
Leaves conduplicate : perianth deciduous ; sepals imbricate 

The history of this group is somewhat curious. For a long period all 

the known species were referred to Cypripedium, but in 1846 Lindley 
described the curious Uropedium Lindeni as a new genus of Cypripediie, 
diffenng in its long tailed lip. In 1854 Reichenbach pointed out that it 
had also the three-celled ovary of the Apostasies, as had also the Tropical 
American species of Cypripedium, which latter he separated under the 
mum- of Selenipedium, recognising two sections, one with tall leafy stems 
and plicate leaves, the other stemless, and with coriaceous leaves. It has 
subsequently been proved that Uropedium is simply an abnormal state of 
Selenipedium caudatum, and the former has been suppressed, it being 
impossible to retain a name which would have been perpetually erroneous, 
tne i,p of the normal forms not being tailed. In 1882 Dr. Pfitzer removed 
the species of Selenipedium with coriaceous leaves, and united them with 
the Old World Cypripediums of similar habit, under the name of 
Paph.opedilum (Morph. Stud. Orchideenbl, p. „), the characters relied upon 
being the conduplicate leaves and deciduous perianth. This arrangement 
has given rise to some discussion, which it is not necessary to repeat here, 
though a few remaks must be made as to the validitv of the above 

It is quite evident that here are four perfectly natural groups with well- 
defined characters. Selenipedium is neatly cut off from the other three by 
'h globose crustaceous seeds, as in Apostasies, and Paphiopedinm (m the 
restricted sense here employed) by the imbricate sepals. Dr. PfiUer has 


pointed out the importance of the valvate or imbricate sepals in separating 
certain groups of Orchids, and recently called my attention to its probable 
extension to this particular group, which led me to examine a series of 
buds, with the result above mentioned. This gives an additional character 
for separating the American species with a three-celled ovary, which I have 
contended were not naturally united with the Old World species with 
unilocular ovary. Lindley, in 1842, remarked : " There is something in the 
habit of the Indian Lady's slippers so peculiar that it was for a long time 
thought that they would be found to possess characters to separate them 
from their associates" (Bot. Reg., XXVIII., sub. t. 17), and it is un- 
fortunate that the character was not discovered sooner, when the change 
of name would have caused less inconvenience. The character is very 
marked, for in every species which I have been able to examine in the 
proper condition the dorsal sepal is invariably folded within the lateral pair, 
and the bud is laterally compressed, while in the other three genera the 
bud is globose. It is rather curious that the first three genera should agree 
in having valvate sepals, and the last three in having fusiform non- 

4. Selenipedium. 
A genus of three species found in Guiana, Brazil, and Central America. 
They are tall, reed-like plants, with a terminal raceme of small flowers, and 
the seeds globose, as in Apostasies?, or in Vanilla. The first two species 
have fragrant fruits, and are used in the same way as Vanilla for flavouring 
purposes. The species have retained the general habit of Apostasiae, as 
well as the three-celled ovary and crustaceous globose seeds, in which 
respect they differ from all the rest of the CypripedieK. The remainder of 
the species referred here by Reichenbach are transferred to the following 

Key to the Species. 
Leaves narrowly lanceolate .... 1. S. Chica, Kchb. f. 
Leaves broadly lanceolate. 

Inflorescence pubescent, staminode lanceolate 

2. S. Isabelianum. Kodr. 
Inflorescence pilose, staminode trulliform-ovate 

3. S. palmifolium, Kchb. f. 
5. Phragmipedicm. 

This genus comprises Selenipedium section Acaulia coriifolia of 
Reichenbach, and Paphiopedilum section Phragmopedilum of Phtzer, 
about ten species being known. It has the ovary of, but 
differs in habit, the conduplicate coriaceous strap-shaped leaves, the flower 
articulated above the ovary and deciduous, and the fusiform seeds. r rem 
Paphiopedium it differs in the three-celled ovary and valvate sepals. I he 


genus is exclusively tropical American, ranging along the Andes from 

Guatemala to Peru, with outlying species in Brazil and Guiana. 

Key to the Species. 
Petals elliptical or linear-oblong, obtuse. 

Petals elliptical I. p. Schlimii, Rolfe. 

Petals linear-oblong. 

Petals drooping, twisted ; side lobes of lip without a pair of white 

tubercles 2. P. Lindleyanum, Rolfe. 

Petals more horizontal, less twisted : side lobes of lip bearing a pair of 
white tubercles 3. p. Sargentianum, Rolfe. 

Petals tapering to a narrower apex. 
Petals under six inches long. 
Leaves an inch or more broad. 
Margins of petals nearly flat. 

Staminode cordate, acute . 4 . p. viitatum, Rolfe. 

Staminode transversely oblong, obtuse 

5- P. longifolium. Rolfe. 
Margins of petals crisped-undulate. 

Lower sepal a quarter to a third exceeding the lip 

Lower sepal r 

learly twice as long 

6. P. Boissierianum, Rolfe. 
as lip 


es about ± inc 

:h broad. 

7. P. Casrwiakowianum, Rolfe. 

Leaves with attenuate acute apex ; - 
Leaves very little narrowed at apex ; 
Petals a foot or more long . 

svary nearly glabrous 
8. P. caricinum, Rolfe. 
ovary pubescent 
9- P. Klotzschianurn, Rolfe. 

10. P. caudatum, Rolfe. 

6. Cypripedrim. 

This • 
the one- 

North An 

?enus comprises all the Cypripediums with plicate leaves, and a 
perianth, with valvate sepals. It differs from. Selenipedium in 
celled ovary with parietal placentas, and the fusiform not 
JS seeds. It is widely diffused in Europe, temperate Asia, and 
rerica, about 30 species being known. 


Key to the Spec 

1 saccate-globose 
Flowers from the axil of a bract 
Nerves of leaves converging a 
Leaves three or more. 
Lateral sepals free 
Lateral sepals united. 


Dorsal sepal ovate-lanceolate : petals narrow and longer than 
Leaves el'iptical or ovate-oblong, i— j in. broad. 
Staminode trulliform-ovate, flat. 

Lip laterally subcompressed. \\ — tf'in. long 

a. C. pubescens, Will.]. 
Lip dorsallv subcompressed. }- I in. long 

3. C. parvirlorum. Salisb. 
Staminode oblong, concave or conduplicatc. 
Sepals and petals deep purple-brown. 

Lip yellow (European) 4. C. Calceolus, L. 
Lip white (N. American) 5. C. montanum, Dougl. 
Sepals and petals green or yellow. 
Flowers solitary 

Lip 7 — 10 in. long . 6. C. candidum, Muhl. 
Lip r— 1^ in. long . 7. ('. cordigerum, D. Don. 
Flowers two or more . 8. C. Henryi, Rolfe. 
Leaves lanceolate, \ — 1} in. broad 

9. C. yunnanensc, Franch. 
Dorsal sepal broadly ovate or elliptical ; petals usually broad 
and not much longer than the lip. 
Sepals and petals purple or striped. 

Staminode yellow . ro. C. fasciolatum, Franch. 

Staminode purple. 

Lip about 1^ — 2 in. long. 

Flowers almost uniform rose-purple 

n. C. macranthum, Swartz. 
Flowers veined with blackish purple on a light 
ground . . 12. C. tibeticum. King. 

Lip 1 — ii in. long . ij. C. himalaicum, Rolfe. 
Sepals and petals white or yellow. 

Sepals and petals white 14. C. Regina. Walt. 
Sepals and petals yellow. 
Flowers solitary. 

15. C. lutetim, Franch. 
Lip under J-inch long 

Lip 2 inches long . 17. C. Ira 

Lip J-inch long 18. C. calif 


.eaves two, alternate or subopposite. 
Leaves elliptical or ovate-oblong, alternate 
Lip f— i in. long . 
Lip 1} — 2 in. long . 
Leaves ovate or elliptical ovafe 
Flowers in racemes 
Flowers solitary. 
Leaves ovate, stem yillose 
Leaves subcordate, stei 
of leaves rad 

i ebracteate. 

Flowers an inch long . 

Flowers about j-inch long 

Lip trigonous and boat-shaped. 

Leaves elliptical-oblong, 3—5 

Leaves suborbicular, over 6 in 

n. long 

19. L. guttatum, Swartz. 

20. C. acaule. Ait. 

2. C. elegans, Rchb. f. 



28. C. Farge 

Glancing over my notes on Orchid culture, I have come across an instance 
ofqaick culture which tends to remove the impression that Orchid seed 
p o uc ion is always a protracted process. On March 28th, 1896, I applied 
he pollen of Phams grandifolius to the stigma of Bletia catenulata. A pod 
ormed, npeued and burst on May roth. The seeds were planted 
the same day, and on June 4 th we had a batch of seedlings up, some of 
wh,ch are now nice little plants with several leaves. Microscopical 
e.xam.nat.on showed three percent, of the seeds to contain embryos. 1. 
will be observed that the seeds mentioned above only took twenty-five days 
erm"T te ' Tu ^ "^ ^ &0m ">e application of the pollen to the 
getmmatlon of the seed was only nine weeks and five days. 
The Grange, Alex. Hodgkinson. 


and 1 ™ 6 •!T 1UCti ° n ° fseedlin S s '"S° short a period is verv remarkable, 
ndp s s ,bly establishes a record, though we are not sure if previous 
27 o Tb Ve reCOTded '" qUite the same «*■ We shall hope to 

that th t r°, greSS ° f th6Se intereSt '"g ^'«gs. » it will be remembered 
ti.tthe first plant of X kewens.s fioweredlhen only eighteen months 


This pretty little Odontoglossum is now flowering well in the collection of 

\V. J. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange. Stone. Staffordshire, and furnishes 
the opportunity to say that it was probably in this collection that it first 
flowered in Europe, in May, i.SN<>. Mr. Stevens then sent it to Kew. stating 
that it had been purchased as Odontoglossum species at Prothcroe and 
Morris's Rooms in the previous December, and that the old flower spikes 
showed fourteen to sixteen flowers. It was not identified, and was bid 
aside as possibly a n;itnr:il hybrid. A few weeks later it also flowered with 
the importers, Messrs. F. Sander and Co., and was described as Odonto- 
glossum Hunnewellianum (Rolfe in Card. Chnm., 1889, vi.,p. 67), the earliei 
specimen being then overlooked. Soon afterwards it flowered in numerous 
collections, and it appears that it was introduced in quantity. It is said to 
grow at a very high altitude, near Bogota, in New (iranada, and was dis- 
covered by Mr. Oscar Bobisch. It bears a good deal of resemblance to a 
small light-coloured form of O. sceptrum, but is markedly different in 
having entire column wings, in which respect it is comparable with O. 
Pescatorei, and thus is very distinct from every other species. 

R. A. R. 

A fine specimen of this plant (the Dove Orchid) is at present to be seen in 
bloom at Sparken, Worksop, the residence of J. D. Ellis, Esq. It is 
growing in a 20-inch pot, and has sixteen bulbs and five flower spikes. 
Some of the largest bulbs measure 14 inches in circumference and 7 inches 
in depth, the tallest spike being 5 feet 3 inches in height, and has upwards 
of forty blooms or flower buds on it. There are a total of 170 expanded 
flowers or buds on the five spikes. This is one of the most robust and 
healthy specimens of this well-known Orchid I have seen. It is growing in 
a light span-roofed house, and is only slightly shaded from the bright sun. 
On inquiring of Mr. Alderman, the gardener, the treatment he gave it. I 
found it was somewhat different to what is usually recommended. Peat, 
sphagnum, charcoal, and sand are the ingredients used in the compost. It 
is potted annually in February, before growth has commenced, all the old 
soil is removed and replaced with new. It is found that this variety has 
active root action before any growth appears ; a copious supply of water is 
given during its growing season, and the plant is kept quite dry when at 
rest. It is an old-fashioned plant, but the flowers are much appreciated at 
bazaars, where flowers from this plant have been lately sold for as. 6d. each. 
— S. in Journ. of Hort., Oct. 15th, p- 377- 


E case of Rappart versus the Owen trustees was reported at page J 
' September issue. A second trial was granted to the defendants 
the former occasion allowed judgment to go by default. The cas< 

Court on October 

cupied about 

uum,. i,otn parties were represented by counsel. For the plaintiff 
appeared as witnesses Mr. James O'Brien, Secretary of the R.H.S. Orchid 
Committee, Mr. James McXab, from Messrs. F. Sander and Co., and 
r - Baguley, of Messrs. Charlesworth and Co. It will be remembered that 
or three plants purchased at the sale of the Selwood 


Cattleya Skinned alba, Odontoglo: 

elegans, and Dendrobium X splendidissimutn grandiflorum, which on 
flowermg proved untrue to name. After the plaintiff had stated his case, 
Mr. Baguley gave evidence that he had been for over fifteen years in the 
Orchid trade, that he knew varieties of Orchids well. In April last he 
called on the plaintiff, when the so-called Odontoglossum X elegans was in 
Bower, and when questioned as to whether it was true to name he could say 
without the slightest hesitation that it was not O. X elegans, but an 
ordinary variety of O. Hallii, worth about 2S. 6d. He was sure that he 
11 j" ' ,T adC a mistakt - Mr - MtNab, the next witness, stated that he 
called in May on Mr. Rappart, and saw the so-called Cattleva Skinneri alba 
■n flower It was not an albino at all. The lip was purple, and the sepals 

and petals light rose. In his opinion an all,, ver changed colour. 

Mr. J. O'Brien gave evidence that true albinos -,lw-i •-, <•■ , r i ("ever • time 
when flowering, and that only those that ii,'u'iVfi!vt > iUt'i'nl'','we'reViot ma'. 
and which ought never to have had the title of all,-, .oven to 'them rum 
with a little colour. The defendant's case then' commenced. Mr. Watts, 
gardener, on being called, was understood to say that 
collection the Odontoglossum X elegans and Cattleya 
Skinner, alba had never flowered while in their collection, but had been 
purchased m flower; but the Dendrobium X splendidissimum grandiflorum 
had flowered, and was true to name. Mr. W. H. Protheroe, the auctioneer, 
was also called by the defendants, but stated that he did no, consider the 
Uendrobium true in nama t* r . j 

they had nr a i ° ame Quorn House collectlon ' 

With II th T Rene Ur " rUe fr ° m there ' He hild Had a l0t ° f tr0Ub1 '' 

Four Aiff X S P lendidiss ™<™ grandiflorum from that collection, 

the S 7 C r Plain ' S Had reached him ab °<« P^nts that came from 

lid that 00 , ti0 " bemg Unt ™ e t0 na ™' Mr ' Commissioner Kerr 

a,d that ,t seamed doubtful whether albinos might not after all revert 
tne coloured variety, and Odontoglossum X elegans to ordinary Hallii, 
reserved judgment until he had read the shorthand notes over again. 

the late Mr. O 
according to 1 


The accompanying illustration represents the beautiful Cattleya X Lord 
Rothschild, from the collection of T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall, WhitefieM, 
Manchester, and is specially given in order to show what can be done by 
encouraging root action, though it also serves to show the general character 
of the plant on a rather reduced scale. The photograph, however, is not 
reproduced in its entirety, as it would have more than filled this page, but 

the appearance of the original may be inferred from the fact that exactly 
three-fifths of the total length of the roots have been omitted, and Mr. 
Johnson writes that the longest roots on the plant measure four feet, which 
is indeed remarkable. He also states :-" It has not received any 
treatment apart from the rest of the Cattleyas in the collection. I prefer 
the cylinder basket for Cattleyas, as the roots seem to find their way out- 


wards and travel downwards, as in the photo. I have many with a great 
deal of root action, and I attribute it to keeping the Cattleya house well 
damped down three or four times a day. I never give my Cattleyas much 
water at the root, but try to give them plenty in the atmosphere of the 
house. Plenty of moisture and bottom ventilation are the best things I can 
find in growing Cattleyas." We have had occasion to speak of the ex- 
cellence of the results obtained in this collection on more than one occasion, 
and refer our readers to the account given at page 201 < if nur second volume 
It was there pointed out that " very little top air is admitted at any time, 
but the bottom ventilators are almost always open. The larger plants are 
grown on stone benches, in which a number of circular holes are cut. 
Underneath are water tanks and the hot water pipes, so that the air which 
is continually coming in becomes warm and moist before reaching the 
plants." To prevent misapprehension, it should be added that the pipes 
are not in the water, but above it, and near the ventilators. There can be 
no doubt that healthy root action is one great secret of success in the culture 
of all classes of Orchids— as, indeed, of all kinds of plants— and those who 
think their method of culture open to improvement cannot do better than 
embody the above hints in their practice. 

Respecting the history of this handsome hybrid, we may add that it was 
raised in the establishment of Messrs. F. Sander & Co., of St. Albans, its 
parents being Cattleya Gaskelliana ? and C. Dowiana aurea 3 , and that 
it received a First-class Certificate on October 24th, 189 j, from the Royal 
Horticultural Society. The flowers are of good size and substance, and 
distinctly combine the characters of the two parents, though those of the 
seed parent come out the most conspicuously. The sepals and petals are 
of a light rose-pink shade, the latter being slightly veined with white, and 
the hp rich dark velvet crimson in front, with a white fringed margin, and 
a deep orange throat conspicuously veined with brown along the disc. The 
golden veimng of the pollen parent is verv distinct on the exterior of the 
side lobes. The flowers represented in the photograph were kindly sent 
after they had been open three weeks, and measured 6| inches in diameter 
across the petals, which organs were 2 J- inches in diameter, and the front 
lobe of the hp nearly as broad. As might naturallv be expected, there is a 
certam general resemblance to some forms of C. X Hardyana, though, of 
course, the two hybrids are thoroughly distinct. 

There are three other hybrids between C. Dowiana aurea and specie 
ot the labiata group, and, as might be expected, there is a strong fan* 
likeness between them. They are C. x Fabia. C. X Kienastiana, and 

C I , .7 reSS ^^ thC SeC ° nd P arent <*"& respectively, C. labiata, 

C. Lueddemanmana and C. Mossis. 


The history of this curious plant was given at page 334 of our first volume, 
and two years later some further notes appeared 

following account by Mr. De Barri Crawshay, of Rosefield. Scvenoaks 
appeared in the Gardeners Chronicle for October 17th (p. 450) : " This plant 
passed into my collection on October 10th. 1893. and is now again in bloom 
for the second time; the 1893 spike was its first appearance. The histon 
of this rarity is as follows :— In The Garden of August 21st, 1886, is a note 
mentioning that there are seedlings of Odontoglossum in Mr. Buchan's 
collection at Southampton. At the sale of the collection (uncial M. 1 k< I. \ . 
of Southampton, purchased the seedlings, that had grown fairly strong. In 
1893 the first plant bloomed. It appeared to be .1 white-lipped O. Uro- 
skinned. The Orchid Committee gave it the A. M. under that name. 
There was diversity of opinion, but it was Imped that, given farther time 
and more plants, blnoniing would prove it. 

" In 1895 Mr. E. Ashworth bought the remainder of this plant, as well as 
the other seedlings of the same batch. I have just had Mi. 
letter saying none of his plants will bloom this season, much t" my dis- 
appointment, for I hoped that 1896, being its tenth year, would settle the 
matter; but my plant is the only one out of the batch that has as yet 
bloomed. Referring to the correspondence I had with the late Mr. Hurhan 
in August, 1886, I find that his gardener, Mr. Osborne, does not remember 
if he crossed the Uroskinneri flowers or whether it was merely self- 
fertilised. This is unfortunate, as there is but the plant to prove the 
second parent, and to those who are familiar with Orchid hybrids this is 
barely enough, for in many cases it is very hard to see which the parents 
were. With the plant now before me, as well as O. Uroskinneri (the known 
mother), and O. bictoniense. it is hard to prove, but easy to believe thai < 1. 
Rossii had a hand in the deal, or perhaps O. X Humeanum, on account of 
the yellow sepals and petals. But the crest of the lip excludes O. Rossii 
in toto, for it is that of true Uroskinneri. The form, as well as the colour 
of the lip say " Rossii " plainly enough ; so here are two " points " in tin- 
chief segment of the bloom in direct opposition to each other. So the lip. 
barring its colour, is like that of Uroskinneri. Now we come to a pure 
yellow column, with form and wings like its mother. Where does the rosy 
colour go to, and where does the yellow come from under the influence of 
self-fertilisation ? So what is the column ? Now the petals. These are 
narrower than in O. Uroskinneri ; they are yellow, faintly dotted all over 
with a darker shade. How is the banding and aggregation of brown of O. 
Uroskinneri's petals turned into dots all over the petal ? The sepals follow 
the same line as the petals, except the depth of keel on thetr backs. The 


spike has O. Uroskinneri on a much smaller scale, opening one or two 
blooms at a time, but the bracts and buds are different. Finally, the plant 
— its leaves and bulbs are smaller and more delicate than those of 0. 
Uroskinneri, hence the evidence is here for Rossii parentage, the leaf joins 
the bulb rather peculiarly, and the bulbs are more elongated and less spotted 
than O. Uroskinneri. Which was the father ? " 


At the Royal Horticultural Society's meeting on October 27th a fine hybrid 
Cypripedium was exhibited from the collection of Walter C. Clarke, Esq., 
Orleans House, Sefton Park, Liverpool, whose parentage was somewhat 
doubtful. A coloured drawing of the same had previously been sent to us by 
Mr. Clarke, who wrote that it was purchased by him three or four years ago 
as a seedling with parentage "C.Argus Moensii X vexillarinm," but now 
that it had flowered he was doubtful about the second parent. After 
examining the plant as well as the drawing it is quite evident that one 
parent belonged to the racemose group, and on comparing them individually 
we are satisfied that it must have been C. philippinense, whose influence 
can be traced in numerous particulars. As to the seed parent, we have no 

of C. x burfordiense, a plant raised in the collection of Sir Trevor 
Lawrence, which we have not seen, but which is recorded as a supposed 
hybrid between C. Argus and C. philippinense (Rchb. f. in Card. Clmm.. 
1888, iv., p. 724). If this is correct, C. X Bryani must be considered as a 
form of the same hybrid. This was raised in the collection of Norman C. 
Cookson, Esq., from C. philippinense ? and C. Argus J , and received an 
Award of Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society on July 26th, 1892 
(Gard. Chron., t8g2, xii., p. 138). It is a very handsome hybrid, and the 
plant exhibited by Mr. Clarke well combines the characters of the two 
parents. The leaves are longer and greener than in C. Argus, but with 
the characteristic markings, while the scape is tall, and has the 
marked racemose character of the other parent. The same influence is 
seen in the shape of the staminode and petals, which latter bear numerous 
large blotches, as in C. Argus. In other respects the flower is qmtc 
intermediate between the two parents, both in shape and colour, so that it 
is unnecessary to make a longer description. We would again impress 
upon our readers the importance of making careful records of all their 
crosses, as so many hybrids of mixed parentage are now appearing that it 
becomes increasingly difficult to make them out l,v < iparison onlv. and 

these records wi 

nportant in the futu 



like se 

veral o 


■ Orchids, li 



the ma 


ur dinging 


"Grisebach's Flomofthc British Hat Lulus records ( .nngora atropurpurea, 
Hook., as indigenous to Trinidad. Hooker's Exotic Flora relates that a 
plant was sent in 1825 to the Liverpool Botanic Garden from Trinidad by 
Baron de Schach. The Kew List (18951 gives it as a native of British 
Guiana. Dr. H. H. Rnsby's late expedition to the delta of tin Orinoco 
found it fairly plentiful there, so that it will probably be found in tile 
greater part of the tropical regions of South America on the Atlantic slope. 
It is a plant that flowers freely even war at the Gardens, growing upon 
blocks of wood or bark without covering of any kind at the root. Gongoras, 
,-e. when iii good health, two classes of roots. 
ots ; and, secondly, the upright or vertical, 
oots are found in Gongora. Coryanthes. 
and always commence growth during the 
moist season, having the green and glowing point exactly vertical. On this 
point is to be seen in damp weather radiant globules of moisture. In dry 
weather the green and growing point entirely disappears, by gradually 
tapering away into a needle-shaped point, when it becomes covered with 
the white covering common to the clinging roots, and becomes practically 

"These roots are similar to 1 1 io>r cxhibi ted b\ mangrove and other swamp 
plants. If the surroundings to lagoon plants are examined closely it will be 
found that, proceeding from the roots which are below the surfaceof the mud, 
there are countless thousands of tips that are exactly perpendicular. That 
these roots perform some function, important both to Orchids and to 
mangroves, &c, is clearlv apparent, as where they are most abundant the 
plant and the tree is most vigorous and in the most robust health. But 
what that function is exactly is not yet clear to us. but the feature is such a 
notable one that it is deserving of further close inquiry. 

" Beside Gongora atropurpurea we have Gongora maculata, Lindley, 
which is given by some as a synonym of Gongora quinquenervis, Ruiz and 
Pavon. This is a much prettier Orchid from a florist's point of view than 
the first mentioned, and flowers more freely. 

" Besides these, we have another Gongora, which gives a straw-white 
flower and is distinguished by lighter-coloured pseudobulbs, but for the 
present we place this with the last-named as a variety. Whether the two 
latter are deserving of specific distinction is a matter for specialists to 
settle, but the variation shown in the form of bulbs and the colour of the 
flower leads to the belief that tin three are merely forms of the one species 
indicated by the flower being almost identical in form, no matter what 
colour is assumed or what shape is put on by the pseudobulb. 



"Whether they are eventually proved to be species or mere varieties, it 
still remains that there are three forms of Gongora native to Trinidad : — 
ist, the dark purple; 2nd, the spotted : and 3rd, the straw-coloured ; all of 
which arc easy of cultivation at or near sea-level, in positions sheltered 
from the wind."— J. H. Hart, in Trinidad Bulletin, 1896, p. 222. 

[The vertical arrangement of the rootlets lure described is very curious, 
and deserves further investigation. We have several times seen it in 
Catasetum, but could not surest any reason for the peculiarity, but if it is 
common to other lagoon and swamp plants, it may be a provision for 
enabling the roots to get out of the water in order to feed on the gases in 
the air. Fnirther observation, however, seems necessary on this point. 
With respect to the species of Gongora mentioned, it is certain that G. 
atropurpurea and G. quinquenervis, which are both natives of Trinidad, are 
thoroughly distinct species, and a comparison of the basal horns of the lip 

the colour. The white variety mentioned is probably the white variety of 
G. nigrita, Lindl., which is well known in British Guiana. There does not 
appear to be any direct evidence of the' occurrence of (i. nigrita in Trinidad, 
but so many Orchids are common to the two areas that it is highly probable 
it also occurs there. This, too, is a quite distinct species, and the white 
form found in Guiana is simply an albino of it. No doubt the Kew 
authorities could settle these doubtful points if specimens were submitted to 


Acanthophippilm EBURNEUM, Kranzl.— A species very closely allied to A- 
Curtisii, Rchb. f., which flowered in the collection of Mr. P. Walter, of 
Magdeburg- Wilhelmstadt, in July last. The flowers are ivory-white, with a 
yellowish lip. and orange crest.— Gari. Chron., Sept. 5th, p. 20b. 

DENBEOBIUM JeNHYANUM, Kranzl.— A tall species closely allied to D. 
Mirbclianum. Gaud., which flowered with M. Zollingcr-Jenny, of Zurich, in 
August last. It produces long racemes of flowers, which have greenish- 
yellow sepals and petals, and a white lip with some yellow at the base.— 
Card. Chron., Sept. 19th, p. 329. 

Goncora Sandkki ana, Kranzl. — A Peruvian species closely allied to G. 
portentosa, Rchb. f., from which it is said to differ in various particulars, 
notably in the darker colour of the flower and in some details of the lip. I' 
recently flowered with Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, who imported 
it.— Gurd. Chron.. Oct. 17th, p. 456. 


By H. A. BURBKRRY, Highbury, Moor Green. Birmingham. 

The temperatures for the different departments will continue much the 
same as advised for last month. If any difference is made, the tendency 
should naturally lean to a few degrees lower rather than higher. The 
frequency of damping down is now much a question of the outside 
conditions of the weather, and the amount of fire heat which it may be 
necessary to use. If the weather should be mild and murky once a day 
will probably suffice. But should it be cold and frosty, with drying winds, 
then twice, or even three times in the warm departments, may be 

Those quaint Orchids, Cycnoches, Catasetum, and Mormodes, have 
now finished flowering, and must be given a long dry rest throughout the 
winter months. They object to a cold temperature at any time, even when 
they are perfectly dry and resting. They will pass the winter very well 
placed at the warmest and dryest end of the Cattleya house, or it will be 
quite safe to keep them in the East Indian department altogether. Too 
much cold and wet is the ruination of this class of Orchid : even when in 
full growth during summer, and when the compost sparkles with bristling 
live roots, it is necessary to water very carefully, otherwise the new growths 
may damp off. The roots of all the above species invariably perish when 
the plants are resting, but this fact does not seem to much matter so long 
as new compost, small receptacles, and plenty of warmth is given when they 
again start to grow in the spring. 

The lovely Cattleya labiata will, of course, be the greatest attraction this 
month. The more I make the acquaintance of this species, the more I am 
convinced that it has not a robust constitution. It seems to require some- 
thing a little different from the general conditions of the Cattleya house, 
which contain and grow most others of the same genus so well. What 
that something is I am not quite prepared to say, but from observations 
made this year I shall try a new experiment next spring by subjecting a few 
plants to much more shade. I may say the same by C. Dowiana aurea and 
and C. Mendehi, all three of which seemed to me to suffer during the early- 
part of this summer. What could be the cause other than the excessive 
sunshine is to me a puzde. I don't mean to say that they went seriously 
wrong ; but what I do say is, that beyond doubt they shrivelled up a good 
deal more than I care to see them, and I think also beyond what they 
should by nature do. I never like to see Cattleyas, or, indeed, any other 
Orchid, shrivel too much; it is best to keep them p ump if P°s sibk. 
Cattleya Schroder, and C. maxima are two others that I think should b 
kept pretty well shaded, especially during spring and early summer. 



others, such as I have from time to time mentioned in these pages, delight in 
a large amount of direct sunshine, and are not put about in the slightest if 
grown with the Mexican Laslias, but on the other hand seem to prefer it 
and prosper. C. Lawrenceana is always late and slow growing. It is not 
a difficult species by any means, but it is simply a warmer growing kind 
than most others, and it should occupy at the present time the warmest 
house, at least until the new pseudobulbs are properly made up. 

Beware of the autumn flowering Cattleyas, and more especially C. 
labiata and C. Dowiana aurea, losing their new leaves by rot, caused by 
damping immediately the flower spike is cut off. This they are very apt to 
do, and when it occurs it is, of course, a misfortune, for the plant becomes 
greatly weakened. See that the sheath is wholly removed, and cut away close 
to the pseudobulb, with a sharp knife, the whole of the flower spike. When 
this precaution is taken it is usually effective, and the rot will rarely take 
place unless the conditions of the atmosphere are greatly at fault. 

The time of year has now arrived when extra care should be exercised 
when watering. A bad or careless waterer is one who will go through his 
houses at fixed intervals and water everything indiscriminately. A good 
waterer will look over his plants every day, and will in the first place take 
into consideration the existing conditions of the weather ; then, the 
condition of the plant, whether growing or dormant, deciduous or ever- 
green ; the amount of compost round the roots, &c. Briefly speaking, a 
very little water will satisfy the requirements of all species that are more or 
less growing during winter ; they will need to be kept just moist only, 
whilst those that are inactive should be watered frequently enough to keep 
them from shrivelling and plump, this will vary according to the species 
and the temperature they are in. For instance, there are two evergreen 
species, Ccelogyne cristata and Dendrobium thyrsiflorum, which will rest in 
a cool department, where the temperature will average about 50° — say from 
45° to 55 , or even lower — and in such a temperature a very little water 
indeed will be found necessary to keep them plump ; no more, in fact, then 
the leafless Dendrobium Wardianum, which will be in the same house, will 
receive. With the exception of D. Devonianum, I do not like to keep 
the other Dendrobiums quite so cool when resting, as they will not stand it. 
D. nobile, D. Findlayanum, D. crassinode, and such like species, are, I 
fancy, better if not usually falling below 50 . 

Many Cypripediums are now in bloom, amongst others C. Spicerianum, 
C. insigne. and C. Charlesworthii will show up in force. These are some- 
times recommended as Cool house Orchids, but I find they really do best in 
the Intermediate house. Selenipedium Schlimii, S. longifolium, and S. X 
Sedeni are also in flower. The first-named is an intermediate species, but 
the others grow best in the warmest house. 


The sweetly scented Pleione hgenaria is most effective when well grown 
and in good bloom. They are now just going over, and should soon be 
repanned and suspended in the Cool house, keeping the compost moist. 
They start growing immediately, and do not appreciate much drought. 
The genus Phalamopsis is one liable to mystify Orchid growers. In one 
garden it will grow like a weed without the slighest trouble, while in 
another it will not. Every house in turn is tried, and every dodge resorted 
to, to make the different species grow and present a respectable appearance, 
but all to no purpose. It seems to be simply a matter of finding the right 
house, and giving the right temperature ; the latter is easy enough when the 
former is found. As a guide to success I would advise that a house be 
selected that lies sheltered from the north winds, and that the hot water 
pipes are arranged so that a sufficient supply of warmth can always be had 
when wanted, thus avoiding great fluctuations in the temperature. The 
thermometer during winter should never be allowed to fall below 6o°, and 
only that during the very coldest weather, during which time the plants 
should be quite two feet away from the glass ; otherwise, the cold strikes 
down to the foliage and causes spot— not the watery, but indented spots. 
The plants must never be allowed to receive much direct sunshine, not even 
during winter, whilst during summer they should be heavily shaded against 
the sun. In summer water should be supplied pretty liberally, and in 
winter rather sparingly. The atmosphere should be kept fairly moist, but 
never be tempted to run hot water pipes through the water tank with a view 
of causing a moist atmosphere, because this generally proves too much and 
results in watery spots. Keep the air sweet and healthy in winter by a little 
bottom ventilation. When rebasketing do not, if it can be avoided, take 
the plants out of their baskets, but remove the old material carefully with a 
stick and fill up with new. Ants are deadly enemies, and must be kept 
away at all costs. Thrips are also troublesome, but these can more easily 
be got rid of by fumigation or by tobacco powder, or both. Phalamopses 
should now be producing their flower spikes, which should be allowed to 
remain only if the plants are strong. Oncidium Papilio and O. Kramer- 
anum always grow first class when the Phatenopses are doing likewise: they 
are undoubtedly both fond of heat. 

It is mostly necessary at this season to re-arrange the plants to some 
extent in most of the houses, so that each plant may have the position 
deemed most suitable for the winter months. The best position for the 
various species often takes a good long time to find out. but when once don 
the advantages are soon apparent. In the Cattleya house for "*«*•* 
those that aVe growing more or less should be given the : warmes and 
moistest part whilst those that are quite dormant should be kept by 
themselves. The same in the Intermediate houses. The Cypnped.ums and 


such like that are growing should be arranged together, and so on. Take 
care and do not place the Miltonia vexillarias in too moist a part, rather 
preferring a dry postion. Then again, if such kinds as Dendrobium 
Jamesianum, D. infundibulum, Oncidium cheirophorum, Xanodes Medusae, 
Masdevallia tovarensis, M. Shuttleworthii, M. Chimsera, &c, have been 
summering in the coolest house, as is some times done, they will now 
require to be removed back to the Intermediate house. I think, also, that 
the Cool house is too much during winter for Oncidium Forbesii. The 
Cymbidiums 1 am leaving this year in the Cool house, and they seem to be 
stronger for it. The Anguloas always remain here at the driest end, and 
henceforth will be kept pretty dry at the root. It is better also to find a 
rather dry position for the Epidendrum vitellinums, for if the moisture 
hangs about them much during winter it causes an unnecessary loss of 

Laslia anceps, and the other winter flowering short bulbed Ladias, will 
give the next big show of flower. They are now fast pushing up their 
spikes. L. autumnalis and L. albida are, I think, the most difficult of these 
kinds to keep long in first rate condition ; but with plenty of light and air, 
even these will submit to cultivation, and grow fairly satisfactorily. When 
the growing conditions are near the mark and they deteriorate, then the 
chief cause undoubtedly is that they are allowed to over flower themselves. 
What will a strong pseudobulb not do ? I have seen spikes so thick and 
long, that, if tested, I know would often weigh three or four times as much 
as the bulb and leaf together from which they sprang. That is, of course, 
well and good for the time being ; but it must not happen too often. 
Doubtless the same plant, or portion of the plant, will the following year 
produce another spike, but from a bulb naturally greatly reduced by the 
last great strain. Should this small bulb be allowed to carry its spike to 
a flowering stage, in spite of its present exhausted state, the fate of 
that plant is practically sealed ; it is doomed to enter a stage from which it 
will be a difficult task to redeem it. This is not giving them a fair chance. 

Remember to call in the Orchid grower's greatest friend, fresh air, at all 
times when it can reasonably be done. For warm growing kinds the top 
ventilators if opened must, of course, be done with a good deal of caution, 
but for the Cool house kinds, supposing the outside temperature is not lower 
than 45°, plenty of ventilation should always be had, both top and bottom. 
When it is below that figure it is best to open the ventilators on the 
leeward side only. A sure sign of insufficient air is when the tips of the 
Odontoglossum leaves decay and require trimming up, or when a mildewy 
spot comes upon them. Most of these species are growing throughout the 
winter, but nevertheless must be watered very carefully, and not kept 
water-logged, as used to be the custom. 



There was a very interesting lot of Orchids at the Royal Horticultural 
Society's meeting at the Drill Hall, James Street. Westminster, on October 
13th last, some of the exhibits being particularly fine, and three First-class 
C ertiticates were awarded ; also a Gold Medal to a wonderful specimen of 
Yanda Sanderiana from the collection of J. Gurney Fowler. Esq.. and a 
Silver Flora Medal for the magnificent Cattleya X Hardyana "Countess 
of Derby," from that of T. Statter, Esq.. as will be seen from the following 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, South Woodford, Essex (gr. Mr. 
Davis), exhibited a magnificent specimen of Vanda Sanderiana. quite .1 
large clump, with numerous spikes bearing an aggregate of 1J7 flowers. It 
had formerly 137, but one of the spikes was over. It was a spluididly- 
grown and flowered specimen, and the Orchid Committee marked their 
appreciation of it by awarding it a Gold Medal. 

T. Statter. Esq., Stand Hall, Whitefield, Manchester (gr. Mr. Johnson), 
again exhibited the beautiful Cattleya X Hardyana " Countess of Derby" 
in magnificent condition, the pure white sepals and petals setting off the 
massive and richly-coloured lip to the greatest advantage. It received a 
First-class Certificate in 1894, and on this occasion a Silver Flora Medal was 
deservedly awarded. From the same collection came the beautiful Cattleya 
X Prince of Wales, and C. bicolor ccerulea, which is unique in its peculiar 
slate-blue lip. 

C. L. N. Ingrain, Esq., Elstead House, Godalming (gr. Mr. Bond), 
staged a small group of very handsome hybrids, to which a Silver Banksian 
Medal was given. It contained Cattleya X Firefly (C. Dormaniana ? X 
C. Bowringiana 3 ), a pretty little rose-purple flower, not yet fully developed ; 
a light form of Ladio-cattleya X Andreana : Ladio-cattleya X T. W. Bond 
(C. labiata ? X L. purpurata 3), a fine hybrid resembling L.-c. X 
eximia, but approaching the seed parent in the time of flowering: and 
three others to which special awards were given. These were Cattleya X 
Triumph (C. Lueddemanniana S X C. Lawrenceana 3 ). a brilliant, almost 
uniformly coloured form, most like a light form of the latter, with a trace of 
darker marking on the lip, to w hich a First-class Certificate was given ; 
Cattleya X Eclipse (C. maxima 9 X C. Skinneri 3 >, most like C. maxima, 
but with a more trumpet-shaped lip; and C. X Jupiter (L. Lawrenceana ? X 
C. Warscewiczii 3 ), a very light-coloured form. The two latter each 
received an Award of Merit. 

E. Ashworth, Esq., Harefield Hall, Wilmslow, showed a very beautiful 
variety of Cattleya labiata, called " Mrs. E. Ashworth," to which a First- 
class Certificate was given. It is comparable with C. 1. elegans, the sepals 


and petals being pure white, and the front of the lip bright crimson-purple, 
broadly margined with white. 

F. Wheatley, Esq., Ringmore, Teignmouth. Devon, sent a beautiful 
form of Cattleya Dowiana, called Wheatley's variety, in which the sepals 
and petals were white, with only a very faint trace of yellow, the lip being 
like that of C. D. aurea. A First-class Certificate was awarded. 

A. H. Smee. Esq., The Grange. Carshaltnn (gr. Mr. Cummins), received 
an Award of Merit for the pretty little Comparcttia speciosa, with three of 
its graceful racemes of light orange flowers. 

J. C. Ramdens, Esq., Willingshurst. Shamley Green, Guildford (gr. Mr. 
Nash), exhibited a splendidly-grown plant of Vanda ccerulea, with two 
spikes and an aggregate of twenty-five flowers, to which a Cultural Com- 
mendation was given. 

G. S. Ball, Esq., Ashford, Wilmslow, Cheshire (gr. Mr. Hay), sent a fine 
flower of the beautiful Cypripedium insigne Sanderse. 

Da Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield. Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Cooke), 
sent Odontoglossum Uroskinneri album, the curious seedling which has been 
mentioned in these pages on two or three occasions, but whose exact origin 
still remains doubtful. 

T. W. Swinburne, Esq., Corndean Hall. Winchcombe, Cheltenham, 
exhibited a good form of Cypripedium Charlesworthii. 

included some g 

ood examples of Cattleya X Wendlandii, C. X Mantinii.C. 

X porphyrophlf 

bia. C. X Minncia, several fine C. labiata and ('. Dowiaaa 

aurea, La:lio-ca 

ttleva X Xysa. L.-c. X Eunomia, the graceful Ccelogyne 

Veitchii with it 

5 pendulous racemes of pure white flowers, the remarkable 

Peristeria elata, 

Cypripedium X Milo, C. X T. B. Haywood, and various 

others. A Fir; 

it-class Certificate was given to Cattleya Ap illo (C. Mossia: 

? X C. Acland 

C. Mpssiffi in s 

i/e. but with the firmer texture of the other parent. The 

sepals and petal 

- ire ..fa buff-pink shade, lightly veined with rose and with 

a feu irregular 

purple markings, while the lip is crimson-purple in front, 

with somi ; U 

A. o ntre, and the side lobes blush white edged with 

rose. I.:,:i,, x 

Clarinda (L. Perrimi ? x L. pumila 3 ) has light purple- 

tinted sepals am 

1 petals, with the veined lip dark maroon-purple in front. It 

Medal for a good group, containing some fine 
labiata and C. Dowiana aurea, C. X porphyrophlebU 
ornithorhynchum album, Cycnoches chlorochilon, 
Lutwychei, C. X James Buckingham, C. X Mada 


&c. An Award of Merit was given to a very fine form of Cypripedium 
Charlesworthii called Low's variety, an exceptionally nne (n of this 
handsome Orchid. 

Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son, Upper Holloway, X., also r.v, iveil :i 
Silver Banksian Medal for a good group, containing the remarkable 
Arachnanthe Lowii, a fine form of Vanda tricolor, Dendrobium Phato- 
nopsis. Oncidium ornithorhynchum album. O. Forbcsii. Corhlioda vulcanica 
grandiflora. a very bin- form, Cattleya x blesensis, some good t'. labiata. 
Ccelogyne M isangeana, Cypripedium tonsum, C. insigne Wallace!. C. 
X Arthurianum. the pretty C. X Adonis pietum. C. X Pitcberiammi 
Williams' rar., C. x Crossianam, &c. 

Messrs, I . S nda ,\ ( 0., St. Albans, also exhibited a fine group, to 
which a Silver Medal was given. It included the remarkable 
Habenaria Susanna:, the pretty little L;elia pumila delicata. a nearly white 
form, Odontoglossum grande, Vanda ccerulea, a fine Dendrobium annum. 
Ccelogyne Swaniana, Calanthe vestita Sanderiana, Oncidium Krameri, a 
curious little green-flowered Epidcndrum, Cypripedium X Fairy Queen 
(C.Curtisii ? X C. Drurvi 3 ). C. X Alcides. C. X Uehleinianum, C. 
MeXabianum (C. callosum 5 X C. concolor 3 ). and several others. 

At the meeting on October 27th there was a fine display of Orchids, to 
which the fine old Cattleya labiata contributed largely, while other autumn- 
flowering kinds were also well represented. 

T. Statter, Esq., Stand Hall. Whitefield. Manchester igr. Mr. Johnson), 
exhibited a very fine group, to which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It 
contained the handsome Cvpripediutn X Moensii. a handsome hybrid from 
C. callosum ? and C. Fairieanum 3 , which is clearly a form of C. X 
Juno, a splendid form of Laelio-cattleya, X Arnoldiana, and another hand- 
some hybrid of the L.-c. X Ingramii group, together with a series of cut 
inflorescences. These included nine fine trusses of Cattleya Dowiana in 
different forms, one of which, called C. D. Johnsoniana, had sepals and 
petals of a very rich deep yellow, and the veining of the lip of a peculiar 
orange tint, besides one with the sepals and petals veined and mottled with 
white and rose, almost as in C. X Hardyana Massaiana, but the shape of 
the flower and details of the lip were as in C. Dowiana. A series of Den- 
drobium Phalsenopsis, including the small dark variety Stattenana. was 
also sent, together with Cattleya X Minucia. X Johnsoniana. and X 

R. I. Measures. Esq., Cambridge Lodge, Camberwell Igr. Mr. Chapman), 
received a Silver Banksian Medal for an interesting group, including Ladia 
prastans, Lalio-cattleya X Schilleriana, Cattleya labiata and C. Wars- 
cewiczii, Oncidium macranthum, Masdevallia X glaphyrantha, M. X 


Measuresiana with several flowers, Ccelogyne fuliginosa well-flowered, 
Selenipedium Klotzschianum, and various Cypripediums, including C. X 
Mrs. Canham with fifteen flowers, C. X Henry Graves with three flowers, 
C. tonsum with five flowers, a good C. X Arthurianum, a hybrid marked C. 
callosum X insigne, and several others. The handsome white form of 
Cattleya labiata, with rosy-veined lip, called R. I. Measures' var. (supra, II., 
p. 358), now received a First-class Certificate, it having received an Award 
of Merit two years ago. Botanical Certificates were given to Restrepia 
maculata and R. Falkenbergii. 

M. G. Mantin, Chateau de Bel Air, Olivet, France, sent a beautiful group 
of eight plants of Cattleya X Mantini, to which a Silver Banksian Medal 
was given. They showed a considerable amount of variation, some of the 
best being exceedingly handsome, and the strongest bearing racemes of 
seven and six flowers. Its history was given at page 365 of our second 
volume. A Cultural Commendation was given to the best form, called C. X 
M. nobilior. He also sent Lielio-cattleya X Bi 
between C. Bowringiana and L. autumnalis, 
page, and a handsome hybrid Cypripedium derived from C. X superciliare 
8 and C. barbatum 3 . 

H. J. Elwes, Esq., Colesborne, Gloucestershire (gr. Mr. Lane), sent a 
very interesting group, including Habenaria Susanna;, H. longicalcarata, 
Saccolabium bigibbum with three dense racemes, Arundina chinensis, 
Acampe papillosa well - flowered, Bulbophyllum Careyanum, Pleione 
Iagenaria, and P. Wallichiana. one spike of the latter carrying three flowers, 
Dendrobium Aphrodite and D. macrostachyum, a raceme of Cycnoches 
Loddigesii, Liparis longipes, Epidendrum fragrans, and a remarkable 
species of Cirrhopetalum with a large solitary flower. A Bronze Banksian 
Medal was awarded to the group. 

Sir William Marriott, Down House, Blandford (gr. Mr. Denny), sent 
the pretty little Cypripedium X Marriottianum, and Cattleya X La Belle 
(C. Warscewiczii ? X C. Harrisoniana 3 ), the reverse cross of C. X John- 
soniana, of which it must be considered a larger variety. 

C. N. L. Ingram, Esq., Elstead House, Godalming (gr. Mr. Bond), sent 
a very fine form of Lselio-cattleya X callistoglossa and L.-c. X Gazelle 
(L.-c. X elegans Turneri » and C. bicolor 3 )■ 

Walter C. Clarke, Esq., Orleans House, Sefton Park, Liverpool, sent a 
fine hybrid Cypripedium, probably derived from C. Argus and C. philippi- 
nense, and thus a form of C. X burfordiense. 

C. J. Crosfield, Esq., Gledhill, Sefton Park, Liverpool, sent a very good 
flower of Cattleya labiata. 

Miss D. Smith, King's Road, Ascot (gr. Mr. Lane), sent a strong plant 
of Cattleya Bowringiana with five very fine racemes of flowers, to which a 


Cultural Commendation was given. 

R. P. White, Esq., The Firs. Peckham Road (gr. Mr. Chick), aenl a 
good Cattleya labiata. 

F. Hardy, Esq., Tyntesfield. Ashton-on-Mereej (gr. Mr. Stafford), sent 
the handsome Cattleya x Hardyana Massaiana, C. labiata alba, and fine 
plants of Lajlia pumila prastans, also the pretty little Pleione maculata alba. 

S. G. Lutwyche, Esq., Eden Park, Beckenham. sent the ran- Miltonia 
X Lamarcheana, Cypripedium Charlesworthii, a fine hybrid between C. 
callosum S and C. villosum 3 , and thus a form of C. X Indra, and C. X 

H. Shaw, Esq., Heathfield, Birch Vale, Derbyshire (gr. Mr. t lift, i. sen) 
a good form of Cattleya maxima. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons. Chelsea, contributed a splendid group, to 
which a small Gold Medal was given. It contained several good forma ol 
Cattleya labiata and C. Dowiana, C. Bowringiana, the handsome C. X 
Chloris and C. X Patrocinii, Laslio-cattleya X Statteriana, Lycaste 
costata and L. lanipes (the former a mass of flowers), some good Miltonia 
spectabilis Moreliana, M. vexillaria superha. Cycnoches chlorochilon, 
Odontoglossum bictoniense and its variety album, O. Harryanmn. anil (). 
grande, the charming Dendrobium Johnsonise, Oncidium unicorne with a 
tine panicle of flowers, and O. ornithorhynchum, the handsome Cypripedium 
X tessellatum porphyreum, C. purpuratum, a fine pan of C. Charlesworthii. 
C. Spicerianum, C. X cenanthum superbum, C. X Milo. C. X T. B. Hay- 
wood, C. X Arthurianum with eight (lowers, and various others. An Award 
of Merit was given to Cattleya X Elvina, a handsome hybrid derived 
from C. Trianas $ and C. Schilleriana 3 , and showing the characters of 
both parents ; and a similar award to Cypripedium X Regina, derived 
from C. XLeeanum J and C. Fairieanum <? . 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, contributed a handsome group, in 
which the forms of C. labiata were very effective, including two nearly white 
forms with a little colour on the lip. It also included good forms of 
Oncidium tigrinum and O. varicosum, Odontoglossum bictoniense album, 
Dendrobium Phalasnopsis and its variety Statteriana, the handsome D. 
Johnsonia;, the rare Macradenia lutescens, Phaius X Ashworthianus (P. 
Wallichii Mannii S X P. maculatus 3 ), a handsome hybrid most like the 
latter in form and colour, as well as in the spotted leaves. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Clapton Nursery, also staged a fine group, in 
which forms of Cattleya labiata were conspicuous ; also C. Dowiana aurea, 
Odontoglossum grande, Oncidium ornithorhynchum album, Cypripedium 
X Arthurianum, and others. It also contained a very fine clump of 
Cycnoches chlorochilon, one of the racemes bearing six flowers, and a form 
of Dendrobium X Leeanum, a little different from the original. 


Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son, Upper Holloway, also sent an effective 
group of showy things, in which Oncidium Forbesii, O. ornithorhynchum, 
Cypripedium X Arthurianum, C. insigne punctato-violaceum, and C. X 
Pitcherianum Williams' variety were conspicuous, and a form of Cattleya 
labiata in which the petals were curious mottled and streaked with a darker 

Messrs. Linden, L' Horticulture Internationale, Brussels, received a 
First-class Certificate (or a plant called Cattleya X Le Czar, which was 
suggested to be a natural hybrid between C. "labiata and C. granulosa, 
though evidence of the two growing together seems desirable. 


Cattleya x Lord Rothschild.— Gard. Chron., Oct. 24, p. 489, fig. 86. 
Comparettia speciosa.- Journ. of Hort., Oct. 22, p. 399, fig. 72. 
Habenaria carnea.— Journ. of Hort., Oct. 1, p. 319, fig. 61. 
L^lio-cattleva X Charles Darwin.— Journ. of Hort., Oct. 15 p. 

377. fig- 69. 

L.elio-cattleya x Clive.— Gard. Mag., Sept. 26, p. 657, with fig. 

Renanthera Storiei, Rchb. {.—Gard. Mag., Sept. 26, pp. 658, 659, 
with fig. 

Trichopilia coccinea.— Gard. Chron., Oct. 17, p. 456, fig. 77. 

Zygopetalum Mackayi.— Joum. of Mori., Sept. 24,' p. 295, fig. 58. 
This is Z. intermedium, Lodd. 

Zygopetalum max.llare.-/™,,,. ofllort., Sept. 24, p. 295, fig. 57- 

\V II A 


■ A form of Cypripe 
villosum and C. Druryi. 

Xewchurch. A good form of Cattleya maxima. The twc 
ta, the smaller rose-coloured one with very little yellow in 
erves on the front of the lip, we should like to see again I 

' Beginner. 

4, Odontoglossum Rossii ; ave 
ised on another occasion, of c 

try form of Cattleya labiata, which i 

address to be enclosed on 
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/)/:< iMi'i-i<. is,i>. 

The last meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society for tin- year will be- 
held at the Drill Hall, James Street, Westminster, on December 15th, 
when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour of 12 o'clock 

Twin-flowered spikes, both of Cypripedium insigne and C. niveum. have 
been sent from the collection of H. Gurney Aggs, Esq., Pippbrook, Dorking, 
the former being from a plant which has always produced twin-flowers from 
the first. The plant which produced the latter has been out of doors from 
the middle of May to early in September, and is in robust health, as the 
flowers show. Mr. Aggs has for the last two years placed certain Orchids 
out of doors for the summer months, and hopes to give his experience after 
another season's trial ; which will be very acceptable. 

A curious flower of Cvpripedium insigne with three petals has been sent 
from the collection of Reginald Young, Esq., Sefton Park, Liverpool. The 
two petals on one side are quite perfect, but a little narrower than usual, 
and probably arose by division of the original one, as the flower is normal 
in other respects. 

Another flower of Cypripedium X regale, described at page 324, b also 
sent from the same collection, together with a leaf, in which the charac- 
teristic markings of C. purpuratum are present in a somewhat modified 
form. In fact, this organ is as nearly intermediate between C. insigne and 
C. purpuratum as it can well be, and as the dorsal sepal shows both stripes 
and reflexed sides, which indicate the influence of the latter, we may safely 
assume the recorded parentage to be correct. 



We have received a photograph of the beautiful Cattleya x Hardyana 
alba from the collection of W. S. McMillan, Esq., Ardenholm, Maghull, 
Liverpool, showing an inflorescence of two flowers. Mr. McMillan remarks 
that the flower is very handsome, the sepals and petals snow-white, and 
when in flower it looked very striking among its yellow brethren— C. 
Dowiana aurea, of which a fine form is also sent, the yellow areas on the 
sides sides of the lip being larger and darker than usual. 

A very pretty light form of Cattleya labiata has been sent from the 
collection of W. P. Burkinshaw, Esq., of Hessle, E. Yorks, in which the 
sepals and petals are blush white, with a large crimson-purple blotch in 
front of the yellow disc, and very broad white margin. It approaches 
C. 1. elegans in general character, except that the sepals and petals are not 
pure white. 

A curious form of Cypripedium Charlesworthii has appeared in the 
collection of Dr. A. W. Hoisholt, Stockton, California, of which a 
photograph has been sent. The lower sepal is just twice as broad as usual, 
cup-shaped and veined with rose like the dorsal one, though not quite equal to 
it in size, and the white rather more predominating. Dr. Hoisholt has 
carefully looked up all the references in this work, and finds one with twin- 
flowered scape, and another with two lips, but nothing like the present 
one ; nor do we remember to have met with the peculiarity before in this 
species. A second bud is forming on the plant. 

A good flower of the chaste Lselia autumnalis alba also comes from the 
same collection, and six different forms of the beautiful Dendrobium 
Phalsenopsis, showing the usual gradation from dark to very light forms. 
The flowers last well after being cut, and altogether it is one of the most 
useful autumn-flowering Orchids known. 

The rare and beautiful Acacallis cyanea has also flowered in in the same 
collection, and a flower is also enclosed, the colour something approaching 
some forms of Vanda ccerulea. It is a very striking Orchid when well grown. 

A very distinct and pretty variety of Ladia Dayana has been sent from 
the collection of F. H. Moore, Esq., of Liverpool, in which the sepals and 
petals have an irregular crimson band along one or both margins, giving 
the flower a curious variegated appearance. There is a trace of similar 
markings on the side lobes of the lip, which is normal in other respects. 

A fine inflorescence of the chaste Cymbidium Mastersii album comes 
from the collection of John W. Arkle, Esq., of West Derby, Liverpool. It 
is like the type, except that the flowers are pure white with only a trace of 
yellow on the disc. 


A fine form of Cattleya Bowringiana has been sent from the adWtic.n 
of Alfred Darby, Esq., Little Ness, Shrewsbury, in which the petals are 
one-and-a-half inches broad, and the sepals broader than in the typical 
form, giving the flower a very round appearance. This species is very 
useful at this season, and several very promising hybrids from it have 
recently appeared. 

The thirtv-second volume of the Journal of the Linndni Society contains a 
paper entitled, "A Revision of the genus Vanilla," by R. Allen Rolfe, 
A.L.S. Fifty-two species are admitted as distinct, of which sixteen are 
here described for the first time. The paper contains an account ..I the 
fertilisation, affinities, geographical distribution, and economic uses of 
the genus, with a historical introduction, complete descriptions, and a k, \ 
to the species. 

The same volume also contains a paper on " The Orchidea: and 
Apostasies of the Malay Peninsula," by Henry Ridley, M.A., F.L.S. Foot 
new genera and about 130 new species are described, mostly of botanical 
interest. The new genera are Staurochilus, made to receive Trichoglottis 
fasciata, Rchb. f., but with no character given ; Renantherella, a new name 
for Renanthera histrionica, Rchb. f. ; Pelatantheria, which includes 
Cleisostoma cristata, Ridl., and Sarcanthus insectifer. Rchb. f. : and 
Ascochilus, containing Sarcochilus hirtulus, Hook, f., and a new species 
(A. siamensis). 

A previous number of the work contains " An Enumeration of all 
Orchids hitherto recorded from Borneo," by the same author, in win. h 
about fifty new species are described and one new genus— Porphyroglottis 
MaxweUiae, allied to Chrysoglossum. A new section of Bulbophyllum is 
also described, called Intervallatas, characterised by its tall stiff scape, ending 
in a many-flowered raceme, though the flowers expand singly at intervals, 
as many as eighty occurring in one species. Three species are described, 
of which only one is Bornean. Three other species belong to the same 
section, namely B. longiscapum, Rolfe ; B. macrochilum. Rolfe ; and B. 
attenua'tum, Rolfe ; the first being from Fiji, and the two others from 

The second part of the Dictwmmire Icouographiquc des Orchid™, by Prof. 
A Co<*niaux and M. A. Goosens, has reached us, and contains figures of 
Cattleya Warscewiczii, C. X Hardyana, C. X Vic.ona-Regina, Cypripe- 
dium Stonei, Dendrobium nobile, D. n. Cooksonianum, D. X Ainsworthn, 
D. X Cassiope, Lalio-cattleya X Nysa, L.-c. X, Miftoma. 
Schrcederiana, and Selenipedium X Sedeni, 


The November number of the Km Bulletin contains four Decades 
(17 — 20) of new Orchids, all from China or adjacent Islands. The majority 
are from dried specimens, but the following are in cultivation : — Den- 
drobium hainanense, Eria casspitosa, and Sarcochilus hainanensis, from 
Hainan ; Nephelaphyllum cristatum, from Hongkong ; and Physurus 
chinensis, from South China. Listera grandirlora is interesting as the 
largest-flowered species in the genus, and Saccolabium hainanense is a new 
species of the same section as S. giganteum and S. violaceum. 

A movement is on foot to obtain coloured drawings for future reference 
of the Orchids certificated by the Royal Horticultural Society. The Orchid 
Committee on October 27th last decided to memorialise the Council on the 
subject, and the latter view the matter with favour, and have asked to be 
supplied with a proposal in definite form as to details and probable cost. 
We believe that it was again before the Committee on November 24th. 


This is a remarkably distinct and handsome Dendrobium, a native of New 
Guinea and the Solomon Islands, which has been known to science for 
nearly half-a-century, and which would be a notable addition to our 
collections if it could be introduced alive. It is interesting to record that 
Sir Trevor Lawrence has received a plant from Malaita, one of the Solomon 
Islands, but unfortunately it has been four months m route, and it is feared 
is too far gone to recover. A coloured sketch and dried flower sent with it 
enable it to be identified. It belongs to the group of D. macrophyllum, 
A. Rich., and D. atropurpureum, Rolfe, but is larger and more handsome, 
and when first described was thought to represent a new genus, being 
described by Blume, in 1848, under the name of Latourea spectabilis 
(Rumfiia, IV., p. 41, t. 195, fig. 1, and t. 199, fig. Q, mainly from a 
drawing made in New Guinea by M. Latour-Leschenault, naturalist to 
Baudm's Expedition, which, like that of the remarkable Bulbophyllum 
grand.florum made at the same time, has proved remarkably accurate. 
Miquel afterwards transferred it to Dendrobium (D. spectabile, Mia. Fl. 
Xed. hid.. III., p . 645). A plant obtained from the Solomon Islands 
flowered at the Sydney Botanic Garden in 1884, when Sir F. Mueller 
wrote a note in the Victorian Naturalist (I., p. 51). I n October, 1890, 
the Rev. R. B. Comins collected specimens at San Cristoval, Solomon 
Islands, which I described as Dendrobium tigrinum (Annals of Bot., V., p. 
507), completely overlooking Latourea, which is doubtfully retained as a 
distinct genus in the Genera Planiarum. The plant has clavate pseudobulbs 
nearly a foot long, with about four or five terminal leaves, and erect racemes 
of about 20 to 25 flowers, with acuminate sepals and petals, i* inches long, 


from a broader, very undulate base, and a long pandurately trilobed acute 
lip. The colour is yellowish white, the sepals and petals spotted, and the 
lip beautifully veined with red-purple. It is much to be hoped that so 
striking and distinct a plant will soon be represented in European 


I am surprised to see you say at page 321 that twin-flowered spikes on 
Lselia pumila are rare. I can only say I think my plants badly grown 
unless there are more twin than single spikes on them. This year, I am 
glad to say, there are only one or two spikes with single flowers, the u-st 
without exception, are " twin." I imagine it is merely a question of growing 
them well. What causes "colour" in Orchid flowers. I wonder? The 
autumn has been unusually wet and chill with us. yet Cattleya labiata, 
Vanda ccerulea, and also Calanthe X Veitchii are deeper and richer in colour 
than they ever have been with me before. Nothing can be more lovely than 
Vanda ccerulea as it is at present with us. 

Edward H. Woodall. 
St. Nicholas House, 


Tins curious little plant has been cultivated periodically since 1822, when 
it appeared in the collection of Mr. Griffin, of South Lambeth, and was 
figured in the Botanical Register (VIII., t. 612), by Robert Brown. It has 
recently been re-introduced by Messrs. F. Sander & Co., and has, 
unfortunately, been again figured and described by Dr. Kranzlin under the 
erroneous name of Trichopilia multiflora (Xett. Orch., III., p. 152, t. 288, 
fig. 1). It is found in Jamaica. Cuba. Trinidad. Venezuela, and possibly 
elsewhere, and is a small plant with arching racemes of numerous reddish- 
brown flowers, with a three-lobed lip and curiously toothed column. It was 
also described by A. Richard, in 1853, under the name of Rhynchadenia 
cubensis (Sagra Fl. Cub., III., p. 248, t. 85). There are some half-dozen 
other species of this curious little genus, of which M. triandra, Lindl., and 
M. Brassavolse, Rchb. f., have appeared in cultivation. Another species 
must also be added, for on re-examination I find that Serrastylis modesta, 
Rolfe (Kew Bull., 1894, p. 158; Gard. Chron., 1894, xvi., p. 727, fig. 91), 
cannot be maintained as distinct from Macradenia. It may, therefore, bear 
the name of M. modesta, Rolfe. The affinity of the genus is with Notylia 
and Cirrhasa. 

R. A. Rolfe. 


As a frontispiece to the present volume \\v h;i\v much pleasure in giving an 
illustration of the magnificent specimen of Vanda Sanderiana, from the 
collection of J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, South Woodford, Essex, 
to which a Gold Medal was given by the Royal Horticultural Society 
on October 13th last. As was recorded at page 347, the plant, when 
exhibited, bore an aggregate of 127 flowers ; but one raceme of ten flowers 
was over, and had been removed. Its general appearance is shown in the 
illustration, which is reproduced from a photograph kindly sent by Mr. 
Fowler, and we congratulate him and his gardener, Mr. Davis, on such an 
example of cultural skill. It serves to recall the famous specimen of 
Ccelogyne Dayana from the collection of Baron Schroder, and of 
Epidendrum Stamfordianum from that of Sir Trevor Lawrence, of which 
details have been given in these pages. 

Mr. Fowler has sent the following note, which will be read with 
interest :— " I purchased the Vanda Sanderiana from Messrs. Low & Co. 
on the 15th August, 1895. It flowered first in September of that year, 
bearing two flower spikes and seventeen flowers. It was brought over by 
Messrs. Low's collector in a large basket, and in the June following I 
thought it advisable to repot it. It flowered again in October last, with 
twelve spikes and 137 flowers in all. It has grown in the East India house, 
on the centre stage, over a large tank of rain water, and has seven growths, 
three of them being 3ft. 6ins. in height. Since it has been with me it has 
made four pairs of leaves." 

The history of the species is thus given by Messrs. Veitch in their 
Manual (VII., p. 103):— "This remarkable Vanda, one of the most 
appreciable gains to horticulture during the last decade, was discovered by 
M. Roebelin, the energetic collector of Messrs. Sander & Co., who succeeded, 
in 1882, in reaching the previously unexplored portion of south-east 
Mindanao, where he detected this, and the scarcely less remarkable Atrides 
Lawrences and Phalaenopsis Sanderiana. Our own collector, David Burke, 
also succeeded in reaching the same region a few months later, and from 
that time these fine Orchids became generally distributed among the Orchid 
collections of Europe and America. The principal station of Vanda 
Sanderiana is at Davao, on the south-east coast of Mindanao, at places 
growing on trees that over-hang the beach, and where the long trailing 
roots of this Orchid are often within reach of the salt spray. It flowered 
for the first time in this country in the summer of 1883, in the collection of 
Mr. Lee, at Downside, Leatherhead, since dispersed." 


I beg again to call attention to the extraordinary laxity of the 
Orchid Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society in regard to the 
nomenclature of Orchids. They may, perhaps, plead that it is not their 
fault that growers or sellers of Orchids give improper nanus to their plants. 
but surely they might refuse to recognise such plants, or to bestow on them 
First-class Certificates and Awards of Merit. This, however, they appear 
to be unwilling to do, and the result is that confusion is becoming 
worse confounded. 

At the exhibition at the Drill Hall on October 13th Lielio-Cattleya 
X T. W. Bond was shown as a cross between Cattleya labiata and Laelia 
purpurata. If the Cattleya parent was Warneri, the plant has already 
been named as Lajlio-Cattleya X eximia, and again as Uelio-Cattleya 
X Valvassorii. If the seed parent is labiata autumnalis, it has been named 
before as Laelio-Cattleya X Wellsia;, and as such has received an Award of 

At the same exhibition Cattleya X Triumph was passed, although it is the 
same cross as Cattleya X preciosa, which was exhibited a few months ago by 
the same grower on May 5th. 

There was also exhibited Laelia X Clarinda, which has been named before 
as Lselia X juvenilis. 

Then, at the next meeting on October 27th, 
exhibited, which is the reverse cross of X John 
same cross as X Ashtoniana. both being apparently the same cross as 
C. X Minucia. 

It is easy to see from these examples what the difficulty of the collector 
is likely to be in the near future, when he attempts to identify hybrid 


Moor Green, 


[Only one of the four plants named received an Award of Merit, 
namely, Cattleya X Triumph, which is clearly synonymous with or only 
a variety of C. X Preciosa. And it is just possible that the Committee 
may have overlooked the fact that they granted an Award of Merit to the 
same cross on May 5th last. Still, it is not too much to expect them to 
keep account of the plants to which Certificates are granted, and the latter 
Certificate should never have been given, according to their own rules. 
With respect to the rapid increase of unnecessary names, we would suggest 
that if people will persist in re-naming well-known crosses, the Committee 


should cancel them before the reporters go round, and then perhaps some 
of this unnecessary confusion would be prevented, as it is almost too much 
to expect that reporters should verify every name for themselves. We have 
frequently suppressed such names in our reports, but they have appeared 
elsewhere. We would refer our readers to the remarks on this question at 
pages 133. 165, and 172 of the present volume, and urge them to assist in 
checking the rapidly growing confusion to which Mr. Chamberlain has called 
attention. — Ed.1 


of till, 

been sent by Mr. W. B. Latham, 

Curator of the Birmingham Botanic Garden, who remarks that he 
by crossing C. Spicerianum with the pollen of C. hirsutissimum, and that 
the flowers retain their abnormal character every season. It appears to 
have been first recorded in the autumn of 1892 (Card. Chron. 1892, xii., 
p. 713), but was then said to have bloomed for three or four years, never 
varying in character. An interesting note is given by Hansen (Orch. Hyb., 
p. 70), which we do not remember to have met with elsewhere, and presume 
that it was communicated by Mr. Latham. He remarks that Mr. Latham 
" had sent it to Mr. R. A. Rolfe, who named it provisionally as above, and 
added :— ' Veitch's hybrid is normal in character, yours may or may not 
become so hereafter. Others from the same cross may come all right if you 
have them. The lip is not really absent, but abnormal in shape, more like a 
sepal. Its greatest curiosity to my mind is that the two stamens are 
changed into perfect staminodes. I should keep it, if only as a curiosity ; 
it is a very instructive plant. If proof were wanted that the staminode is 
only a modified stamen, surely here it is.' " However, it appears that only 
a single seedling was raised. The plant is said to be intermediate between 
the two parents, but the dorsal sepal and staminode are almost identical 
with C. Spicerianum, except that the former is reduced in size and nearly 
flat. The petals also have a little white at the apex, like the dorsal sepal. 
The lip is elliptical-oblong, a little concave at apex, and light green 
irregularly striped with dull purple. An examination of the flower reveals 
the highly interesting fact that the two additional staminodes do not belong 
to the inner staminal whorl, but to the outer one, and thus represent the two 
missing side lobes of the lip. The filaments of the two normal stamens of 
Cypripedium are present, but without the anther, and are in their usual 
position at the base and on either side of the stigma, and within but slightly 
above the supernumerary staminodes, affording additional confirmation of 
the theory that the side lobes of the lip in Orchids are staminodial in their 



Two or three correspondents are studying inheritance in regard to 
hybrid Orchids, and the following list, which has been sent to us as a 
contribution to the question, will probably interest our readers. Some 
curious facts with regard to hybridisation among Orchids are gradually 
coming to light, and it is an interesting matter to have them recorded in 
accessible form. 

It is curious to note that the first nine names on the list are all derived 
from combinations of C. barbatum. insigne, villosum. and Spionanum. 
which have been arrived at in four different ways, namely :— C. X Leeanum 
1 X C. x oenanthum 3 , C. X Harrisianum 5 X C. X Leeanum 3 , 
C. Spicerianum ? X C. X cenanthum 3 , and the last cross reversed. 
In the two next on the list C. Spicerianum is replaced by C. venustum, 
and the combinations were effected by the crosses, respectively : — C. 
X calophvllum $ X C. X cenanthum 3 , and C. X Crossianum ? X 
C. X Harrisianum 3 ■ In the next two bracketed together, C. venustum 
was replaced by C. Argus, and the hybrids were obtained by such 
apparently different crosses as C. X cenanthum J X C. Argus 3 , and C. 
Ashburtonia 9 X C. X vernixium 3 ■ The exact parentage of the 
remaining crosses may be found by the help of the references. No less than 
fourteen of the hybrids here enumerated have had C. X oenanthum for 
one parent, which is partly explained by the fact that three species are 
included in its composition. — Ed. 
List ok Cvpkipedium Hybrids in each of which Four distinct 

(G.C., 18S9, vi., p. 750) ... i i k I 

{G.C.. 1892, xii., p. 622)... „ 

(Lind., viii., t. 361) , „ 

(G.C., 1895, xvii., p. 200) 

(J.R.H.S., xv., p. cxcvi.) ., „ „ „ 

(G.C., 1892, xii., p. 443) •■■ ,. I „ i 

(G.C., 1895, xviii., p. 588) „ „ „ „ 

(O.K., i., p. 375> •■• i t i » 

(Gard., 1895, xlviii., p. 48) ,. „ „ „ 


X Charles Reffold 


X Brunianum 


X A. J. Herrington 


X Harri-Leeanum 


X Clement Moore